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Cornell University Library 

Jacob Jordaens his life and work. 

3 1924 032 185 963 

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The three Musicians (Lord Yarborough). 




In the Antwerp school of painting in the XVII th century three figures tower above all 
others, — Rubens, Van Dyck, and Jordaens. Sprung from the same race, they are intimately 
related with one another in certain characteristics of their art: rich colour, brilliant light, 
and elegant action; yet each, compelled by his own individuality, pursues a separate way. 
Rubens is the painter of heroes, as efficient as he is daring. Van Dyck, a poet, ennobles 
and charms. Jordaens depicts the populace and the burgher life, in his forcible and excessive 
manner glorifying material pleasure. 

Jordaens did not visit Italy, and he never came under the direct influence of foreign art. 
He was born in Antwerp; and in that city, in his parents' house and the circle of Adam 
van Noort, and afterwards in a home of his own, he spent his life among his fellow 
Flemings with their distinctive manners and customs. In this world to which he himself 
belonged he found a subject worthy of his study, and ample material for a painter who 
could transfer it to canvas. Held in high repute during his lifetime, he was overshadowed 
after his death by his two great contemporaries, and even by inferior ones. For a long 
period that art only was generally esteemed which bore an Academic stamp: it mattered 
not how insincere and lifeless it might have become if only it imitated the classics, whereas 
the artist who dared to cast off the yoke of tradition was inevitably banned. 

That was Jordaens' fate throughout the XVIII th - century and for a great part of the 
XIX th - Happily, however, opinion has changed about art in general and about his art in 
particular. Many reputations which had suffered eclipse have been rehabilitated by the 
present generation, which reserves its highest appreciation for individual conception, sincere 
observation, and original treatment, irrespective of convention. Justice has been tardily done 
to Jordaens; but at last the scales have fallen from the eyes of the critics, and the public 
also have learned to recognise his extraordinary gifts. The time in our opinion is therefore 
ripe for a more particular examination of his life and work than has yet been given them, 
and for paying him the homage he has been so long denied. 

At the same time we do not start upon our task without some misgiving. Are we, 
after all, justified in mentioning Jordaens in the same breath with his two great contempo- 
raries, and in exalting him to a place beside them in the history of our school? His 
creations are not, like those of Rubens, admitted by all within the number of the great 


masterpieces of art. They do not affect us so deeply or so irresistibly attract us as those 
of the great charmer Van Dyck. Jordaens is not among the princes in the hierarchy of 
painting, as these two are. He is a burgher; and too often sleight of handicraft and a 
commercial spirit distinguish his work rather than a lofty aim and sublime conception. 
Limited in his invention, he frankly repeated himself, without any concealment of the fact. 
These are considerations that may well cause us to hesitate in our intention of paying 
this tribute to Jordaens. 

Yet we can oppose to these the other that Jordaens is the greatest painter of actuality 
in the Flemish school. He studied the people around him, their moods and manners, with 
interest and attention, to give them back on his canvases ; probing their hearts and sounding 
their emotions. He loved the beautiful appearances of the world around him: fair skin 
and the flashes of velvet and satin; soft, healthy limbs; hearty, radiant epicures with no 
thought save for the pleasures and good things of life; venerable and benevolent grand- 
fathers enjoying their glass and their song; and as he delights to represent all these, so 
he scorns and brands the trickster and the hypocrite. Anything vivid and clamorous attracts 
him, and his pleasure in it is expressed by a loud laugh and a piercing note, and broad 
and vigorous gesture. Through all his work there sounds from a full throat and a warm 
heart the refrain „Long live Life!" He set himself uncompromisingly against Academic 
conventions, taking more delight in a peasant of his acquaintanc blowing lustily ■into his 
porridge spoon than in the invulnerable Achilles whom he knew only from hearsay. He 
discovers poetry in every-day life : in his own way he is a poet of heroes when he works 
into a jolly, bustling epic the doughty deeds achieved by burgher men and women in 
their homes or on the causeway. Colour and light he adored: they shine and play with 
unparalleled brilliance and endless variety over his scenes. He was a great friend of our 
forefathers, whom, better than anyone else, he knew and has made known to the world. 
These are his claims upon us for the work of grateful homage which we propose to 


;-, CHAPTER I. (1593— 1622). Page 

Jordaens' An.ces.tors and Parents. — His Birth. — His Childhood. — His Apprenticeship. — Adam van Noort — 
His Marriage. — His Children. — A Water-colour Painter. — His Earliest Works. — Dean of the Guild 
of St. Luke ..... .... . .... 1 — 37 

CHAPTER II. (1623— 1630). 
Altar-Pieces. — Allegorical and Mythological Pieces. — Genre Pieces. — Portraits ... .... 38 — 55 

■ , CHAPTER III. (1631—1641). 

-Jordaens' Second Manner. — The Peasant and the Satyr. — The King drinks. — As the Old Cock crows the 

young one learns. — Jordaens as an Animal painter. — Mythological and Religious Pieces. — Portraits. . 56 — 112 

CHAPTER IV. (1631— 1641 continued). 
Jordaens and Rubens. — The Entry of the Cardinal-Infant. — Works for Greenwich House. — Balthasar Gerbier. — 

Jordaens' Pupils. — His House . 113 — 127 

CHAPTER V. (1642— 1652). 
Altar-Pieces and Religious Pictures. — Pictures sold to Martinus van Langenhoven and to the Queen of Sweden — 

The King drinks. — Mythological Pictures. — Portraits . . . .... . .... 128 — 156 

CHAPTER VI. (1652). 

The Orange Hall in the House in the Wood, The Hague .... . 157— 171 

Jordaens' Etchings. — Engravings after his Pictures. — Tapestries after his Designs. — His Drawings and Sketches 172 — 194 

CHAPTER VIII. (1653-1665). 
Dated Pictures. — Pictures in the Stadhuis, the present Palace, at Amsterdam, in the Court of Justice at Hulst, 

and in the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp. — Other Works of the Period . . ... 195—217 

CHAPTER IX. (1666— 1678). 
The Master's Closing Years. — He Joins the Calvinists. — The Protestants in the Southern Netherlands. — 

Jordaens' Last Works. — His Death. — His Place as an Artist. — Jordaens and Jan Steen . ... 218 — 247 

Translator's note . ... ... . . • . . 248 

Appendix. Catalogue of Pictures in the possession of Jacques Jordaens at his death . . . . 249 

List of Jordaens' Works . ... . . ... . 251 

Index. . .... . . ... . . . . . .... . 270 

Errata . . ........ ........ 276 



The King Drinks (Detail, Museum, Brussels) . • • ■ ■ Frontispiece 

The Four Evangelists (Louvre) ...... • • ..... 29 

Portraits of van Zurpele and his Wife (Duke of Devonshire, London) . ... 55 

The Porridge-Eater (Museum, Cassel, No. 105) ..... .... . . 61 

As the Old Cock crows (Museum, Antwerp) ... • • 75 

The Up-Bringing of Jupiter (Museum, Cassel, No. 104) . . • ... . . 89 

The Triumph of Bacchus (Museum, Cassel) • • • • .... 91 

Diogenes searching for a Man (Museum, Dresden) . . . . ...... ._ 103 

The Adoration of the Shepherds (Church of St. Nicolas, Diksmude) . ... . . .133 

The King Drinks (Imperial Museum, Vienna) .... .... . 151 

The Triumph of Frederick Henry (Detail, The House in the Wood, The Hague) . 171 

The Youthful Bacchus (Mr. Max Rooses, Antwerp). ■ • ■ • ■ «73 

The Fruit-seller (Museum, Glasgow) • • .... ... 191 

The Twelve- Year-OH Christ in the Temple (Museum, Mentz) 213 

The Dedication in the Temple (Museum, Dresden). . . .217 

The Portrait of a Man (Museum, Budapest) .... ... ■ • • 2 49 





Portrait of Jordaens ... .... 

Christ on the Cross (Church of St. Paul, Antwerp) ' ' 

The Adoration of the Shepherds (Museum, Stockholm) '5 

The Peasant and the Satyr (Mr. A. Cels, Brussels) '9 

Meleager and Atalanta (Museum, Antwerp) . ■ 35 

The Martyrdom of St. Apollonia (Church of St. Augustine, Antwerp) 4' 

Fertility (Museum, Brussels) . ... 45 

Fertility (Wallace Collection, London) . . 47 

The Up-bringing of Jupiter (Museum, Cassel, No. 103) . . 87 

The Servant bringing his Master's Horse (Museum, Cassel) '37 

Family Portrait (Museum, Cassel) .... . .... .... . 157 

Portrait of a Lady (Academy of Fine-Arts, Vienna) . . 159 

The Triumph of Frederick Henry (The House in the Wood, The Hague) . .... 163 

Christ driving the Moneychangers from the Temple (Louvre, Paris). . . . . . ... 177 

The Jester and the Owl (After an Engraving by Peter de Jode, the Younger) 185 

The Adoration of the Shepherds (Museum, Antwerp) . . ■ 201 

The Last Supper (Museum, Antwerp) 239 


The Three Musicians (Lord Yarborough) . . Title-page. 

Woman's Head (Drawing, Museum, Brunswick) . . I 

Study of Oxen (Drawing, Louvre, Paris) 4 

Woman's Head (Drawing, Museum, Brunswick). . . 5 
The Adoration of the Shepherds (Drawing, British Mu- 
seum) . 8 

Head of a Man (Drawing, Museum, Brunswick). . . 9 

Meleager and Atalanta (Drawing, Mr. Masson, Amiens) 12 

Woman Drinking (Drawing, Museum, Brunswick) . . 13 

The Flight into Egypt (Drawing, Louvre, Paris). . . 16 
The Adoration of the Shepherds (Drawing, Boymans 

Museum, Rotterdam) 17 

The Peasant and the Satyr (Drawing, Mr. Fairfax 

Murray, London) 20 

The Peasant and the Satyr, (Pinakothek, Munich) . . 21 

The Feasant and the Satyr (Museum, Cassel). ... 24 

The Holy Family (Museum, New Yorki 25 

Democritus and Heraclitus (Museum, New York) . . 28 

The Holy Family (Mr. Delacre, Ghent) 29 

Moses striking water from the rock (Museum, Karlsruhe) 32 

The Disciples at Christ's grave (Museum, Dresden) . 33 

The offering to Pomona (Museum, Madrid) ... . . 35 

Meleager and Atalanta (Museum, Madrid) 36 

Job (Mr. Paul Mersch, Paris) • ■ • 37 

Old Woman with Dish (Mr. M. Delacre, Ghent) . . 38 

Head of an Apostle (Museum, Brussels) 40 

Mercury and Argus (Museum, Lyons) 41 

The Miracle of St. Martin (Museum, Brussels) ... 44 
St. Martin delivering a Demoniac (Drawing, Plantin- 

Moretus Museum, Antwerp) . . 45 

The Child Jesus with John (Mr. Wittouck, Brussels) . 48 

The Adoration of the Shepherds (Mr. M. Delacre, Ghent) 49 

Abundance, (Drawing, Mr. Heseltine, London) ... 52 

Pan and Syrinx (Museum, Brussels) .... . . 53 

Family Portrait (Museum, Madrid) 54 

A Merry Meal (Drawing, Mr. M. Delacre, Ghent) . . 56 

Neptune and Amphitrite (Duke of Arenberg, Brussels), 58 
The Milkmaid (Drawing, Mr. M. Delacre, Ghent) . . 59 
The Peasant and the Satyr (Museum, Brussels) ... 60 
The Peasant and the Satyr (Mr. A. Harcq, Brussels) . 61 
The Porridge-Eater (Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna). . 64 
The Offering to Jupiter (Drawing, Boymans Museum, 

Rotterdam)' , . . 65 

The King Drinks (Museum, Brussels) 68 

The King Drinks (Academy, St. Petersburg) .... 69 
The King Drinks (Drawing, Museum, Antwerp) ... 72 
Boating Party (Drawing, British Museum, London), . 73 
The Circumcision (Boymans Museum, Rotterdam) . . 76 
Give and thou shalt receive (Drawing, Mr. Fairfax Murray, 

London). 77 

As the old cock crows (Louvre, Paris) 80 

As the old cock crows (Drawing, British Museum, London) 8 1 
As the old cock crows (Museum, Berlin) ..... 84 
As the old cock crows (Duke of Arenberg, Brussels) . 85 

The Jester (Mr. Porges, Paris) 88 

Musician and His Wife (Mr. Duverdyn, Bruges). . . 88 

The Serenade (Mr. Leblon, Antwerp) ^ . 89 

Never buy a pig in a poke (Mr. J. Rump, Copenhagen) 92 
The pitcher goes once too often to the well (Drawing, 

Plantin-Moretus Museum, Antwerp) 93 

Jupiter and the goat Amalthea (Louvre, Paris) ... 96 
The goat Amalthea (Drawing, Louvre, Paris) . , . . . 97 
Ariadne in the train of Bacchus (Museum, Dresden). . 98 

The offering to Venus (Museum, Dresden) 99 

Prometheus (Museum, Cologne) I0O 

The Fishmonger, (Museum, Brussels) 101 

The Prodigal Son (Museum, Dresden) 102 

The Prodigal Son (Mr. Toussaint, Brussels) .... 103 
Diogenes searching for a man (Drawing, J. and A. Le 

Roy, Brussels) io . 

The Tribute Money (Mr. Ringborg; Norkoping) . . 105 
The Tribute Money (Rijks Museum, Amsterdam) . . 106 



Ulysses and Circe (Mr. Tack, Crefeld) .... 
The Miracle of St. Dominic (Museum, Oldenburg) 
Portrait of a Man (Drawing, Louvre, Paris) 
Portrait of a Woman (Drawing, Louvre, Paris) 
A Music Party (Drawing, Mr. M. Delacre. Ghent) 
Portrait Of Jan Wierts (Museum, Cologne) . 
Portrait of Jan Wierts' Wife (Museum, Cologne) . 
Jordaens' Portrait (engraved after van Dyck's painting) 
Portrait of a Man (Uffizi, Florence). 
Hunter with Hounds (Museum, Lille) . 
Scipio and Allucius (Drawing, Boymans Museum 

Rotterdam) .... 

Facade of Jordaens' Studio .... 

Amorini carrying a festoon of flowers (Ceiling in the 

House of Mr. Ch. van der Linden, Antwerp) 
An Offering to Apollo (Ceiling in the House of Mr. Ch. 

van der Linden, Antwerp) 

The Visit of Mary to Elizabeth (Museum, Lyons) 

Facsimile of Jordaens' receipt for the same . 

The Adoration of the Kings (Drawing, Plantin-Moretus 

Museum, Antwerp) . . . 

Paul and Barnabas at Lystra (Academy, Vienna). 
Paul and Barnabas at Lystra (Drawing, Mr. Max Rooses 


Saint Ivo (Museum, Brussels) ... . 

The Dead Christ (Consul Weber, Hamburg) 

The Dream (Mr. Kleinberger, Paris) . 

Argus and Mercury (Mr. Ch. Wouters, Antwerp). 

Argus and Mercury (Mr. Georges Hulin, Ghent) . 

Hercules and Acheloiis (Museum, Copenhagen) 

The King Drinks (The Duke of Devonshire) 

The King Drinks (Museum, Cassel) 

Rustic Courtship (Mr. Emile B. Goldschmidt, Frankfort) 

Diana and Callisto (Museum, Oldenburg) 

Contest between Apollo and Marsyas (Museum, Ghent) 

Head of Satyr (Drawing, Louvre) . 

The Triumph of Frederick Henry (Sketch, Museum 

Antwerp) . . ... 

The Triumph of Frederick Henry (Sketch, Museum 

Brussels) . 

The Triumph of Frederick Henry (Sketch, Museum, 


Time mowing down Slander (The House in the Wood, 

The Hague) • • 

Vignette: old Woman (Drawing, Albertina, Vienna). 
Christ Appears as the Gardener, (Drawing, Mr. Fairfax 

Murray, London) 

Christ Expelling the Moneychangers from the Temple 

(Drawing, Museum, Brunswick) 

Jupiter and Io (after an etching by Jordaens) . 
Cacus stealing Hercules' oxen- (after an etching) . . 
Pan with sheep and a goat (Rijks-Museum, Amsterdam) 
Vanity (Drawing, Mr. Fairfax Murray, London). . . 
Shepherd and Shepherdess (Drawing, Print- room, Berlin) 







n 2 















The Master pulls the Cow out of the well (Tapestry 
from the ,, Proverbs" series, Prince Schwarzenberg, 
Frauenberg Castle) . .... . . 182 

They are good Candles that light us on our way 
(from the „Proverbs" series, Prince Schwarzenberg, 
Frauenberg Castle) . ... .184 

Hunter returning from the Chase (From the ,,Rural 
Life" series, Albertina, Vienna). . . ... 186 

A Music Party (Mr. Rodrigues, Paris) iS 







Veritas Dei (Drawing, British Museum, London) . 
The Holy Sacrament worshipped by Patriarchs and 

Saints (Museum, Dublin). . . -. 

Three Women and a Child (Baron Brukenthal, Her- 

mannstadt) . ... . ... 

Justitia (Drawing, Print-room of the Rijks Museum, 

Amsterdam) . . 

The Adoration of the Shepherds (Museum, Frankfort). 
The Adoration of the Shepherds (Museum, Lyons). . 
The Adoration of the Shepherds (Jhr. W. Six) . 
Susanna and the Two Elders (Museum, Copenhagen) 
Susanna and the Two Elders (Mr. Franck-Chaveau, Paris) 
Susanna (Museum, Verona). . ... 

St. Carolus Borromaeus (Church of St. James, Antwerp) 
Justitia (Drawing, Hermitage, St. Petersburg) 
Jesus among the Scribes (Detail, Museum, Mentz) 
Jesus among the Scribes (Detail, Museum, Mentz) 
Jesus among the Scribes (Drawing, Mr. Fairfax Murray, 

London) . 212 

„Be like little Children" (Drawing, Mr. Fairfax Murray, 

London) 213 

„Be ye reconciled one to another" (Museum, Ghent). 214 
Abraham and Isaac (Drawing, Louvre, Paris) . 
The Triumph of Bacchus (Museum, Brussels) . 
Escutcheon (Drawing, Rijks Museum, Amsterdam) 
Study of a head (Museum, Brunswick) . ... 

Jesus healing the lame on the Sabbath (Drawing, 

Mr. Delacre, Ghent). ... 

Isaac and Jacob (Drawing, Mr. Masson, Amiens). 
The Entombment (Drawing, Rijks Museum, Amsterdam) 
The Worship of Art (Drawing, Mr. Fairfax Murray, 

London) . . . 

The Holy Sacrament worshipped by Saints (Drawing, 

Mr. Fairfax Murray, London) 229 

Three Wandering Musicians (Sketch, Museum, Madrid) 232 
Silenus, Flora and Zephyrus (Mrs. Parmentier. Knocke) 233 
The Hospital Nuns (Museum, Antwerp) . . . 236 

The Descent from the Cross (Church of the Beguinage, 

Antwerp) ... . 237 

Vanitas (Museum, Brussels) .... ... 239 

The Dead Christ (Board of Charities, Antwerp) . 241 

The Dead Christ (Drawing, Mr. Rump, Copenhagen) . 242 
Portrait of a Man (Louvre, Paris) ... . . 244 

Monument erected to Jordaens . .... 245 

As the old cock crows (Museum, Dresden). . . . 246 






15 9 3—1622. 

Jordaens' Ancestors and Parents — His Birth — His Childhood — His 

Apprenticeship — His Marriage — His Children. 
Jordaens as Water-colour-painter — His Earliest Works — Dean of 

the Guild of St. Luke. 


[ordaens' namesakes, ancestors, and 
parents. — The family name of Jor- 
daens was of frequent occurrence in 
Antwerp in earlier times; at the present 
day, though it has not disappeared entirely, 
it is rarely found and then, as a rule, in 
the worn-down form of Jordens. In the 

kr^L=~§siisr ~~?sfe i V sixteenth and seventeenth centuries it was 
*r . i %-./■ ■'-■.-. |H# borne by many artists who were not related 

" ; * to our Jacob. Thus, for example, we find 

mention made in the registers of the Guild 

~ of St. Luke of one Hans Jordaens, painter, 

L^y* w / ) wri ° m 1572 was apprenticed to Noe de 

Noewille (Noville), and in 1581 was 
admitted a free master; of an Abraham 
who in 1585 was apprenticed to this 
Hans; an Augustine, painter, master in 
1588; a second Jan, painter, a master's 
son, himself installed as master in 1600; 
still a third Jan, also a master's son, who 
entered the Guild in 1619 — 1620; Gaspar, 
a sculptor, who became master in 1646 — 
1647; Abraham, also a sculptor, entered 
as apprentice in 1641 — 1642 and admitted 
master in 1649—1650; Arnoldus, painter, 
apprenticed in 1652 — 1653, a master in 
1663 — 1664; and others. In various towns 
of the North Netherlands also, such as 
Breda and Delft, in the latter half of the 
XVI th century and the first of the XVII th we come across painters of the name of 
Jordaens, who, however, were not related to the Antwerp master. 

Drawing (Museum, Brunswick). 


The first of Jacob's ancestors of whom we read in civic documents are his great-great- 
grandparents: Hendrik Jordaens and his wife Margareta van Uffele. They lived in Antwerp, 
and died there before 1541. Their son, Simon, was an „oudkleerkoper", that is to say, 
one who bought in goods for auction and so „rigged" the market; he married Elisabeth van 
Aelten, and died before 1550. He left two sons, Simon and Peter; Simon was an „oud- 
kleerkoper" like his father, Peter's business we do not know. This Peter was Jordaens' 
grandfather, and married Anna Faulx; their eldest son was called Jacob, and was a linen- 
merchant, or „sargie"-salesman. Jacob married, on Sept. 2, 1590, Barbara van Wolschaten, 
and their eldest son, Jacob, the great painter, was born on May 19, 1593, and baptised 
the next day in the Church of Our Lady. His parents had ten other children, eight daughters 
and two sons, of whom nothing of any importance can be told save that three of the 
daughters became nuns, and one of the sons a monk. (1) 

About Jordaens' birth date there is no doubt. It is true that Jan Meyssens gives it as 
May 19, 1594 on the portrait of the painter published by him in 1649 and engraved by 
Petrus De Jode after J.ordaens' own picture; but Meyssens, though he evidently had the 
authority of Jordaens himself for it, is nevertheless wrong in this date. The entry in the 
baptismal register of the Church of Our Lady, now in the Registrar's Office in Antwerp, 
which runs from May 30, 1592 to June 25, 1606, reads quite distinctly: „Anno 1593 
20 maij Jams (the name of the father) idem Joordaens (the name of the son) berbel (name 
of the mother) dirick de moij, elisabeth van briel (names of the sponsors)". Jordaens' father 
died on August 5, 1613; his mother on February 11, 1655. 

The house of his birth. The family possessions. — The house in which Jordaens 
was born, formerly known as „The Paradise", is situated in the High Street, and bears 
the number 13; a marble slab inserted in the front gable by direction of the Municipality 
commemorates the notable event that happened there. A sixteenth century building, it has 
suffered little mutilation. The stone mullions have been broken away to make place for 
windows of a newer fashion; but the crow-stepped gable remains, and subjects in old 
Flemish Renaissance style still decorate the space between the ground-floor and the first 
storey. Above these are two more floors, besides a garret. The external arrangement has 
been altered, but one sees plainly that the lower part consisted of a spacious shop-floor, 
entered from the street, behind which lay a small courtyard. The High Street, at that time 
the centre of the cloth trade, leads from the Groote Markt to the Oever, both of them 
among the principal squares in old Antwerp. It was near the Groote Markt that the elder 
Jordaens had his shop. Farther on, towards the Oever, were the cloth halls of Nieuwerkerk, 
Armentieres, Weert (in Limburg), Lier, Turnhout, Herenthals and Tournai. These buildings, 
and several merchant's houses of distinction. in it, gave to the street a stately and picturesque 
appearance which it has partly retained to this day. 

Jordaens' family belonged to the well-to-do middle-class: this is shown by the con- 
sequence of his parents' house, and confirmed by all the information we possess about 
the worldly estate of his relations. In 1561 his grandfather and his grandfather's two 
brothers, Simon and Michiel, sold a pleasure garden and house („speelhoff metten huyse") 
situate on the St. Willebrords field, close by the town. (2) In 1581 this grand-uncle Simon 
inherited a house adjoining the Deanery of the Church of Our Lady; and when on 

S P q?nard ~oTctt SUr 8-9"" J ° rdaenS - ~ ° hent ' 1852 - ExtraCt f r0m U Messa g"- ** Sciences historiques de Belgique, p. 8. 


October 2, 1659, his widow, Maria de Bodt, died, she left, as the inventory of her estate 
shows, a fortune of 146,187 guilders, A\ stuivers, of which there was found in her house, 
in coin, the truly enormous sum of 27,364 guilders, 6 stuivers. (1) When our painter shared 
in the division of his father's estate with his brother Isaac and his sisters Anna, Magdalena 
and Elisabeth, on March 18, 1634, he received as his portion the house he was born in; 
and on March 10 in the following year we find him buying (presumably with the inherited 
money) two other houses on the Verwersrui. (2) All so many proofs that the family 
was well-to-do. 

Jordaens' Childhood. — About Jordaens' childhood we know nothing. He was fourteen 
years and a half old only when he was apprenticed to an Antwerp painter. It is clear, 
therefore, that he was not long at school, but during his term there, short as it was, he 
received instruction in all the branches taught to a burgher boy of those days; he wrote 
a very beautiful hand, and could compose a fair letter in Flemish, while pieces extant, 
written by him in French, show that he possessed an adequate knowledge of that language. 
His pictures prove that he knew his Mythology sufficiently to make use of it in his art; 
and when, later in life, he went over to the Reformed Church he became more than 
usually well-read in Biblical history. 

He does not go to Italy. — Jordaens' biographers in earlier centuries — if we 
may thus entitle those who give so little information about him — are unanimous in laying 
emphasis upon the fact that he did not visit Italy. Sandrart, the earliest of them, whom 
all the others followed closely, says: „He remained in Antwerp, and for this was reproached. 
„People, that is to say, disapproved of his work inasmuch as it discovered that he had not 
„seen the antiques and the pre-eminent masters of Italy — as he himself acknowledged. 
„That is why he was eager to come across the best of these, Titian, Veronese, Caravaggio, 
„Bassano and others, so that he might study them; and certainly he availed himself of 
„such opportunities". 

In our opinion this study of Italian masters and advantage derived from them is 
only an invention of the German biographer, who thought it necessary to acquit the painter 
as far as possible from such a breach of good form as daring to be a man of talent 
without seeking instruction beyond the Alps. For there is in Jordaens' works no trace of 
playing the sedulous ape to the Italian masters, either in the choice of subject or in the 
treatment of the material. In the collection of pictures he left behind him at his death, 
which was sold at the Hague by his grandson in 1734, there occurs not a single Italian 
example, though he lacked neither the means nor the opportunity of buying the works of 
those painters whom according to Sandrart he- so much admired. As far as his own practice 
reveals that reform which art away in the South had undergone in a previous century, 
this is to be imputed to the influence of the foreigner, not upon himself, but on one in 
whom Jordaens and all Antwerp artists, his contemporaries, recognised their master and 
guide — Rubens. 

After the return of Rubens to Flanders they all, directly or indirectly, became his 

(1) Inventory of all the estate left by and found in the house of the late Jouffrouwe Maria de Bodt, widow of Simon Jordaens 
deceased, who died on the 2nd of October 1659 in the house called the „Golden Comb" which stood in the High Street here. 
(Docum»nts in the collection of the late Chevalier Albert van Havre of Antwerp). 

(2) F. JOS. VAN DEN Branden. — „Geschiedenis der Antwerpsche Schilderschool", p. 831. 


pupils. They might still visit Italy, still admire as highly as before the masters of the 
South but they all remained faithful to the master of their own country. They fortified 
themselves in Italy in the doctrine which they had learned to confess at home - a 
perseverance that was easy now that home and abroad were no longer in opposition and 
Rubens had derived from the Italians all that the Flemings could make use of. It is very 
probable that had Jordaens been better acquainted with the artists of the South he would 
not have been different from what he was: he stood so far off from them in his con- 
ception of art; his contemplation of the world and theirs were so entirely different; that 
he would neither have got enjoyment out of them nor have followed them. In the sixteenth 

century Peter Breu- 
ghel, a brother spirit, 
took that road across 
the Alps which all 
artists of his time 
pursued in search of 
perfection ; but he 
came back unaffected, 
and remained the most 
original, the most Fle- 
mish painter of his 
age. Nor did his son 
„Velvet" Breughel, 
weaken in that Italian 
air. And though Ru- 
bens allowed his na- 
tural high gifts to 
ripen in it, and drew 
thence much that con- 
tributed to his com- 
plete development, it 
was without any sacri- 
fice of originality. Van 
Dyck remained completely himself while he purified his style there. It was only in the 
sixteenth century, and in the first half of it especially, that the southern influence worked 
harmfully, and caused the Netherlanders to forsake their native conceptions, and to see with 
the eyes and feel with the heart of the foreigner. After 1600 the revolution was complete: 
a new style was adopted, a new school born, and the visit to Italy, though it might still 
mature, could no longer transform the Northern painter. 

It is not our argument in all this that Jordaens would have learned nothing by going 
South. In the country where admiration of the antique had become worship, where Da Vinci, 
Mantegna, Michel-Angelo, Raphael, Titian had reigned, it became second nature with the 
artist to set a high appreciation upon dignified conception and cunning invention ; there he 
learned to honour his art and to be exacting with himself; and to all these things Jordaens 
never attained to any degree. He was often too easily beguiled into an indifferent choice 
of subject, an inartistic composition, and hasty brushwork; he was not deterred 
from certain vulgarities that offended without enhancing the truth or the force of his 

STUDY OF OXEN. Drawing (Louvre, Paris). 


scenes. Very possibly, therefore, study of the classics would have refined his feeling and 
made him more critical of himself, without his individuality suffering or his mastery of 
execution being weakened. 

Jordaens in the studio of Adam van Noort. — The earliest assured information 
that we possess of Jordaens as a painter is that in 1607 he was received as an apprentice 
by Adam van Noort. In the registers of the Guild of St. Luke where we find this recorded, 
his name stands second among those of 
the nine and twenty apprentices inscribed 
under the same deanship. Since the official 
year began in October, we may assume that 
he was admitted in that month; in which 
case he was not quite fourteen and a half 
years old when he entered the studio. Its 
master is famous for the great number of 
his pupils, still more for the renown which 
two of them, Rubens and Jordaens, achieved. 
Of his own work scarcely anything is known 
with certainty. Pictures of all kinds have 
been attributed to him ; of not one of them 
can we prove that he executed it; and 
those assigned to him are so different from 
one another that no one who sees them 
together can believe for a moment that 
they are by the same hand. A few drawings 
of his have been preserved, and there are 
a few engravings made from his pictures; 
these undoubtedly genuine works, however, 
betray no original talent and bear no 
resemblance to the creations of either of 
his great pupils. „Qhrist calling the children 
to him", in the museum at Brussels, the 
only one of the pictures attributed to him 

which resembles his drawings, has not the least affinity to the works of either Rubens or 
Jordaens. Everything that we know about him leads us to suppose that he was regarded 
as a competent master in the elements of his art, and as one skilled in the management of 
the youths in his charge; and that he was a man of dignified nature, notwithstanding the 
rough humours and other faults attributed to him by a long line of biographers. (1) 

Since it is certain that Jordaens had no other master, we might naturally conclude that 
his earliest works at least must reflect the manner of Van Noort. But our difficulty is that 
we do not know which are Jordaens' earliest works. The first on which we can venture to put 
a date is of the year 1617, the first that actually bears a date belongs to 1618. Jordaens 
was then 24 — 25 years old, and pictures painted by him at that age are certainly not to 
be regarded as his earliest efforts. To complicate the problem, the two works referred to 

Drawing (Museum, Brunswick). 

(1) For further information about Adam van Noort and his influence over his pupils, see the author's Rubens' Life and 
Works, pp. 41—44. 


differ so greatly that they are the least sure guides possible to the style of the master from 
whom he learned his craft. Although, therefore, it is not unlikely that Adam van Noort 
exercised an influence over Jordaens, it is impossible to indicate the direction which it 
took. But it is indisputable that the pupil was fond of the master; he resided with him 
during a considerable part of his life; the beautiful, imposing gray head of Van Noort was 
one of his favourite models in later years; so that not family ties only, but also the respect 
and affection borne by the younger to the elder, bound the two men to one another. 

Jordaens' marriage, his children, his first house. — Adam van Noort was living 
in the Everdy Street when Jordaens was indentured to him. He had five children, Jan, 
Catharina, Anna, Elisabeth and Adam.(l) Catharina, the eldest of the daughters, was 
baptised on August 21, 1589; although she was nearly four years older than Jordaens, he 
fell in love with her, and they were married in the Church of Our Lady on May 15, 1616, 
four days before the bridegroom had reached his twenty-third birthday. Three children 
issued from their union; all of them were baptised in the same church as their parents- 
Elisabeth, June 26, 1617; Jacob, July 2, 1625 and Anna Catharina, October 23, 1629. The 
last married Jan Wierts, a born Antwerper who in 1640 was studying law in Louvain, 
and afterwards lived at the Hague where he filled the office of President of the Council 
of Brabant. The younger Jacob became a painter, like his father, but neither in the Guild 
books nor in any other document has mention been found of him; most probably he died 
in his youth. The only trace of him which has been discovered is a picture in the Museum 
of Amiens representing The Appearance of Jesus as a Gardener to Mary 'Magdalen and 
signed J. Jor. junior 1650. A drawing of the same subject made by Jordaens himself is in 
the possession of Mr. Fairfax Murray in London. The figures and their attitudes are similar, 
but in the father's drawing the execution and interpretation are looser and more realistic. 
Shrubs and trees and the entrance of a building in freestone occupy the background. The 
work of the son is more academic, and at the same time more common. Elisabeth resided 
with her father all her life, and died, unmarried, the same day as Jordaens, October 18, 1678. 

After his marriage, Jordaens went to live with his wife's parents or close to them. The 
names of both are mentioned as follows in the funeral list of one Jan Moretus, deceased, 
on March 11, 1618: „Adam van Noort and son-in-law, Everdijstraat". (2) In this street the 
father-in-law owned two houses, with a porch, garden, and inner house, which he had 
bought in 1598 and sold in 1622. On the 15 th January, 1618, Jordaens and his young wife 
bought a property situated in the High Street, on the south side of the house of the 
merchant Backx, comprising a large inner house with an open courtyard and entrance 
alongside the porch ; and on this Adam van Noort took a few mortgages to the extent of 2000 
guilders. (3) Jordaens and his wife went to live in this house, and later were joined there 
by her father. On the funeral list of Melchior Moretus in 1634 we find them mentioned as 
living together in the High Street. 

Jordaens as waterpainter. - In 1615, the year before his marriage, Jordaens was 
received as a free master into the Guild of St. Luke, in the books of which he was 

(1) P. Genard. — Album der Lucasgllde. p. 129. 

(2) Archief Museum Plantin-Moretus. In this is kept the roll of friends and relations to whom notice was given on the 
death of a member of the family. 

(3) F. JOS. VAN DEN BRANDEN. Op. Cit. p. 816. 


inscribed as „waterpainter". This word waterschilder can only indicate that he painted in 
water-colours. The master whose name follows his, Matheus Matheusen, is accorded the 
same description. In 1610 two other „waterpainters" had been enrolled, — Alexander 
Adriaensen and Matheus de Peuter. Repeatedly in 1610 and 1613 we find the designation 
„canvaspainter" (doeckschilder), a distinction of a kind similar to that of „waterpainter". 
Jordaens is the only one of Adam van Noort's many pupils to whom this term is applied, 
and this seems to prove that the master's studio was very seldom frequented by a painter 
of this class. 

We are indebted to van Mander for a few particulars about these watercolour painters. 
Speaking of Peter Vlerick, who was born in Courtray in 1539, he says of him that his 
father, seeing him „inclined towards the art of drawing directed him to take lessons of one 
„Willem Snellaert, a Water-colour Painter outside the Tournay Gate, who was somewhat 
„ better in the Art than the other canvaspainters, of whom as usual there were many in 
„the town". After various adventures Pieter arrived on a certain Sunday or Saint's day at 
Mechlin, and rested at the roadside, near the town. Not knowing what to do, he fell to 
weeping; whereupon some of the passers by asked him the reason, and if he could find 
no work, and other similar questions; to whom Pieter answered that he was a painter. 
„And as there are always in Mechlin also many water-painters", van Mander continues, 
„some of these took him home with them. It was their practice there to pass the canvases 
„through several hands: one executed the features and hands, another the costume, or the 
..Landscape; and to Pieter it fell to make the spaces on which writing appeared". (1) In 
the same way, also, van Mander mentions in his biography of Hans Bol, that there were 
in Mechlin at that time about 150 canvaspainters or water-colour painters. (2) 

Young Constantyn Huygens, secretary to the Prince of Orange, afterwards William III, 

also gives us a little information about the waterpainters. He writes in his Journal, August 3, 

1675: „The Count van Homes showed us some tapestries painted in watercolours on canvas, 

„on which the outlines of the figures had been printed with wooden blocks; they were 

„very effective, but do not resist water or damp". (3) And later, June 16, 1677, when in 

Antwerp, he notes further: „The Prince of Orange sent me to see the designs for a work 

„which Rubens had made for the emperor; they were hunting scenes, very well executed 

„in watercolours. There were seven pieces, about nine ells each". That Rubens drew 

designs for tapestries, representing hunting scenes, and painted them in watercolours or 

in any other way, for the emperor, is a fiction which Constantyn Huygens allowed himself 

to believe. There can be no doubt, however, that such designs did exist; and we may 

readily accept it on his authority that sometimes they were painted on canvases upon 

which figures had been printed. They were occasionally painted on paper, also, and 

Jordaens executed examples of this kind, as we learn from the description of the designs 

sent by the trader in tapestries, Frans Smit, to Hamburg on July 5, 1651: Jtetn: two 

pieces of paper designs of Horses in Action, painted by Jordaens; one consisting of eight 

rolls, the other of nine, at six hundred guilders per piece". (4) 

It is not only in the registers of the Guild of St. Luke, however, that Jordaens is 
referred to as a water-colour painter. Sandrart also, after mentioning a few of his earliest 

(1) VAN MANDER. — Het Schilder-boeck, 1618, 1676. 

(2) Id. Id. 177a. 

(3) Journal of Constantyn Huygens during the Campaigns of the years 1673, 1675, 1677, and 1678. Publications of the Historical 
Society, Utrecht, 1881. p. 51. 

(4) F. JOS VAN DEN BRANDEN. Op. cit. p. 827. 



pictures, continues in this wise: „These and other excellent works have aroused the jealousy 
„of the greatly renowned Rubens, who observed how this artist approached him so closely, — 
„even surpassing him almost in naturalness and truth — that their works were often placed 
„side by side and compared by art lovers; when to Rubens was ascribed more spirit and 
„a richer invention, but to the works of Jordaens a better execution and a greater naturalness. 
..Notwithstanding this, both, like very sensible men, continued to live in friendship, while 
„each of them endeavoured to increase his skill. 

„It is said, however, that Rubens, anxious that Jordaens should lose his natural gift 

THE ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS. Drawing (British Museum, London). 

„for oil painting, of which Rubens was very jealous, contrived a plan for accomplishing 
„this; namely, by arranging that jordaens should paint, on paper in water-colours the large 
„tapestnes which the King of Spain had ordered from him for his palace in Madrid The 
..tapestry-weavers were to have worked from these, and Rubens himself had executed the 
..compositions in small grisailles. Jordaens, it is true, finished these cartoons beautifully in 
„water-colours, but the continued practice in this kind of work greatly weakened his highly- 
„pra.sed and natural gift in oilpainting in which he had formerly excelled; in the same way 



tapestries. It is true, therefore, that in his drawings our artist remained the water-colour- 
painter. He did not on that account, however, fall into a cold and meagre manner of 
colouring; these works prove the contrary, indeed, for they are as richly coloured as his 
pictures painted in the brightest tones. 

It has sometimes been suggested that his father's trade determined Jordaens in the 
choice of a profession. When the registers of the Guild of St. Luke record the payment 
of his Master fees in 1615, they call him .Jacques Jordaens, schilder, lijnwatierssone" (that 
is to say, „painter, linen merchant's son"), thus encouraging us to look for some connection 
between the business of the old and the art of the young Jacob. Among the cloths which 
the father was in the custom of selling are said to have been painted wall-coverings which 
he counted upon his son brushing for him: this is quite possible, indeed very likely; but 
we have no assured proof of it. 

„Christ on the Cross" in the Church of the Dominican Friars at Antwerp. — 
The year 1617 is the date of the work which we regard as the earliest example of Jordaens' 
art known to us, — his Christ on the Cross in the Church of St. Paul, formerly the 
Preekheerenkerk, at Antwerp. Somewhere about this time the Dominican Friars commissioned 
a series of fifteen paintings representing the Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary, to be placed 
in the left aisle of their church, where they still hang. We do not possess, it is true, any 
contemporary documentary proof of this commission ; but on the shutters which are generally 
closed upon the one of the series which Rubens furnished, The Scourging of Christ, we 
read that the picture was painted in 1617. „Hanc vividam flagellati Salvatoris nostri Jesu 
Christi imaginem, exquisitissima arte depictam ecclesiae S ti Pauli dicavit P. P. Rubens 
Anno MDCXVII". This inscription was not painted on the shutter until the beginning of 
the XIX th century, and we know not from what source came the date mentioned in it, but 
certainly it is not without some foundation. It is confirmed, moreover, by the picture itself, 
for its style undoubtedly points to about 1617 as the period of its production. With equal 
certainty we can say that van Dyck's picture, the Carrying of the Cross, which hangs 
next to it, can belong to no other time. The two works, therefore, confirm, while none of 
the others in the series contradicts, this date, 1617. 

The only document we possess about the commission of the Mysteries of the Rosary 
is to be found in the archives of the Church of St. Paul, and it is of sufficient importance 
in respect of the Antwerp school of painting to justify us in quoting it here at length. 
Two copies of it are extant, both of a date later than the beginning of the XVII th century, 
and similar save for a few unimportant details. Here is the document: 

1. The Annunciation given by Mons. Peeter Spronck painted by van Bael 

(Hendrik van Balen) price 216 guilders 

2. The Visitation given by Pieter Bouvrey and Jan Bapt. de Vos painted 

by Franck 120 

3. The Birth of Christ given by Jouffr. Wissekercke painted by Corn 

deVos 138 „ 

4. The Purification. 

5. Jesus among the Doctors acquired by several donations, painted by 
Matheys Voet g6 

6. Gethsemane given by the Widow Vloers, painted by David Terriers." . 102 


\ \ 


7. The Flagellation given by mynheer Lowies Clarisse, painted by mynheer 

Pieter Rubbens 150 guilders 

8. The Crowning of Christ given by mynheer Adam Verjuijs, painted by 
Antoni de Bruyn 96 

9. The Crossbearing given by mynheer Jan van den Broek, painted by 

van Dyck 150 

10. The Crucifixion given by Jouffr. Magdalena Lewieter, painted by Jordaens 150 

11. The Resurrection given by P. Mag r Bouchet, painted by Arnout 
Vinckenborgh 66 

12. The Ascension given by mynheer Colyn, painted by Arnout Vinckenborgh 120 

13. The Outpouring of the H. Spirit given by Corn. Verbeeck, painted by 
Matthys Voet 102 

14. The Ascension of Mary by several donations, painted by Aertsen. . . 66 

15. The Crowning of Our Lady given by the Widow Capello, painted by 
Aernout Vinckenborgh 66 

We have no information about Jufvrouw Magdalena Lewieter, the donor of Jordaens' 
picture. The name Lewieter sounds strange, but we come across it now and then in Antwerp 
during the XVII th and XVIII th centuries ; once, for example, on two clocks, cast for the balfry 
of the Church of Our Lady in 1655, on which one Roger Le Witre is mentioned as 
churchwarden; and again in a reference to a Maria Catharina Lewiter, wife of Sebastiaan 
Jacobs, who died on March 18, 1702, and was buried in the Saint Walburgis Church. 
It strikes us as noteworthy that the same price was paid for Jordaens' picture as for 
those of Rubens and van Dyck; even so early as this, it would appear, he was counted 
among the great masters. 

The picture in the Church of the Dominicans represents Christ on the Cross. The 
Saviour is dead; his eyes are closed; the head has fallen over upon the left shoulder; 
the upper part of his body describes a strongly curved line. On the right is Mary, with 
one hand slightly lifting from before her face the blue drapery which envelops her head and 
her whole body. Next her in the foreground stands John wrapped entirely in a red cloak, 
his hands folded as he contemplates the Saviour with eyes full of pity. Also in the foreground, 
to the right, Mary Magdalen kneels weeping; while behind her appears an old woman in 
a dark blue garment, one hand to her face, the other at her neck. 

It is a scene of sorrow, suppressed by some of the mourners, violently expressed in the case 
of others. The light is full, broken by shadows varying in tint, but always soft and transparent. 
On the nude body of the dead Christ falls a strong and warm radiance; the shadows are 
brown. The twilight shimmers on Mary's neck, and the features of the weeping woman are 
alight with fiery red reflections. The horizon is aflame with the glow of the setting sun, which 
is reflected on the feet of Christ and the legs gf Saint John. Down Christ's hands and arms 
the blood is trickling, so that both below and above the scene is flushed with a red tone. 
The whole makes a powerful design of light and colour. The tones are broken. The red 
cloak of John, the blue cloak of Mary, the gold-brown dress and the white linen of the 
Magdalen have their high-light effects tempered by thin shadows. 

That which strikes us most in the picture, and puzzles us, is the complete difference 
it exhibits from all the works of Jordaens which succeeded it. From 1618 onwards the 
painter developed a marked individuality differing entirely from that shown by other 



painters- a tendency to which he remained faithful for many years. Later on he 
again and again modified his style; but in all the changes which it underwent there 
is to be recognised a logical progression : it is like a plant, which grows, bears flowers 
and fruit, attains its full maturity, fades and decays, but through all its development 
remains itself. The picture of 1617, on the other hand, shows no approach in style to 
those of later date. May it, after all, belong to a different period? Yet we are denied 
this solution, for the canvas reveals no closer relation with the master's work in more 

advanced years. It is undoubtedly 
by Jordaens: we recognise in it 
sufficient general characteristics of 
his to be able to affirm this 
unhesitatingly; yet at the same time 
there are to be detected qualities 
so unlike any of his later work as 
to make it stand practically by itself. 
And if it is asked which are 
these unusual qualities the answer 
must be that in this earliest work 
Jordaens betrays most markedly 
the influence of his predecessors. 
That of Rubens is clear: the 
changing play of light and colour, 
the tender flesh of Christ's figure 
and its heavy build, the leaden 
tint of the legs, the bold swing 
of the torso, and the sense of 
drama immanent in the group as 
a whole — these are characteristics 
wherein conception and treatment 
are related to those of Rubens; 
and they are not to be found in 
the later Jordaens. 

Here therefore we are in the 
presence of a work in which, 
though the painter has not yet become wholly himself, he separates himself from his 
predecessors with sufficient clearness to be distinguished from them, and discovers an 
originality that makes the work demonstrably his. In the first place, he is here already 
a colourist, laying on his tones vividly and full in strong yet harmonious combination. 
Beside it the other pictures of the Fifteen Mysteries, save that of Rubens, appear either 
screaming or dull. He has broken with Academic convention and follows his conception of 
the truth. His figures, — the Virgin, John, Magdalen, the old woman — all are people to be 
met in the everyday world; their features, not without beauty, are yet not idealizecT; they 
think and act like actual people. John stands affected by the thing he sees but cannot 
believe, his eyes fixed on the cross, the hands unconsciously held out, one leg moved 
forward. Mary with quite natural gesture lifts the drapery from before her face, her lips 
tightly closed with repressed grief, her eyes red with weeping, her hand on her heart 

MELEAQER AND ATALANTA. Drawing (Masson, Amiens). 



as if she would control its beating. More theatrical is Mary Magdalen : her gold-coloured 
garment and white underlinen are turned down over the hip; in her overpowering grief 
she seems to forget reserve, and exposes the whole upper part of her body undraped. 
They are all personages of the sacred story; and at the same time they are ordinary men 
and women, suffering intensely and expressing their emotions in a natural way. 

Jordaens' art had ripened when he painted this canvas. The nuances of light and 
shade on the breast of Christ, the play of shadow on Magdalen's drapery, the quivering 
in the background of the evening glow and the reflection on the figures, are cleverly rendered. 
Jordaens, in a word, is now an artist, exceptionally daring, original in his contemplation 
of the world and in his conception of his task in 

life. The picture has weak passages also : the huddled -, 

effect of light and shade on the faces of Mary, John 
and the old woman; the arbitrary pattern of the 
shadows on the Christ's body, and the exaggerated 
swing of its upper part, the want of taste shown in 
the uncovering of the Magdalen's arms and breast, 
all indicate that the painter has still to find the way 
that he is seeking. 

Christ on the Cross, Rennes. — A picture 
treating the same subject in a similar manner is found 
in the Museum at Rennes. It came from the Church 
of the Beguinage at Antwerp, where (according to 
J. B. Descamps) it hung above the grave of the two 
beguins, Maria de Hester and Clara de Moy. In 
1794 it was carried off by the French, and later was 
given to the Museum in which it is now found. The 
dead Christ hangs low; the block on which his feet 
are resting is a few feet only above the ground. The 
line of the body is perpendicular, the head has fallen 
forward on the breast, and a lock of hair has strayed 
from under the crown of thorns. To the left stands Mary 
in blue-green drapery which completely envelops 

her; she fronts the spectator, but turns her head with a fixed gaze upon Christ. Next 
to her, weeping, is a second woman, with her hands folded, dressed in red, a black 
kerchief coiled round head and neck. To the right again, a young woman leans — fingers 
interlaced, head bowed, in an attitude full of tender love and pity — against the Christ. 
Mary Magdalen has sunk weeping to the ground at the foot of the cross, her head bent 
on her hand, lost in sorrowful thoughts. Her hair hangs loose; she is dressed in a pale 
yellow garment over another blue-striped. John standing in the background looks out of the 
picture a little indifferently; the old woman behind him has her eyes fixed on high. 

Christ here is realised in a figure similar to that in the Dominicans' picture. The torso 
is heavy. Light falls on the breast and arms; the head is in warm shadow. Mary has the 
same expression of mute, heartrending grief; Magdalen is here, as in the other, conceived 
in a melodramatic way, sunk to the ground in despair. Very touching is the sweet figure 
of the woman who presses herself against Christ's limbs. Here also the influence of Rubens 

•L J 

Drawing (Museum, Brunswick). 


is distinctly noticeable in the play of light and shadow and in the reflection on the dark- 
red garment of the woman to the left. The resemblance between The Christ on Calvary 
in the Museum at Antwerp by Rubens and this picture by Jordaens at Rennes » sinking 
In the latter work the expression of sorrow is realistically human, not an academical 
gesture Here we have again a scene of quiet, deep sorrow, of adorers who have gathered 
in a close circle round the beloved hanging there in majestic motionlessness. Here also 
some of the figures are less successful: the indifferent John, for example, and the expressionless 
Magdalen. The two pictures seem to date from about the same time, but in that at Rennes 
the painter's talent is more refined; in view of the resemblance already noticed to the 
work of Rubens, which was painted in 1620, we are probably justified in dating this canvas 
later, say about 1621. 

„Christ on the Cross". Teirninck school, Antwerp. — A third Christ on the 
Cross is found in the Teirninck school at Antwerp. Formerly it stood on the altar of the 
chapel, but with the other pictures belonging to the foundation it has been brought to the 
small museum attached to the institution. The picture has been quite recently repaired 
and cleaned of the dirt which made it unrecognizable; time and renovations, however, have 
caused it to lose permanently much of its original freshness and soundness. The Saviour 
has just died; he hangs on the cross in the centre of the scene. To the left stands Mary, 
her hands folded over each other, her head turned towards Christ; she is enveloped 
in a blue cloak; deep sorrow is to be read in her face and in her whole 
attitude. On the ground sits a weeping woman, a child rests its head on her breast. To 
the right, at the foot of the cross, is seated Magdalen, in pale blue and yellow drapery, 
her hands folded in her lap and her head leaning against the leg of the crucified. Next 
to her stands John. He is wrapped completely in a red cloak, which he is lifting with a 
hand that is hidden under it; his other hand he stretches towards his master. Behind him 
is a man on a ladder placed against the cross. In the foreground lie bones of dead men 
and animals. The sky is clouded over. 

The colour has been laid on in large, full patches in the draperies of Our Lady, John, 
and Magdalen. The shadows are dark; so far as we can still distinguish the original 
colour the flesh is of a pinky brown. Christ's arm is knotted with muscles ; the ribs of the 
breast can be counted. The unbroken colour-spaces, the brown flesh, the simplicity of the 
composition, the manner of painting the hair, which (as in the earliest examples of The 
Peasant and the Satyr) lies on John's head like a thickly matted fleece, point to early 
execution. As in the painting in the Preekheeren Church, the suffering on the face of the 
mother of Christ is most touchingly expressed. Several figures in this work are repeated in 
the „Mount Calvary", which also is in the Teirninck School. Mary in blue drapery, John 
in red, Magdalen in yellow-brown, are the same in both pictures. It is most likely that 
this „Mount Calvary" belongs to a date some years later than the picture of 1617. 
With the other paintings which the Teirninck School possesses it formed part of the 
collection belonging to Canon Christiaan Teirninck, who died in 1745. No doubt 
its original place was on one of the altars. It was engraved by Schelte a Bolswert 
during Jordaens' lifetime, a proof that the painter thought highly of it; the engraving, 
however, differs geatly from the painting. In it the ladder against the cross is missing. 
Mary lays one hand on her breast, while the other hangs down. Christ still lives. 
These alterations Jordaens has made so as to improve the grouping of the figures; 


the composition gains in simplicity by them, but it has become at the same time stiffer 
and more formal. 

There was in the 18 th century another Christ on the Cross by Jordaens, in the church 
of the Minimencloister in Antwerp. (1) Still another, from the Church of the Carthusians at 
Brussels, was sold in 1785 with the pictures of the suppressed monasteries. A fifth, formerly 
in the Church of the Oratory at Tournay, is at present in the Cathedral of that town; a 
sixth, once hanging in the Church of St. Gommarius at Lier, is now in the Cathedral of 
Bordeaux. To the two last reference will be made in another chapter. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds, Stockholm. — The earliest dated picture of 
Jordaens is the Adoration of the Shepherds in the Museum at Stockholm. In it Mary sits 
with her child upon her lap; at her back stands Joseph, supporting himself by a hand 
grasping the woodwork of the roof; beside him is a young boy regarding the mother and 
infant. A shepherd on the left, resting with both hands on his staff, stoops towards the 
child with a contortion of his neck. Behind him are a young shepherdess with a straw 
hat, and an old woman with a white kerchief on her head. In the sky, if we look closely, 
we see angel-heads, hazy, like cloudballs. In the foreground stands a brass gallon-jar for 
milk, on the broad handle of which is inscribed I. IoRd^nS fecit 1618. 

Here we are in the presence of the real Jordaens, the Jordaens we know, who has 
become himself and expresses clearly, without any timidity or alloy, his conception 
of his art. The difference between him and his predecessors is great. First of all in the 
matter of conception. Rubens and hundreds of others in his day and before it represented 
ihe Adoration of the Shepherds as a scene in which the supernatural played a great part. 
Mary in their canvases shows her new-born son, a prodigy, to the simple country 
folks; a heavenly light surrounds his head, and often a white glow radiates from his small 
body over all the scene. Angels have descended from heaven to announce his arrival and 
to welcome him; shepherds and shepherdesses kneel before him or gaze at him with 
respectful admiration and tender him gifts. With Jordaens the Adoration becomes simply 
a visit of villagers to a woman newly confined. Mary is unmistakeably a mother: her heavy 
figure, her look of house-wifery, the ripeness of her years and her burgherly ways convey 
no hint of virginity. She is not in the full bloom of luxurious beauty, with firm peach 
flesh, glowing with a slight blush, as are the Madonnas of Rubens' conception; her 
features have grown broad and flaccid with indoor life and the cares of a family. But 
she is the loving mother; she clasps her child to her breast, contemplating him 
with anxious pleasure, without pride, without adoration, without exaltation over the 
unparalleled grace showered upon her; without any spiritual or physical nobility in her 
features or gestures; she is just a good Flemish burgherwoman, such as the painter had 
seen a hundred times. So with the child, — a sleeping baby with open little mouth, not naked 
and not angelic, but warm in swaddling clothes ; carefully tucked in, protected, and coddled 
by his mother. And so with all the personages. Joseph is not the ordinary insignificant 
supernumerary figure: his is a strongly drawn head; without patriarchal dignity indeed, 
but claiming respect. The shepherds and shepherdesses are in all ways people of everyday 
life: the youngest to the right, for instance, with body bent and features awry from pure 
tenderness for the sweet babe. The shepherdess with the straw hat is an ordinary young 

(1) Reynolds. Voyages, II 179. — P. Genard. Notice sur Jacques Jordaens, p. 31. 



lass posing for the pretty fresh peasant girl; and the old one next to her and contrasting 
with her is a woman from among the neighbours such as is never wanting when a visit 
is paid to a mother in childbed. They are, all of them, everyday people; neither better 
not worse than others, healthy and strong, good-looking rather than ugly, as Jordaens liked 
to see them, as he had seen them in reality and as we shall see them again in later works. 
Joseph's is the first in the line of character heads which Jordaens is to introduce to 
us in his works; the shepherd to the left with contorted face expressing his emotion, is 
the first of many whom he dissects with a certain mocking humour; the shepherdess with 

the straw hat, the first of the 
pretty young women, who pose 
for him as decorations to his 
scenes, contriving to preserve a 
calm and dignity in the midst of 
excited merry-makers. 

The execution is even more 
characteristic than are the types. 
The painting is smooth and flat, 
and has an enamelled hardness. 
There is little play of light and 
colour, little modelling in the flesh. 
The tones are high, unbroken, 
full. Mary wears a dark mantle 
over white linen; the young 
shepherd on the right a green 
coat, the one to the left a red; 
all simple colours, which lie vivid 
and full next to one another. The 
shadows are strong, the play of 
them as they flit over the faces 
is heavy and deep; the contrast 
between light and dark being 
sharply defined. It is a deliberate 
and clearly pronounced break 
with the flickering tones and tints 
... ,. in the pictures of the „Romanists," 

with the tender painting of Otto Venius and Rubens. Jordaens here declares unmistakably his 
wish to reproduce virile men in a virile manner, without softening, without impoverishment 
of form and tone. Although later he is to extenuate and to fuse, the chief impression 
conveyed by him ever remains powerful and tersely natural. 
The picture was bought in 1779 by Qustavus II of Sweden 

^,pJ, h n ere - eX1 ?f an ° the "; T Si ° n ° f thiS SUbjeCt in the P° ssession of P »»<* Lichnowsky at 
Kuchelna in Silesia, undoubtedly (though it bears no date) of the same period; with glowing 

Zv oi T' St r g " ght i 1USty figUreS ' and a solid —el-like -rfac . It is not "a 
copy of the p.cture described above; it is a second and beautiful version of the same 
subject, surpassing the first in unusually brilliant execution 

Copies by unknown hands are to be found in private collections 

THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. Drawing (Louvre, Paris). 




Drawing (Boymans Museum, Rotterdam). 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. 
Brunswick. — Jordaens frequently repeated 
his subjects. This canvas in the Museum at 
Brunswick approximates most nearly to the 
picture of 1618; it is painted in exactly the 
same style and without doubt dates from the 
same year. The composition also is for the 
greater part alike in both. Here too Mary sits 
holding the sleeping doll-like little child, 
wrapped in pale yellow linen: she presses 
it lovingly against her breast, looking down 
on it with tender eyes; but now instead of 
the housewife, heavy of build and settled in 
years, she is represented as a very sweet 
young mother, a girl almost. Of the persons 
to the right, Joseph has the same imposing 
face; here also he holds on to the cross- 
beams of the roof; the boy in front, however, 
leans on his staff. The shepherd on the left 
no longer does so, but rests on the brass 
milk-can. Here too is the young shepherdess 
with the straw hat, but the old woman is 
replaced by a shepherd boy, his hand on 

his breast. The execution is of the same manner; only, the glimmer of dusk filling the 
shadows is warmer and its play is rosy on the face of the young shepherdess, brown on 
Joseph's features. 

Closely resembling the picture in the Museum at Stockholm is a drawing in red and 
black chalk in the British Museum, London. The centre is composed of a small sheet on 
which are drawn six of the seven figures in the picture, and on strips of paper pasted 
round this centre new figures have been added. Mary sits in the middle offering the breast 
to the little child, who has wakened up. Joseph is still there grasping the woodwork of 
the roof, but stooping forward more. The shepherd to the right is taken from the picture 
at Brunswick, and from that of Stockholm is introduced his fellow on the left in the 
twisted attitude. The shepherdess with the straw hat has been replaced by one carrying 
a hen-coop on her head; the elder woman has been transferred to the left, where three 
figures have been added, — two old shepherds and a child. There are two new figures 
also on the right: an old man leading a ram and a child playing the flute. In the background 
appear the raised heads of a donkey and an ox, while in the foreground sits a large 
dog. Curiosity as before is still the spring of all these figures, but the scene is enlarged, 
the action of the figures is more marked, and their features are lighted up with a more 
lively expression. The drawing is a striking and peculiar piece of workmanship. The lines 
are laid down strong and broad: neither pen nor pencil has been used; no consideration of 
fineness has entered into the execution ; but the whole is put upon the paper in broad strokes 
and smears, and in its ruggedness is held together eloquently by its force and truth. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. Engraving by Marinus. 

There can be no 


doubt that to the early years of Jordaens belongs also the Adoration of the Shepherds 
1 o u hlgh'thl engraving of Marinas, though the picture itself has not een 
d scovered. The head of the child Jesus is still like a doll's and he is wrapped in his .mother s 
g Lent but this time sitting on her arm and looking with curiosity at the shepherds. 
Behind his little cap an aureole surrounds his head. Mary is a sweet young woman Joseph 
has become a less prominent figure. The shepherds are conceived quite differ enfly , they 
are a family, and express in a really touching way their adoration of the little Jesus. The 
man and the woman kneel before Mary. The woman's finger-tips are joined, and she looks 
at the babe with loving tenderness; the man has filled a basin of milk from the can and 
offers it to the infant. Behind these two kneeling figures appears the elder boy who 
plays on his flute in honour of the new-born child, while the younger blows upon a fire-basket 
so as to afford some heat to the Babe. In addition there are the grandmother, seen only 
from the shoulders upward; and a woman carrying a coop on her head, only one of her 
hands being visible. A softer, more intimate feeling has come into the figures, a greater 
compactness into the group ; the light falling on the scene is richer and makes greater 
play. But even from the engraving one can see that the colour is still heavy, the outline of 
the heads sharp, and the boorish element predominant. 

For this Adoration of the Shepherds Jordaens made a rapid drawing in black and 
white chalk, which belongs to the Museum of Rotterdam. The group is the same, save 
that there is an additional man's figure, and the smaller boy does not blow on the 
fire-basket. In the background, in place of the door in the engraving, is a curtain hanging 

from a pole. 

In the Delacre collection at Ghent there is a drawing which shows great similarity 
to the one just referred to. The same persons appear in it, grouped almost in the same 
way. The Babe has fallen asleep on the mother's lap. Mary's head is covered with a shawl. 

Among the property left by Rubens (Antwerp 1640) was found also a Birth of Christ, 
otherwise called the Adoration of the Shepherds, by Jordaens (No. 266 of the inventory). 
This picture necessarily belonged to the works of the master's early days. 

The Peasant and the Satyr. Engraving by Vosterman. — One of the earliest 
of Jordaens' works was the Peasant and the Satyr. Sandrart confirms this: „One of his 
„first works", he says, „was taken from the fable of Aesop in which is told how a satyr 
„made the acquaintance of a peasant in a wood and went home with him, but left again 
„because he had observed the labourer blow both hot and cold from the same mouth,— an 
..excellent picture, which was afterwards cut in copper by Lucas Vosterman." Aesop's fable 
of the „Man and the Satyr" does not really read in this manner, but as follows : „A certain 
„man made friends with a Satyr and took a meal with him. It was winter and the man 
„feeling cold put his hands to his mouth and blew upon them. When the Satyr asked him 
„why he did this, he answered: 'To warm my hands, which are cold.' When shortly after 
„this the hot dinner was served, the man blew on it, and again being asked why he did 
„so, said: 'To cool my food.' Thereupon the Satyr said, 'I will not have your friendship, for 
„you blow cold and hot from one and the same mouth.' " 

In some readings the man is pictured as a passer-by or as a pilgrim, and the satyr 
takes him to his grotto. Jordaens interprets the story in his own way. The man is a 
peasant and the scene is laid in his cottage. The painter sought and found an opportunity 
to paint a peasant's family at table, in the same way as in the Adoration of the Shepherds 


he had showed peasant folk quite otherwise occupied. For his first subject from the 
Gospels he chose field labourers at work; for his first from profane literature he picked 
out a peasant interior. 

The painter cares very little about the moral of the fable: for to him the peasant is 
not, as with Aesop, a man whom one cannot trust: he is simply a field labourer, „doing 
himself well" with his porridge dish, and enjoying his simple meal as one of the great 
pleasures of life. Later we find Jordaens glorifying the same pleasure in other circles. 
He begins with a lower class in which he observes it in all its grossness and boorishness. 
All the rest is secondary. The satyr is introduced to surprise and to afford an occasion for a 
piece of excellent painting in which he supplies a strange element in sharp contrast 
with the everyday character of the main group. 

The picture, which corresponds with the engraving of Vosterman that Sandrart mentions, 
belongs to Mr. Alfons Cels at Brussels. The peasant family are at table. The wife seated 
on the farther side, with a child on her lap, dips a spoon into a red earthen dish standing 
on the board before her. The man is seated on the left, blowing on the spoon, with which 
he has ladled porridge out of the basin in his hand. Behind him stands a maid, with a 
straw hat, one arm leaning on a wicker chair in which is seated an old woman. On the 
right stands the satyr, the upper part of his body naked, gray of hair and flowing of beard, 
his loins covered with a long-haired goatskin and a girdle of vineleaves. His hand is 
raised with a gesture appropriate to the admonition he addresses to the peasant. Under 
the table sits a dog, spotted brown and black; on the wicker chair is perched a cock. 
The picture differs from the engraving, being, as it stands, smaller both in height and in 
breadth, so that the mantelpiece behind the satyr, and a part of the arm of the peasant- 
wench to the left and of the chair on which the peasant is seated, have been cut away. 
The painter made no other alterations in his work when he gave it to the engraver to 
interpret, save that he exchanged the little child's cap for a mop of curly hair, and placed 
an iron trellis across the opening in the wall behind the maid with the straw hat. 

This picture is painted in the same manner as The Adoration of the Shepherds at 
Stockholm, the general tone, however, being browner and darker. The bright colours have 
been spread upon the canvas in broad patches, full and firm. The white tablecloth and 
the red earthen dish triumphantly hold the centre; the legs of the trestle in full sunlight 
also compete for the dominant note; the peasant in his red blouse, in one piece, in one 
brush-sweep, with his bare legs polished by the open air, and the peasant woman 
with her smooth face, fair breast and snow-white chemise, do not fall short in strength of 
tone. Brilliant is the painting of the cock perched on the coop, fresh and broad that of 
the dog below the table : two first-rate pieces of animal painting. But now Jordaens shows, 
more distinctly than in his work of 1618, that he is able to go along other roads as well. 
The satyr, the old woman, and the head of the wench have been painted in shadow. The 
goat-footed one still exhibits a want of ease in paint, and he is parchment-like in appearance ; 
but he stands outside the circle of vivid light which holds the centre of the picture, and is 
bathed in a transparent shadow in which the thousands of little wrinkles and creases of 
the skin cause movement and variations, while they refine and strengthen the expression of 
the head. The shadows fall more heavily on the features of the woman and the maid, 
but in them also life shines through the velvet darkness. The touches have become 
more exquisite; the faces shine with greater life and spirit amid the fervent glow. 

Since we find in this work a variation of the treatment of that of The Adoration of 



the Shepherds at Stockholm, we may conclude that both pictures date from about the same 
year In corroboration of this we may note that the wench with the straw hat in The Peasant 
and the Satyr is evidently painted from the same sitter as the young shepherdess with 
her head similarly covered in The Adoration of the Shepherds, and that one model has clearly 
served for the satyr in the one picture and the St. Joseph in the other. In addition the 
child on the lap of the peasant woman is most probably Jordaens' eldest daughter, Cathanna; 
she was born on the 26 th June 1617, and the child in the picture may quite well be about 
a year and a half old, as Catharina was at the time of the painting. 

It is also likely that the mother is Jordaens' wife, Catharina van Noort, whom we 
meet here for the first time. Her face is strongly characterised by the long narrow oval of 
its contour, the bulging forehead, the somewhat swollen eyes, the thick lips and protruding 

chin. It is no doubt the same figure as the 
Mary Magdalen of The Christ on the Cross 
in the Dominicans' church, in which, however, 
her hair is golden, while here it is black, 
as in the other pictures in which we find 
her. Represented as a peasant, she shows 
signs of bodily strength rather than of quick 
intelligence. She quite looks the twenty-nine 
years which she had reached in 1618. 

The Peasant and the Satyr. Budapest, 
Munich, Cassel, etc. — A second painting 
of the same subject and no doubt dating 
from the same time hangs in the Museum in 
Budapest. The composition as a whole cor- 
responds with that of the preceding picture. 
The satyr on the right has the same shape 
and lifts his hand with the same gesture; 
the young peasant woman here also sits 
behind the table with the little child on her 
lap; the peasant blowing in his hands 
occupies his same place a^the side, and the old 
woman sits in the same wicker chair with the 
cock on the top of it; the same dog sits below the table. Only, here the head of the 
peasant woman is turned to the right instead of to the left and her hand rests on the 
table instead of holding a spoon; her little child is bare-headed and has a curly shock 
of hair; the peasant wears a tasselled blue cap, which Jordaens often paints on his 
head. The young peasant wench with the straw hat is missing; her place has been taken 
by the old woman in the wicker chair. The painting is darker and coarser than in the 
previous picture. 

A third version is found in the Pinakothek at Munich. The peasant with the blue 
cap is seated in the same place and in the same attitude as in the two other pictures; 
the old woman in the wicker chair, with a cock on the top of it, sits next to him, and 
holds on her lap a child which appears a year older; the mother stands right behind 
the satyr, who is younger and is seated on a high chair. Behind the father stands a boy, 

Drawing (Mr. Fairfax Murray, London). 



beyond whom again appears a cow's head thrust forward in the direction of the group ; a dog sits 
under the table, a cat under the peasant's chair; on the table stands a common red bowl 
with porridge, and another with fruit. The painting is still smooth and solid without 
noticeable play of tints. In the lights, however, the variation is richer; in the back-ground 
towards the left a brownish glow predominates; to the right a heavy dark shadow. The 
flesh of the satyr is brown, working into heavier tones on his side; that of the peasant 
is lighter brown; rosy fair that of the woman and child. This child makes the centre of 
the scene, and is decidedly charming. 

The fourth and the most remarkable of these early examples of the Peasant and the 
Satyr is that which the Museum at Cassel possesses (No. 101, formerly No. 266). Here the 
peasant is seated on the 
farther side of the table 
eating porridge, with the 
peasant woman, her child on 
her lap, at his right; and 
the satyr on a high chair 
to his left. Between him and 
the satyr stands a little boy 
with another dish of por- 
ridge in front of him. Behind 
the couple at the table stand 
an old peasant woman (who 
here wears the pointed straw 
hat) and a young labourer 
with the blue tufted cap on 
his head. Under the chair 
of the satyr sits a cat. 

The painting in this 
work is as firm, the colour 
as brilliant as in the others; 
the high strong notes are 
struck in the white linen 
tablecloth, the red dress and 

blue skirt of the woman, the thick light-yellow blanket in which her child is wrapped, the 
two red porridge dishes on the table. There are found, on the other hand, the softer 
hues of the fat, wrinkled body of the satyr, the hands and bare feet of the peasant woman, 
her fairer head and breast, all of which have been painted with the utmost care and with 
an astonishing art. This satyr is one of Jordaens' masterly figures; all turn to him; 
he is now the centre of the action, and the artist has certainly made him worthy of the 
attention which he exacts. The painter with much gusto reveals for us the mind of this half- 
human creature; it has been a delight to him too to contemplate and admire his giant body. 
When the goat-legged one observes the labourer at his ambiguous exercise his simple 
mind rebels; he lifts his arms with an air of reproach, and lets his body sink backwards, 
his chin on his chest; he fixes his eyes on the equivocal mouth with a gesture that is 
strikingly eloquent. The satyr's head is such as one can imagine upon a bushman, heavily 
built, deeply wrinkled, with tangled hair and beard ; the body is massive, heavily furrowed 

THE PEASANT AND THE SATYR (Pinakothek, Munich). 



by the sharp folds of the skin ; the arms are fat and muscular. But on this coarsely built 
body light and .shadow make beautiful play: the head is shrouded in heavy shadow, 
searched by a warm glow, with sunny touches on the edges of the wrinkles,, on the 
fringes of the beard, on the coils of the hair, on the crown of leaves which encircles his 
head. On the breast falls a powerful, full light, through which the shadows flow over the 
gentle curves and slight unevenesses of the skin; on arms and hands, again, light and 
dark are in stronger opposition. It is a picture of the struggle, or rather of the compact, 
between light and shadow. 

The head of the old peasant woman also is remarkable, coming up more quietly and 
gently out of the sombre, melting glow. The fresh, sweet boy's head roguishly peeps 
from among these luminous figures, the face without shadow and without care. The cat 
beneath the chair of the satyr is a little gem of animal painting. Altogether here we have 
a masterpiece, the first of Jordaens' pictures of which we can say as much ; but though the 
progress in the painter is most noticeable in it, we are convinced, from the heavy shadows 
and the sharp contrast of light and shade, that it is one of the earlier works of Jordaens, 
painted in or shortly after 1620. 

Considerable likeness to this composition is discovered in a picture which we 
know through an engraving by Jacob Neefs. The peasant woman with the child and the 
porridge-eating man are the same, and here also the satyr sits on a high chair. His gesture 
however is different. He is represented as persuasive towards the peasant, anxious to make 
him understand the reason of his distrust. An old woman is pouring milk into a dish 
which stands in front of the satyr. A cock is perched on a loose shutter, and the dog from 
the earliest version sits under the table. A new figure has made an appearance. Behind 
the porridge-eater stands a second peasant who wears the familiar tasselled cap; he is 
playing the fool, laughing half idiotically, putting out his tongue, and allowing the porridge 
to trickle down his chin. He is the earliest comic figure that we meet with in Jordaens' 
work. For the first time also the furniture in the peasant interior is rendered with some 
detail: the kettle hangs above the blazing fire in the open hearth; from the mantelshelf is 
suspended a string of onions; cans are hanging against the wall; on the mantelshelf stands 
the candlestick and in the rack are plates and other crockery. We know this composition 
also through a small picture (very possibly a repetition of the bigger one which Neefs 
engraved) in the possession of Mr. Leo Janssen at Brussels. 

There is a picture in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg which repeats the same scene, 
with the variation that the old woman no longer pours out milk for the satyr, but instead 
is listening attentively to what he says; and that a red dish, not the dog as in the 
engraving, is under the table. 

There is no doubt that Jordaens caused The Peasant and The Satyr to be painted 
frequently by his assistants or pupils. As a rule they followed his figures and accessories, 
made a few slight alterations, and painted the whole in the style ot the master, who kept 
an eye on them as they worked. A picture of this kind is owned by Ridder de Wouters 
d'Oplmter at Brussels. The peasant is seated at the farther side of the table with his legs 
crossed below it, and the satyr also has drawn up to the table in front of a porridge dish. 
The last is the most striking element in the composition. We find in the picture in addition 
the woman with her child on her lap and behind her a second little child; behind the 
peasant is an old peasant-woman with a pointed straw hat, and a young peasant. Between 
the peasant and the satyr we notice a second child's head. The general tone is ruddy- 



brown, without great radiance. The light is tempered over the group of the satyr and the 
peasant; it falls full and warm on the peasant-woman. It is a respectable example of jordaens' 
style, too good to be made by a pupil alone, not bearing the master's stamp strikingly 
enough to prove itself by his hand; a picture, in fact, which most likely came into existence 
through collaboration of master and pupil. 

The Peasant and the Satyr in the Museum at Cassel (No. 102, formerly 93) is another 
example of a p 1C ture thoroughly in Jordaens' style, though not by his hand. This also is 
undoubtedly a school picture. 

in a 

Jordaens' place among the Painters of his time. - Thus five times at least 

short period Jordaens painted The Peasant and the Satyr, showing that the subject possessed 

an unusual attraction for him ; we may say that in those pictures he found his true way 

and fixed his individual style. In this style, individual though it was, there are to be found 

in combination the two currents dominant in the period immediately preceding that of 

himself and his contemporaries. In the sixteenth century a section of the Flemish school, 

the Antwerpers in particular, aimed at observing and rendering the actuality of everyday life! 

Quentin Matsys (14609-1530) had begun it. The diggers in the right-hand shutter of his 

Laying in the Grave, his Goldweigher (Louvre), his Receiver of Taxes (Antwerp) were 

burghers such as he saw at work around him. Jan van Hemissen (1504—1556), 

Pieter Aertszen (1508—1573), Pieter Huys (1519—1581), Joachim De Beuckelaer (1540—1573) 

painted men and scenes from everyday life. Hieronymus Bosch (1460?— 1516) combined 

the monsters of his imagination with the realities of his observation. Pieter Breughel the 

Elder (15209—1569) was Bosch's chief follower, but with him there is less of the fantastic 

element, and he finds his principal material in the manners and customs of peasant 

and burgher. All these artists, to whom we may add Cornelis Matsys, a son of Quentin, 

Marinus van Roemerswael, and Lucas van Leyden, remained independent of Italian influence, 

Their figures are generally of modest dimension, in full, vivid tones and sharp in outline. 

They loved their people, found their doings and dealings picturesque, and though their 

heroes were not of a classic beauty, yet they discovered in them lines and contours, 

more characteristic than the academic conventions, and sufficiently rich in tint and tone 

to offer material for vigorous representations, full of colour. 

With these there existed many „ Romanists", who had been to school across the Alps, 

and had come to consider their own country and its people too common to be immortalized 

on their canvases. They delighted only in noble figures engaged in heroic action, cosmopolitan 

figures, with statuesque form, in costumes suitable to any age and any place, in surroundings 

without characteristics of country or race. They were artists of the school rather than of life, 

of the general than of the particular, of the beautiful rather than of the true. They liked to 

paint on large canvases in agreeable, harmonious colours, with charming reflections and 

surprising effects of light. Here in Flanders they had first made their appearance with Jan 

Gossaert van Mabuse (14707—1541) and Barend van Orley (1488?— 1541), and had with 

Frans Floris (1518—1570), with the Franckens, and Marten de Vos, become masters of 

Antwerp. In Rubens the school reached its zenith and its goal ; in the place of its prerogative 

he established his personal authority, which was respected throughout the seventeenth century. 

In his earliest works especially Jordaens remained faithful to the realistic school of the 

XVI th century. Like all its disciples he chose for his subjects scenes from the life of the people, 

men of sharply marked features, occupied with the affairs of daily life ; in the same way as 


Quentin Matsys had painted workers, usurers, and elderly lovers boers or burghers; and 
as old Pieter Breughel had reproduced peasant men and women feastmg or guzzhng at the 
festive board, jordaens is the genius of the rich kitchen, of noisy gluttonous parties of 
mouths agape for song or drink, of downy cheeks delightful to kiss, of buxom bod,es 

indefatigable in frolic. 

He sought his models among the people about him, and for them forsook the doll-like 
heads, sweetly tinted, regularly pretty, of Marten De Vos, the academic features of Frans 


Floris, the insipid figures of the „Romanists". He adopted neither Rubens' dramatic Roman- 
heroic type of men, nor his ripe, plump seductive women figures. Nor did he fall 
into the other extreme and follow the elder Breughel and van Hemissen in their wooden 
and grimacing figures. He did not select models remarkable on the one hand for beauty 
or on the other for vulgarity. His types are ordinary, burgherly; he represents them as 
roguish, distorted, clod-pated, as it suits him ; when in more dignified r61es, however, they 
assume a classic symmetry. He favours heads with a long oval, protruding chin and 
jawbones, eyebrows wide apart; his characters consort better with scenes of home life than 
with tragic episodes proceeding from violent passions. 



Like his predecessors he elected to paint the manners and customs of peasants and 
burghers, in strong solid colour; he was infatuated with vivid tones, — full reds that shine 
and leap forth from a sombre background, brilliant white that lights up a whole canvas. 
This love he had inherited from the old pure Flemings, from Quentin Matsys, from 
Marinus van Roemerswael, from the elder Breughel. As in theirs so in his early works, no 
tone was too powerful, no light too vivid for the presentation of robust figures in all their 
strength. But he was a son of the seventeenth century as well; from the first he brushed 
his secular scenes as well as his religious in a grand and broad manner, the figures 
life-size, lusty in limbs, free in gesture. Gradually he comes more under the powerful influence 
of Rubens with his irresis- 
table charm; then, as we 
shall see later, he paints reli- 
gious and mythological can- 
vases of courtly splendour, 
with glowing light and colour 
effects, and scenes from the 
life of the people, full of vital 
strength and joy of life, with 
the same brilliance of tones 
and freedom of action. But 
he remains ever the keen 
humorous observer of every- 
day realities, the friend of 
his countrymen, the sappy 
chronicler of the manners 
and customs of his fellow 
citizens. Over the scenes of 
that humble world he lets 
his frank laugh resound and 
his glowing colour play. He 
isolates these homely joys 
and social gatherings so that 
they become important events 
and great ceremonies; he is 
the epic painter of the plea- 
sures and carousals of the 
Flemish burghers; and thus 

it was he who welded the realistic painting of the people, which lived through the whole 
of the XVI th century, with the Italianised art, which had arisen beside it and rivalled it 
and in the beginning of the XVIII th century overruled it completely. 

Christ in the Garden of Olives and Judas's betrayal. - Immediately following his 

mention of The Peasant and the Satyr, one of Jordaens' first works, engraved by Voster- 

man, Sandrart makes reference to a „Christ in the Garden of Olives, how he is 

betrayed by Judas's kiss and after that attacked with fury by a band of jews, bound and 

"pulled down while Peter throws the lantern-bearer Malchus on the ground and deals him 



v " T 

If \ y-j |V 

v p< ^ 




r ; 


li 7 

(Museum, New York). 


furious blows, everything represented during the night with wonderful mastery". Of this 
picture we know neither what has become of it, nor whether it really belonged to Jordaens' 
early period. In 1779 a Betrayal of Judas by Jordaens, measuring 4 feet 8 inches in height 
and 3 feet 9 inches in width was sold in St. Jorishof at Brussels. The picture only brought 
7 guilders. In the library of the royal gallery at Copenhagen there is a sketch (46.5 cm. 
in height and 68 cm. in width) which dame from the castle of Fredenborg, representing 
the scene from the Gospels described by Sandrart. To the right, slightly elevated above 
the other figures, is Judas, kissing Christ; Malchus lies on the ground; Peter kneels beside 
him and angrily lifts the sword with which he is going to cut off his ear. To the left 
is a crowd of onlookers watching the betrayal. Very probably this is a first sketch for the 
lost picture. 

The Holy Family. — The Holy Family in the Museum at Schleissheim indubitably 
belongs to this first period of the master. Our Lady is represented as unusually young; 
she is stooping and holding the infant Christ with both hands; the child lifts up his little 
hand and looks roguishly aside; her hair is drawn back, and a wide red cloak envelopes 
her entire figure. To the left we see St. John with his lamb, and St. Anna in a hoodless 
wicker chair. St. Joseph sits on a wooden chair, resting his right hand on the top of that 
in which St. Anna is seated. The eyes of all are on mother and child. The painting is 
characteristic of Jordaens' earliest manner ; the colours lie smoothly, with hard reflections on 
Mary's red garment, on the child, and on Anna's white head-kerchief. The pale blue 
drapery of Joseph and the bright yellow wall to the left also aid in making the cool 
luminous tone predominant. 

The Holy Family in the Museum at New York is closely related with that in the 
Museum at Schleissheim. The group of Mary and the child, St. Joseph and St. Anna is 
identical in both. There are added to this group a St. Elisabeth, holding the little John on 
the back of the lamb, and, to the left, two men figures, St. Joachim and St. Zacharias. The 
child Jesus stands on a globe and tramples upon the snake which lies coiled upon it. 
Under the globe we see a cartouche on which we read : Radix sancta et Rami. Rom. II. 16. 

Not only has the composition become richer in figures, but the grouping also is more 
artistic and happy. It is a very homely family scene : the elders in it are finding a genial and 
burgherly pleasure in watching the children at their play. The infant Jesus is represented with 
his shirt drawn up about him; this is not dignified treatment; it is one of those voluntary or 
involuntary vulgarities of which Jordaens is guilty more than once, and here not made less 
noticeable by the unfortunate choice of the pedestal on which the little Jesus has been 
placed. Notwithstanding this, there is expressed, in the loving attention which all pay the 
divine child, a feeling of adoration, which communicates to the little family circle a certain 
sanctity and elevates it above everyday life. 

The supposition that this picture dates from the same time as the other Holy Family 
is confirmed by the figure of St. Joseph, who is painted from the same model in both: an 
old man with a full beard, a bald head and a sharp nose. 

To this part of his artistic career belong, so far as we know them, several other 
Holy Families painted by Jordaens, in which the figures, though not completely corre- 
sponding with those of the pictures mentioned above, show a similar conception. 
This is the case with the Holy Family in the Museum at Dublin, where the child 
Jesus, crowned with flowers, is holding in his hand a string of pearls. Mary carries 


her little son on her arm; behind her stand- St. Joseph and St. Anna and a tall 
angel. A picture of similar composition belonging to Mr. S. Flood Page was exhibited 
at the Winter Exhibition of the Royal Academy, 1892; another example of the same 
appeared at the Anguiot sale (Paris, 1875), and was offered for purchase to the writer 
by Mr. L. Souillie at Paris; a third appeared at the Verellen sale (Antwerp, 1856); a fourth 
is in the Museum at Lille. 

The Holy Family. Brunswick. — Quite different is the conception of the Holy Family 
in the picture in the Museum at Brunswick. Our Lady is on one knee, amidst a landscape, 
supporting the upright baby under its arms. St. Joseph, a lily in his hand, stands to 
the right and takes the little one's arm as if inviting him to go with him for a walk. Over 
the child hovers the Holy Ghost, while above Joseph's head four little angels are holding 
a crown and a palm-branch. God the Father sits enthroned on high amidst the clouds. Though 
mention is made of two other pictures of similar composition,— the one by Mensaert and 
Descamps as being in the XVIII th century in the Church of St. Catharine at Mechlin; and 
the other in the Catalogue of pictures which had belonged to the closed convents and were 
sold at Brussels in 1785, one of which appears once more at the sale Lebrun (Paris),— we 
cannot agree about their attribution to Jordaens. None of the figures has a distinct Jordaens 
character. The garment of Mary with its soft reflections, the angels in the sky with their 
sticky curled hair and chubby rounded bodies, the nebulous God the Father, in no way 
remind us of our powerful painter. St. Joseph, a heavily built figure with long, dark brown 
hair, and deeply shadowed skin, approximates nearer to his style; but his goody-goody 
expression, the lily in his hand, the crown above his head are so insipid in conception that 
any earlier inclination to agree with the general opinion vanishes forthwith. 

A picture which bears much similarity with that in the Museum at Brunswick is a 
Holy Family which is found in the Museum at Ghent, and belongs to Mr. Scribe. Here 
also we see the three persons of the Holy Family. St. Joseph holds a palm-branch like a 
walking-stick in his hand, Our Lady is seated with the child on her lap and wears a hat 
trimmed on the underside with lining on which is a wheel-shaped pattern; in the sky are 
floating little angels, holding a crown above the head of St. Joseph. The similarity is striking, 
the models are the same, but the painting is dark brown in the shadow; notwithstanding 
its real merit, the most marked characteristics of Jordaens' hand are wanting. The Louvre 
possesses a drawing of this picture, as doubtful a Jordaens as the painting. 

The Four Evangelists. Louvre. — One of the most remarkable pictures of Jordaens' 
earliest period is the Four Evangelists in the Louvre. All four stand erect, and are seen only to 
the knees; and all fix their eyes upon the book which lies open on a table. A glimpse of 
sky shows in the background behind the red drapery which chiefly occupies it. The 
Evangelist on the left is wrapped in a tawny cloak; the crown of his head is bald, his, 
hair black, his beard gray. His right hand is held to his beard, giving support to his 
head; his left arm leans on the shoulder of the younger figure at his side. This second 
evangelist is draped completely in white; his hands are crossed over his breast, the 
forefinger of one of them touching his chin; long brown hair waves round his youthful 
head. The third, of whom only the face is seen, has short gray hair and a gray beard; 
he leans with one lifted hand against the wall-hangings. The fourth on the extreme right 
is draped in a dark, lilac-coloured garment, edged with fur; with the left hand he holds 



a •„ h, r \aM hand a oen, with which he is about to write; 

: sxzxzt zz"ri^, — - - - - -- 

'" CrellsftT painting is remarkable for its firmness, and for the sharpness of the 
„„es «h wrinkles and of the strands of the hair, and the angularity with which the 
drapery fall . The painter throughout is the glorifier of strength; the bold and ev re 
coourTst who dares to exhibit in the fore-front the broad white drap ry of die 
young Evangelist, and is sufficiently confident of his ability to make the neutral and darker 
colours of fhe other fabrics harmonise with it. The tone differs from some o lus former 
pieces in the abundance of its warmth and brightness, and by the mefing ^ .rans.f.on of 

the various gradations. The light flows in 
a broad stream, falling strongly on the 
white projected figure, quietly glowing with 
half force on the yellow brown drapery 
to the left, falling cooler on the darker one 
to the right, and decreasing gradually, 
without bold leap or violent shock. 

And in this work Jordaens discovers 
another side of himself: as a painter of 
character-heads, as a reader of the human 
soul. The four Evangelists are all medita- 
tive, deliberative, stubborn men; three of 
them are browned by the sun, wrinkled by 
hard labour as by years, not intellectual, 
but men who take their mission seriously, 
in the same way as earlier they had applied 
themselves to their trade, and who exert 
themselves to fulfil worthily their new and 
nobler office. All are looking upon the 
great book circumspectly: they wish to 
learn before they instruct. The two in front 
are completely lost in their study and 
thoughts; the younger brings a finger to 
his chin; the elder grasps his beard as if 
he wished to force his head to attention; 
the gray figure in the background is slower 
of wits, the exertion of thought costs him more trouble; after quiet consideration, 
it dawns upon his mind what he has to learn. The last Evangelist, the writer, divides 
his attention between the contents of the book out of which he is learning, and what 
he will write in the book where he notes that which he must teach others; his attenion 
is strained, his expression bright as in one who is excited with anxiety to understand 
exactly and to render precisely. 

The supposition that the four Evangelists belong to Jordaens' earliest works, which 
were executed in the early twenties, is not confirmed only by the style of the painting; 
there are other more material proofs. The Evangelist with the gray hair is St. Joseph from 
the Adoration of the Shepherds at Stockholm; the figure in both pictures has the same 

(Museum, New York). 



features and in both leans with uplifted hand against the upper wall-hangings. Besides, the 
picture is one of the first of Jordaens of which we find mention in any document. 
Among the property left by Pieter Lastman at Amsterdam the Four Evangelists as well 
as a copy of it was found. (1) This copy no doubt is the picture now in possession 
of Mr. Eberhard Clemens at Hamburg. Another copy belongs to Lord Hardwick 
at Wimpole.(2) A third copy is in the choir of the Church of St. John at Mechlin; a fourth 
in the convent of the Jesuits at Tournay. The last has this peculiarity, that while the 
others in style and colour are wholly of Jordaens' early time, this is painted in the tone 
of his later years, with dark and heavy 
shadows, and flowing paint: one would 
say it is one of the early works of the 
master reinterpreted by himself or 
painted by a pupil about 1660, in 
the style which our painter had then 

One of these copies (according to 
the catalogue of the Louvre the original 
work) was engraved by John Dean in 
1776 when it was in possession of 
V. M. Picot, and was at that time 
attributed to Rubens and Jordaens. 

In the Von Speck collection (Leipsic, 
1827) there was a picture by Jordaens, 
„Four evangelists with an angel behind 
one of them". 

The picture in the Louvre appeared 
at the Philip van Dyck sale (The Hague, 
1753) and afterwards belonged to Louis 
XVI of France. (3) In several places, 
such as the Museums at Brussels, Ghent, 
Caen, and in certain private collections, 
we find figures probably painted as 
studies for his Evangelists; the figures 
in the Abraham and Isaac (so-called) 
in the Museum at Hamburg are of the 
same nature. Similar figures appear as Job, as the mourning Peter, or as studies for Apostles. 

Jordaens had a predecessor in the painting of this subject, who was at the same time 
related to him in his art, to wit Joachim De Beuckelaer. The Museum in Dresden 
possesses a picture by him representing the Four Evangelists: three of them are writing, 
the fourth raises his hand. Neither in composition nor in the attitude of the figures do the 

THE HOLY FAMILY (Mr. Delacre, Ghent). 

(1) A BRED.US and Mr. N. DE ROEVER. Inventory of works of art, belonging to Pieter Lastman at Amsterdam, made on 
the 7th of iu^ 1632 (Oud-Holland .V, 15): „4 Evangelists by Jac. Jordaens. - 4 Evangehsts. Copy by Jordaens." 

'^^^J^^V^^^TZJ^^^^ Bvangelis/ who so familiarly lays his arm on his 
neighbour's shoulder, should be meant for the 12 years old Christ. 


two pictures correspond ; the realistic character of De Beuckelaer's work is the only feature 
which we find similar in Jordaens. The younger man certainly works in the same manner as 
his predecessor, but his figures are different and he has also more strength of expression, 
and more solidity of colour. 

Democritus and Heraclitus. — The Democritus and Heraclitus in the Museum at 
Brunswick offers more than one point of similarity with the Four Evangelists. The group 
consists of a fat, well-favoured old man who leans with his right elbow on the globe on which 
also his left hand rests. His heavy powerful trunk is naked, a violet-blue drapery covers one 
of his shoulders. This is Heraclitus discontented with the way of the world ; he makes a wry 
face and looks low-spiritedly askance. Face and hands are brown in tone; a warm light 
falls on his right arm and shoulder. Democritus leans with his left arm on Heraclitus' 
shoulder, and rests his open right hand upon the globe as if he sought to explain to 
mankind his optimistic outlook upon life. He smiles, pleased with his own conception, 
and mocks at the pessimism of his confrere. He has curly hair, and a short beard; the 
furrow in his cheek caused by his laugh is hard and deep as a crevice. The fat man has 
been painted with care, but as a whole not with much strength or spirit; the shadows are 
unusually heavy. In all probability the picture was painted before The Four Evangelists, when 
Jordaens' talent was not yet ripe. The figure of Democritus reminds one strikingly of the 
model who sat for the Evangelist with the curly hair, in the same way as Heraclitus 
reminds us of the Evangelist with the bald crown and the hand on his beard. Jordaens 
wished to paint two strongly characterised heads; his intention is quite plain; but when it 
came to execution, he failed to produce a masterpiece. 

The Museum in New York possesses a second example of the same group ; this appeared 
at a sale at the Hague, on the 3 d of May 1729. In 1855 it belonged to P. A. Verlinden 
at Antwerp, who sent it in that year to the Exhibition of Old Masters. It was sold at 
Edouard Verbruggen's in Antwerp in 1868. 

At a sale held in Brussels, on the 25 th March 1849, appeared a „Democritus and 
Heraclitus explaining their systems to the multitude". 

Moses striking water from the Rock. Karlsruhe. - Already in his earliest period 
Jordaens dared to venture on Scriptural scenes of larger dimensions with numerous 
figures. We know two of this kind: Moses striking water from the rock, which is in the 
Museum at Karlsruhe; and The Diciples at Christ's Grave, in Dresden. Both pictures have 
something characteristic: they represent the scene fragmentarily only. In the first we do 
not see the rock which Moses strikes, nor the water which springs forth from it; in the 
second we do not see the grave of Christ which the diciples have come to visit. In both 
pictures the figures are turned to the invisible part of the scene; in the first they are 
all to the right, in he second all to the left, an arrangement which is also noticeable to a 
certain extent in The Four Evangelists. In all of these pictures Jordaens wished to paint a 
group of men agitated by the same thought, and to express this thought, not in a single 
figure or ma few, but by a whole group moved by the same emot on and showing 

as ' fa rlT' ^ ° f ?! gr ° UPS h3S bCen C ° mp0Sed in a ™^y -" 
forward He ,h P ° h 10 » ° f *** "*"" * COnCerned J 0rdaens has ™de a great tride 
stov wh0 t,! T V 1 * 5 * W ° rkS a ^ artist -^ renews the conception of 
history, who boldly takes a slice out of life, not understanding everything of the event, 


yet choosing that in it which grips one most, the essentially human element in it, which 
he expresses with fearless daring. 

In the picture in the Museum at Karlsruhe Moses stands to the right of a rock of 
which only the side is visible, with a fixed upward look, urgently invoking the Almighty, 
in the ecstasy of faith in his success, — the figure of a true exorcist. Behind him presses 
the multitude, moved by more worldly cares, anxiously awaiting the promised spring. In 
front a boy, quite naked, with his back to us, raising one hand while the other rests 
on his father's arm; then the father crouching, a green drapery only round his waist, 
holding a cow by a rope. Behind these two are a young man and an old woman, whose 
head only is visible. In the centre an old and venerable man, clad in red drapery, evidently 
a priest, extends his hand with a supplicating gesture, while he turns his worn face 
upwards with pained anxiety. More to the left a young man, the upper part of the 
body naked, raises his arm and with wide-open mouth cries out in his sufferings; a 
weeping child is held up by two hands belonging to an otherwise invisible figure, and a 
laughing infant is carried on its mother's arm. Also to the left we notice two heavy 
heads of cattle and a dog jumping up at the erect young man; in the right-hand 
corner two sheep; on the ground is a brass can, and at the top are three others the 
bearers of which are invisible. 

The picture has a very peculiar aspect, and looks as if it had been painted yesterday. 
It is clear and loud of tone, as no other work of Jordaens is; the pale lilac-coloured 
garment of Moses is found nowhere else in his pictures; the nude flesh of the boy and 
that of his father and of the man who stands erect, have a hard glow, and their outlines 
are sharp, as if cut with a knife. The light is vivid and of a fierce whiteness; the cattle 
heads also are hard, with a strange fresh reflection, and dull gray tones. Other parts have 
been indifferently treated, or are worn, as for instance the lambs' heads, the two heads 
in the background and the frisking dog. Some of the arms and legs have been attached 
to the figures in such a peculiar way, that we have some difficulty in saying to which they 
belong. There is no reason to doubt that the picture was retouched very early, especially in 
the lights. Another curious fact is that the models are not those from whom Jordaens 
usually painted. The Moses, the central figure, is to be found in no other picture; and 
so with the others, — so far as we can distinguish their features, they are as unfamiliar. 

On the other hand it is certain that the picture is by Jordaens, and belongs to his 
early period. The manner of painting the naked backs with their knotty muscles, and the 
peculiar undulations and swellings of the necks, the mastery in execution of the cattle heads, 
the faces of the laughing and the crying child, are certain evidence that it is his. The contorted 
neck and the twisted features of the young man we have already seen in The Adoration 
of the Shepherds at Stockholm. We find here for the first time the naked backs and breasts 
which he loved to paint in pictures of later years as so many large reflectors of sunny 
brightness. Here, too, for the first time animals take a prominent place in his scene, and 
prepare us for his becoming the chief among painters of large and small quadrupeds 
and birds. All the painting, so far as we can still distinguish it with certainty after the 
renovations which the picture has undergone, is undoubtedly by his own hand and of his 
early years. Masterly passages are to be found in this work : the head of Moses, the heads 
of the two children, and those of the animals are so vigorously and choicely painted that one 
does not dream for a moment of ascribing it to any other hand. The picture is a transition 
between his earliest representations of The Peasant and the Satyr and his Fertility in 


the Museum at Brusse.s and must Have b een paint. in the years .med .j^im 
Another example of the same subjec belong conception, 

never been exhibited. The composition oMluspict^ shows y ^ 

At the right-hand side Moses and Aaron stand on a neignt again 

, f + a , Tohr.vah sits enthroned upon a rainbow that arcnes tne 

which spring four jets of water. Jehovah " te J^ J ye en> women ^ children 
rock. All the people come rushing forward to refresh themselves . c , . 

fill the ravine; mothers carrying their little ones, a young man his aged J^^™^* 
from thirst, and express their suffering with eloquence. They carry pitchers and vends 
varls o t s . Cattle" of all kinds, - horses, camels, oxen, cows asses, sheep and g a s - 
are being led along. It is too crowded a composition, though a happy subject for the 
* animal painter. As far as execution goes it 

is not of great value, and is not by Jordaens 
at all, but by one of his pupils. 

The Disciples at Christ's Grave. 
Dresden. — The other picture derived from 
the Scriptures and related to the previous 
one, though less successful, is, as we said, 
the Disciples at Christ's grave in the Museum 
at Dresden. The six figures, four women and 
two men, all turn towards the left, where they 
(but not we) see the grave of the risen Christ. 
Only the front of the tomb, the side of the 
rock in which the grave has been cut, and the 
white shroud hanging before the cavity, are 
shown to us. Jordaens wished to represent 
the attention and astonishment felt by all his 
characters at the same time but expressed 
by them in different ways. Joseph of Arimathea 
full of emotion stretches forth his hands; 
he stoops over the grave in the attitude of 
one who cannot believe his eyes; Mary Magdalen, who is seated, her thin garment wide- 
spread about her, and with ample gesture and draperies occupies almost the whole of the 
foreground, stretches forth her hands as she turns towards John demanding an explanation 
of this miracle. John, who is standing behind her, draped in a scarlet cloak, his bare 
left leg forward, answers her. Mary, whose head only is visible, wrapped in a dark blue 
hood, and a young woman carrying an ointment-jar, look on, motionless and thoughtful. 
An old woman carrying a candle gives her full attention to Joseph of Arimathea, her 
husband or her master, impressed by his great astonishment. 

The picture no doubt belongs to the first period of the painter and displays a striking 
relationship with several other works of the same years. Mary Magdalen is a little loud in 
dress and gesture, as we also found her in the Mount Calvary in the Preekheeren Church 
at Antwerp; the St. John is the same figure as the youngest of the Four Evangelists in 
the Louvre, even as the Joseph of Arimathea repeats another of them: the model who sat 
for the latter had a peculiar deformity of the left ear, the upper edge of which was turned 
down at right angles and protruded in a point against the temples. The painting too 

(Museum, Karlsruhe). 



corresponds with that of the earliest works: the arms and hands of the Magdalen and 
the bare leg of John are dark brown ; other figures are almost black, as, for example, 
the old woman with the candle and Joseph of Arimathea; neither lights nor shadows are 
transparent; everything is hard. The artist's hand is still insufficiently trained; his taste is 
still unrefined ; his Magdalen is declamatory and his romantic John still suggests an older 
school. I surmise that the picture must date from about 1617. Jordaens even then had 
a personal conception of art, as is shown by the Joseph of Arimathea here, who so 
suddenly throws himself forward, his hands extended as if wishing to feel that which he 
sees; and in the same way by the old woman with the bit of candle in her hand, a genuine 
homely figure, less concerned about the 
miracle than with the strange occupation of 
her master. 

By 1783 the picture formed part of the 
collection of the Kings of Saxony, and was 
then catalogued by Guarienti as one of the 
finest works of Jordaens. In 1734 it was put 
up for sale with the works left by the artist, 
and is referred to in the catalogue (under 
No. 96) as the „Women at Christ's Grave 
very delightful and elaborated, 7 feet 4| in. 
high, 5 feet 1 in. wide." At the sale it brought 
155 guilders. (1) In the Print-room at Berlin 
there is a drawing of this composition by 
Jordaens; it was bought at the sale of Adolf 
van Beckerath (Berlin, 1901). 

Mythological pictures. — In these years 
also, Jordaens treated mythological subjects. 

The earliest picture of this kind is the 
Offering to Pomona in the Museum at Madrid. 
The Goddess to whom offering is rendered is 
not a statue but a living woman, wrapped in 
red drapery, her head crowned with ears of 
corn and in her hands a horn of plenty. 
Before her kneels a boy dressed in a dark 

brown smock and light yellow trousers. Fruit lies on the ground before him. A woman 
in red holding a child on her arm invokes the goddess; next to her stands a copper 
milk-can, and the head of another child is visible. On the right again are an old woman 
with sunburnt face, a shepherd with his staff in his hand, two women holding milk-cans 
on their heads, a third with a straw hat, and finally three shepherds. Next to Pomona, 
to. the left, are seen two cows; in the background a white curtain, and a blue sky with 
white clouds. 

The picture bears the strong impress of Jordaens. It is a scene from peasant life that 
he represents ; the characters have been supplied by the world which gave him his figures 

(Museum, Dresden). 

(1) Catalogue or list of titles of pictures, by Gerard Hoet. Catalogue of pictures by Jacques Jordaens, sold on the 22nd March 
1734 in the Hague. Vol. I. pp. 400-406. 



for the Adoration of the Shepherds: the mother with the child is the peasant woman in 
the oldest versions of the Peasant and the Satyr; the old peasant close to Pomona has an 
Evangelist's head; the two milk-cans and the pointed straw hat are part of Jordaens' usual 
furniture. The painting is firm, almost hard, with passages of full, vivid colours, principally 
red and white; the contrast of fair and brown flesh, of heavy black and pale transparent 
shadow, is sharp. The figures are rather wooden, without elegance of form or attitude. The 
work is undoubtedly to be considered, not only as the earliest of his mythological pictures, 
but also as one of the first of all his works, and must date from about 1618. 

In these early days also he painted Meleager and Atalanta. We know two renderings 
of this subject. The first belongs to Mr. Karel Madsen at Copenhagen. In it the broad, 
powerful woman from the earliest -examples of the Peasant and the Satyr sits in the centre 
of the group with a boar's head on her lap. The young, not less powerfully built and 
flatly painted Meleager stands next to her. To the right are three men, one of whom rests 
his hand on Atalanta's shoulder. Of a fourth person we see only two outstretched hands. 
We notice in the foreground the heads of two hunting dogs. The picture is remarkable 
for its powerful colouring ; the touches on the clear flesh of Meleager and Atalanta are broadly 
laid on; of a striking variety are the three hunters, the one of a glowing brown with the blue 
cap so often used by Jordaens, the other with a magnificent, fine silvery head, the third 
in a red garment of much darker hue. Masterly are the powerful boar's head and the two 
dogs. There is no doubt that the picture was painted about 1620; the same model served 
for Meleager as for the youngest of the shepherds in the Adoration of the Shepherds 
at Stockholm. 

Several years afterwards, and very likely about 1628, Jordaens painted his second 
Meleager and Atalanta, which is in the Museum at Madrid. To the right sits Atalanta, 
undraped as to one of her arms, one of her breasts, and both her legs below the knees. Red 
and yellow drapery is thrown round her waist. With one hand she holds a bow; the other 
rests on the right hand of Meleager, which grasps the hilt of a sword. He is naked to the 
waist; and turns his head to the right. From that direction are approaching three men, one 
of whom carries the heavy boar's head which Meleager desires to present to Atalanta. To 
the left are four hunters on foot, who with great rejoicing hail the bearers of the trophy 
of the hunt; towering above them are two hunters on horseback, lance in hand. Five 
hunting dogs crowd round Meleager. In the background we notice the blue sky, slightly 
clouded, and a little foliage. 

The bodies of Meleager and Atalanta are in good, clear light with dark shadows: she 
soft of limb, he with firmly-built chest and heavy muscles in the neck. Both are the same 
models as in the preceding picture, but of rather less heavy build and severe colouring. Of 
the men at the left, he who is nearest the frame has the same unmistakeable gray curly 
head and sinewy neck of one of the Four Evangelists. For the rest the picture has nothing 
characteristic of Jordaens. The man who lifts his arms has the brownish dull tone and the 
knotted back of one of the figures in the St. Martin of 1630. The animals are quite in 
Jordaens' style, the dappled horse being the same as that in the St. Apollonia. It is not a 
masterpiece, yet striking in the amorous expression of Atalanta lifting languishing eyes to 
Meleager, and in his sad, abstracted look. The jubilant figures are powerfully drawn. But 
the work is weak in composition ; to the well-constructed group of Mr. Madsen the painter 
has added the roaring band which enters noisily, and he has enlarged the deeply-felt central 
scene with decorative detail which breaks its serenity and unity. 



Mr. Masson of Amiens possesses a drawing in which the five figures from the first 
of these two pictures re-appear exactly in the same attitude, but with a few slight alterations 
in the composition; the two dogs and the two extended hands of the man outside the 
picture are there. Above the three men to the left we see a mounted man riding the 
same horse as appears in the Madrid picture. 

At the sale of works left by Jordaens (The Hague, 1734, No. 89) a Meleager and 
Atalanta of smaller dimensions appeared ; and another at the d'Hoop van Abstein sale 
(Ghent, 1889). Parthey notes two versions: one in the New Palace at Potsdam, the other 
in the Esterhazy collection at Vienna. 
At the Pierre Wouters sale (Brussels, 
1797) and at that of Lauwers (Am- 
sterdam 1802) appeared the drawing 
of Mr. Masson, or another of the 
same subject. 

Jordaens' Deanship. — Jor- 
daens' works very early drew the 
attention of artists and burghers to 
himself. In the year 1620—1621, 
according to the registers of the 
Guild of St. Luke, he received his 
first pupil, Charles du Val ; the fol- 
lowing year Pierre de Moulyn was 
apprenticed to him. No further infor- 
mation about either has been pre- 
served; they were not admitted 
as masters, and we know of no 
works by them. It may be supposed, 
therefore, that they did not con- 
tinue their studies. 

In 1621 Jordaens received 
a striking token of appreciation, 
when he was appointed by the 
magistracy to the post of Dean 
of the Guild of St. Luke during 
the next succeeding official year, 
from October 1621 to October 
1622. (1) Entry upon the office was 
at that moment attended with 
difficulties of a peculiar kind. In _ 

1618 the deans of the Guild of St. Luke decided to re-establish the Chamber of Retonc, 
the Gillyflower, which formerly existed in the Guild; times had quieted down, and they 
believed that their old and famous dramatic society might be revived to take part as 
in earlier days in the Landjuweelen and other competitions and festivities. But to do this 


(1) F. JOS. VAN DEN BRANDEN. Op. cit. pp. 830, 628, 649. 



they required more funds than they could raise, and they therefore petitioned the magistracy 

renew their old privileges, and especially one by which they were allowed to 

exempt seventy-five citizens from service in the town-militia, in return for which a sum 

fZoney was paid by each exempted person into the treasury of the Qui d The Co. ege 

o Burgomasters and Aldermen granted the request up to the number of fifty, and thus 

heLury of the Painters' Guild was considerably enriched. But he deans at once 

ooked out for a new hall in which to hold their festivities, and hired the beautifu 

guildhouse of the Old Foot-bow in the Groote Markt. In other ways also they increased 

toe expenses of the Guild, with the result that they were again faced with the prospect 

of a deficit. To avoid this, on the 12» of Febr., 1621, the dean in office at that time, 


Jan Breughel, and his fellow-governors, requested permission to raise the entrance fee 
from 26 to 36 guilders. The magistracy, however, refused, and the Guild found itself 
unable to pay the yearly expenses. 

It was at this critical moment that the town authorities appointed Jordaens to take up 
the deanship. They probably saw in him one who, either because of his private fortune 
or because of the income which his art brought him, would be able to save the Guild from 
a painful situation. At all events they must have had a high opinion of the eight-and- 
twenty years old artist, since they were willing to install him in this high post of honour, 
in such circumstances, and by an unusual resolution. 

On the 28 th of September, 1621, three weeks before the expiry of the old deanship, 
the magistracy issued the following order: „Deputed and instructed Jacques Jordaens to be 
Dean of the Guild of St. Luke within this town, on condition of his taking the proper 
oath, and that for the present year". Jordaens evidently did not exhibit great willingness 


to enter upon the office, for two days later, on the 30* of September, the magistracy issued 
the following: ..Instructed once more Jacques jordaens to come within twenty-four hours 
after this order, to take the oath as Dean of the Guild of St. Luke within this town, 
under penalty of a hundred guilders, to be paid according to ancient custom". This time 
he listened to the instruction and the threat: he answered that he was willing to fill the 
office for the coming year, and to bear its 
expenses; but he requested to be held free 
of the debts incurred by his predecessors. (1) 
Upon this request the Burgomasters and 
Aldermen decided, on the 1 st of October 1621, 
to appoint one of the Aldermen, Jan Happart, 
to examine the case, and to report upon it. 
What was his report and what their 
decision? Very likely Jordaens' proposal was 
accepted, and he was freed from the repon- 
sibility of debts incurred in previous years. If 
this was so, then he entered officially as 
assistant dean on the 18 th October, St. 
Luke's day, and in the following year, in 
October, as senior dean. But there is no 
proof that such was the case. Neither in 1621, 
nor in 1622, nor in any year, indeed, do we 
find Jordaens mentioned among the deans. 
In the registers of the Guild of St. Luke 
are noted down as dean for the year 1621 — 
1622 Charles van Mallery, for 1622—1623 
Antoni Goetkint, for 1623—1624 Abraham 
Gouvaerts. In the list of names of the deans 
painted on an old panel in the shape of a 
three-fold shutter, there are mentioned as deans, for the year 1621 Carolus de Mallery, for 
1622 Anthony Goetkint and Abraham Gouvaerts. It is true that the registers for the years 
1616—1629 are wanting, but the bills exist, and in these we ought to find Jordaens' name 
as senior dean in 1622 — 1623. We know from other omissions that these registers were not 
kept with the same care as those of an official registrar; for example, we are aware of several 
apprentices of Jordaens whose names are not mentioned in them. But in no case have we 
discovered any proof that names of deans were inscribed wrongly or omitted. 

JOB (Paul Mersch, Paris). 

(1) Humbly sheweth Your Lordships' servant Jacques Jordaens, painter, how that he by act of Your Lordships on the 30th 
September last has been commanded to take the oath as Dean of the Guild of St. Luke within this town. And though suppliant 
is of opinion that he might as yet have been excused of such command because of many reasons given verbally, yet suppliant 
wishes to conform to the prescribed order and perform his work and duties as laid down; but suppliant understands that the 
present Deans have a deficit for the Guild of a considerable sum of money, having spent more than they received, and that they 
are desirous of laying this deficit on the shoulders of suppliant as soon as he has taken the oath, which would inconvenience him 
altogether; and that it ought to be sufficient that he do his work without these expenses, and that he should take upon him only the 
payments which fall in the time of his Deanship. And that no one may dispute this, suppliant begs Your Lordships most humbly 
to declare on the margin hereof that he shall stand good for the work expected from him and the payments falling in his prescribed 
time. And that of what he shall receive and spend during that time he shall give a satisfactory account. Doing which etc. 

Signed Jacques jordaens. 

My lords Burgomasters and Aldermen have deputed Mr. Jan Happart, Knight, Alderman, to inform them as to the contents 
of this, and after having heard his report shall be ordered accordingly. — Actum 1" Octobris. Anno 1621. 

Signed J. BRANDT. 

Town archives of Antwerp. — Copy supplied by Mr. F. Jos. van den Branden, Archivist. 


16 2 3 — 1630. 

Altar Pieces — Allegorical and Mythological Subjects 
Genre Pieces — Portraits. 

The Martyrdom of St Apollonia. — Thus 
we see that Jordaens was regarded, in 
1621, as one of the most important mem- 
bers of the Guild of St. "Luke. In the course 
of the years immediately succeeding, his fame 
increased continually, so that in 1628 he was 
included with Rubens and Van Dyck in the 
triumvirate of Antwerp's greatest painters. An 
event occurring in that year proves this very 

The Southern Netherlands having again 
fallen completely under the power of Spain, 
the Catholics, in 1585, hastened to restore 
their religion to honour. The churches, which 
had suffered much from the iconoclasts, were 
embellished with works of art; the old cloisters 
were reopened and new ones built. The 
first Governors, particularly Albert and Isabella, 
contributed all in their power to the revival 
of the old form of worship. Among other things, 
it was their doing that the Augustines settled in 
Antwerp in 1608, and built a cloister on grounds, 
situated in the Everdystraat, which they acquired partly by gift of the magistracy and partly 
by purchase. Among the lots which they bought were the two houses mentioned earlier as 
belonging to Jordaens' father-in-law, Adam van Noort. In 1615 they built a church adjoining 
their cloister, which was consecrated in 1618. Ten years later the inmates of the cloister 
conceived the idea of decorating the three altars of this church with pictures. The one 
destined for the high altar was commissioned from Rubens, and no doubt they consulted 
him as to the artists whom they should employ to paint those for the other two. They 
were, it may be said, on a very friendly footing with Rubens, whose eldest son had been 
sent to their school. They chose Anton van Dyck to paint the picture for the altar to the 
left, and Jordaens that for the altar to the right. Rubens painted for the high altar a 
Betrothal of St. Catharine, into which he introduced most of the saints who were worshipped 

(Mr M. Delacre, Ghent). 


in the Augustine Church; Van Dyck painted a St. Augustine in Ecstacy ; and to Jordaens 
was given the subject of The Martyrdom of St. Apollonia, the patron saint invoked by 
those who suffered from toothache. 

These three pictures were finished in 1628. Rubens was paid 3000 guilders, 
and Van Dyck 600. It is not recorded how much Jordaens received (1), but the com- 
mission shows that our painter in 1628 was, equally with Van Dyck, ranked immediately 
after Rubens. 

And now about his Martyrdom of St. Apollonia. In the centre of the picture, a few 
steps lead up to an elevation on which kneels the saint, her hands folded across her breast, 
wrapped in white drapery with heavy, bluey shadows. An executioner, naked to the waist, 
pulls back her head by her hair and wrenches out her teeth with a pair of pincers. To 
the left is an officer in command, mounted on a white and grey dappled horse; he wears 
an ample red cloak which completely covers him down to his yellow riding-boots. 
His head-dress is a large turban of white cloth, into which is stuck a yellow plume. 
Beyond him a second mounted man sits on a brown horse with a white spot on its 
forehead. Surmounting these is the marble statue of Jupiter seated on his throne: in one 
hand he holds the globe, in the other the lightning; an eagle beside him; on a pedestal in 
front a burning censer. Down in the immediate foreground kneels another of the executioners, 
stirring up a wood-fire in which, in accordance with the legend, the martyr is to throw 
herself and be consumed. Close by him sits a dog with a brown head, and a white body, 
grey-spotted. Half way up the picture an old priest, wrapped in a blue garment and a 
dull brown cloak, stands leaning one hand on a stick, while with the other he points 
towards the image of Jupiter, urging Apollonia to honour him as a god. Beside the 
martyr is visible the grinning head of a third executioner. In the sky are eight little angels, 
of whom one carries a cross, and another, rather bigger, holds in his hand the palm-branch 
of the martyr. 

Like his other altar-pieces, this picture differs greatly from Jordaens' usual style. It is 
ecclesiastical decorative work, and wholly artificial. The figures are so grouped that they entirely 
fill the tall canvas (which is rounded at the top): in the foreground the crouching stoker 
of the fire ; the principal figures on an elevation or on horseback in the centre ; the figure of 
the god and the angels at the top. No part but is fully occupied; everything in the 
composition centres round the saint, and, indeed, seems to whirl around her, the more so 
that most of the figures assume unnatural and contorted attitudes, — the stoker (seen from 
behind) twisting himself to stir the fire, the saint with her head forced back, the executioner 
bent over her, the horseman with raised head, the priest with uplifted arm, the little 
angels tumbling over one another in the sky and the taller one with a foot thrust forth, 
the dapple-grey with head strained down to its knee: it is all built up in a calculated 
and theatrical way. But it is a picture of brilliant colouring. From the centre of the canvas 
shines the martyr, vivid and bright, with fair flesh and light draperies; so, in her immediate 
neighbourhood, the executioner and the two horses. Framing these with warm, rich tones 
are the officer in red, the priest in blue and golden-yellow, the man stoking with his brown 

(1) 1628. Hoc anno procurata est pictura admodum elegans Sti Augustini in extasi contemplantis divina attributa, a Domino 
Van Dyck depicta constitit 600 florenis. 

Itpm Martvrium Sts Apolloniae a domino Jordaens depictum. .„.„,„ u * 

em tebuam P^rocuravfmus insignissimam pro summo ai.ari depictam a peri.iustri Domino PetroPaulo Rubens; est.mata est 
3000 florenis (Exfract from the Diarinm Augustinianum, folio 131. Copied and sent to Frans Mo.s by Brother .gnatms Coenen, 
Prior of the Augustines, the 15th May 1764). 


back Higher up the splendour of colour loses itself in the cold marble statue and the 
nebulous angels. The dominant tones are varied by the playing reflections of colours and 
colour-spots. The whole preserves a strong fresh glow: a feast to the eye rather than a 

drama touching the soul. . 

The ample angularly falling drapery of Apollonia, in which we recognize the broad, 
romantic garment of the Magdalen in Christ on the Cross of the Dominicans and in the 
Disciples at Christ's grave, reminds us of the works of Jordaens' earliest time. The martyr 
has the features of the artist's wife. The big dog we have met before in the first renderings 
of The Peasant and the Satyr. We have already occasionally come across the brown- 
gold drapery of the priest. We 
notice nothing here of Rubens' 
influence, save in the two horses, 
the dapple grey and the brown 
with the white spot, the same 
animals which the great master 
painted repeatedly. The first of 
the two is a magnificent detail, 
and corresponds pretty closely 
with the dappled horse in Rubens' 
Mount Calvary in the Museum 
at Antwerp. 

This picture was carried away 
by the French in 1796 and returned 
in 1815. It was engraved shortly 
after it had been finished, and 
supplied Marinus with a subject for 
one of his greatest successes. Thus 
it became known far and near, and 
took a place among Jordaens' crea- 
tions which it scarcely merits as 
a work of art. 

In the inventory of Abraham 
Voet, the Antwerp engraver, made 
in 1685, a sketch of this picture 
in colour is mentioned, of which 
all trace has been lost. (1) A 
finished sketch on paper pasted on wood was sold at the Doncker sale (Brussels, 1798). 

APOSTLE'S HEAD (Museum, Brussels). 

St. Martin delivering a demoniac. — Much that we have remarked about the 
Martyrdom of St. Apollonia is applicable also to another altar piece painted a few years 
later, the St. Martin delivering a demoniac. It was executed for the high altar in the church 
of the St. Martin Cloister at Tournay, and is signed in the lower left hand corner: „J. Jordaens 
Fecit A 1630". Hung later in one of the aisles of the church, in 1794 it was carried by 
the French to Paris, and in 1811 was presented by Napoleon I to the Museum of Brussels. 

(1) F. JOS VAN DEN BRANDEN. - Collection of pictures at Antwerp, (Antwerp Archievenblad, XXII, 45). 



Though less so than The Martyrdom of St. Apollonia, it is composed in too theatrical 
a manner. Below, to the right, on a few steps, we see five persons, four men and a 
woman, holding the man possessed whom they have brought to the saint. One of them, 
an old man, partially bald, his back and limbs naked, stands erect beside him, grasping 
his wrist. A kneeling youth clasps him round the waist with one hand, and in the other 
carries an iron ring with which to encircle his leg; in this figure the back is nude, and 
the clothes are turned down round the loins. The third custodian, a man with black curly 
hair, lays his hands on the shoulder and belt of the sufferer. Of the fourth the head only 
is visible. The woman, again, kneels on the ground, holding on to the leg of the 
demoniac. On the extreme right is a child upon whom a dog is jumping. To the 
left stands St. Martin in full episcopal vestments, wrapped in a gold-brown cloak, 
embroidered with many-co- 
loured figures; under this he 
wears a white surplice, and 
on his head is a golden mitre. 
The choir boy beside him car- 
ries his staff, and the heads of 
two ecclesiastics are visible. 
The saint with right hand 
uplifted exorcises the unfort- 
unate man, who is convulsively 
throwing out arms and legs, 
and with clenched fists and 
wildly contorted features 
struggling to escape the hold 
of his custodians. High up in 
the background Tetradius, 
the master of the demoniac, 
is looking on, his elbow 
leaning on the balustrade; 
attending him stands a negro 
with a parrot in his hand. 

As has been said, the picture is theatrically composed : the struggle with the possessed 
man goes on at a lower level, where some of the figures are standing and some kneeling. A step 
higher stand the saintly bishop and his escort; a little higher still is seated the master with his 
servant Such an arrangement, however, is often found in altarpieces. A worse fault is the- 
want of dramatic co-operation, jordaens was not the first to paint the exorcism of a demoniac. 
Ten years earlier Rubens had represented a similar scene in his two pictures of The Miracles 
of St Ignatius, of which one is in the Church of the Jesuits at Genoa, the other (originally 
painted for the church of the same Order at Antwerp) in the Imperial Museum at Vienna. 
Earlier still, in one of the pictures which he painted for the Church of the Jesuits at Mantua, 
he had represented the same drama in Christ's Glorification on Mount Tabor; and before him, 
Raphael had painted it in a picture of the same name. 

Strange to say in all these pictures we find the miracle insufficiently related to the 
remainder of the composition. In jordaens', the formal irrelevancy is less marked than in those 
his predecessors; but on the other hand, he fails in unity of intention, and in establishing 

MERCURY AND ARGUS (Museum, Lyons). 



a correspondence between the spirit and the body. The figure of the struggling, writhing 
man is very affecting by its mad violence and fearful screams ; but the others do not seem 
to feel and act with him. The erect old man stands in an impossibly awkward attitude; 
the young man and woman do not seem serious in their efforts; and so with the man 
with the curly hair. The bishop stands in an attitude sufficiently majestic; he is broad and 
stately, but empty and bloated; his escort are without expression: the whole group is 
composed of lay figures. Tetradius looks down upon it all in a phlegmatic manner as if 
nothing more than an ordinary squabble were afoot. Jordaens is certainly here no painter 
of saints and no dramatist; and he never became either. 

This picture is distinguished by two other peculiarities. The first is a greater brownness 
of tone than is to be found in any other work of his earliest period. The flesh of all the 
characters, of the woman and the child as well as of the men, is brown, a dull brown. 
The shadows sometimes incline more to red, sometimes more to black; here they are a 
little heavier, there a little more transparent, somewhat warmer or somewhat cooler; but 
always they are brown, sallow or ruddy, without the appearance of bronze or copper which 
we are to find in Jordaens' later pictures; in a tone without either glow or strength. 

A second peculiarity is the extravagant knotting of the muscles: the back of the erect 
old man, for example, has the appearance of mountainous ground with a deep valley in the 
centre and hillocks and furrows on both sides; and so in the shoulder-blades and the rib-frame 
of the kneeling man, — bulky bones protrude, and deep hollows are seen. Neck and 
head and breast of the possessed man are a little less violently corrugated, but through- 
out wildness and exaggeration, degenerating into coarseness, are displayed. 

J. B. Descamps, when he saw this picture in 1768, was struck by its unpleasant appearance, 
and wrote of it: „I have found the composition muddled since it has been restored and repainted. 
It is now hard and dry; only a few fine heads remain in it." We doubt very much whether 
the dull, ruddy tone is the result of damage done to the original picture ; it may indeed have 
suffered, but it is our belief that the original colour was similar in tone to the present. 

In the inventory of Alexander Voet, made 1685, is mentioned a sketch of this picture 
in grisaille. We know of two drawings in which Jordaens has treated the same subject, 
with, however, considerable alterations. The first is in the British Museum, London; the 
other, in the Museum Plantin-Moretus, was bought at the Habich sale (Stuttgart 1899). 

Parthey mentions among the works of Jordaens a little picture, belonging to Mr. Hemmerlein 
at Bamberg, representing St. Martin curing the sick and raising the dead, with a glory of 
angels up on high; quite a different composition evidently from the Delivering of the Demoniac. 

We must refer again to a figure in the Brussels Museum picture who takes no part in 
the action, but is introduced by the painter merely as an accessory. This is the sweet little 
curly-head to the right, at whom a dog is jumping up. It is without, doubt the portrait of 
his little son Jacob, who was born in 1625 and so was now about five years old, which 
age he looks in the picture. The heavy, brown curly locks fall with a warm radiance over head 
and cheeks, encircling them : the boy is sparkling with health, and with large eyes looks 
innocently forth upon the world. 

Child Studies. — We find this little head in several pictures: for example, in a painting 
in the Museum at Valenciennes representing two children playing in their cradle. One is a 
fair little girl, — her hair is tied up on the back of her head, and she is not more than 
two years old; — who plays a small flute. Her bare neck, on which she wears a coral necklace, 


is softly fair. The boy, who sits beside her, holding a peach in his hand, and is probably a 
few years older than she, is the curly-headed little fellow from the Miracle of St. Martin, 
with his uptilted little nose, his chubby cheeks, and wreath of light brown locks through which 
the sun is playing. A lamb rests its head on the counterpane ; a red drapery hangs over the 
hood of the cradle. The picture dates from about 1629. 

A similar pair of children appeared at the Rothan sale (Paris, 1890). The prince of Ligne 
possessed a drawing, engraved by Bartsch in the end of the XVIII th century, which represents 
the child, flute in hand, with the lamb. A great similarity exists between these pieces and the 
Jesus and John with a lamb which appeared last at the Valentin Roussel sale (Brussels, 1899), 
where it was bought by Paul Wittouck of Brussels; and previously to that at the Tolozan sale 
(Paris, 1801). The little Jesus has a rattle in one hand, and with the other strokes a Iamb; 
St. John lays his left arm on the shoulder of his playmate, and in his right hand holds a cross. 
It is a sweet, carefully painted, enamel-like picture, of the same period as the one mentioned 
earlier. At the Winckler sale (Cologne, 1888) appeared a Child Jesus, quite nude, standing 
on a red shawl, stroking the little John, who kneels before him. 

The Museum of Madrid possesses a Jesus and John. In it Jesus strokes a lamb ; he is 
wearing a white garment fastened at the waist, which covers him from neck to foot. A lock 
of his brown hair hangs over his ear and forehead ; his eyes are cast down ; his expression 
is simple, almost that of a simpleton. John, standing farther back, is more lively of expression ; 
his hair is fair; a lamb's skin is wrapped round him. He carries a cross with the inscription 
Agnus Dei. To the right we see a fountain. The simplicity of attitude in the child Jesus and 
the powerful painting of his white garment seem rather to justify the belief that it is by 
Jordaens; though, since there is nothing strikingly characteristic of him in the picture, its 
ascription to the master is hazardous. 

A picture from the Legends of the Saints of the same period as the St. Martin is the 
St. Sebastian in the Museum at Angers. The martyr is tied to a tree; he is quite naked, 
except for a cloth round the loins; his face is painfully contorted, and the muscles lie knotted 
upon his body; the legs are a rosy brown. Three arrows have already pierced him. In the 
sky we see two angels who bring him a crown and a laurel branch. A landscape unfolding 
itself in the distance is furnished with gnarled trees. In the sky warm lights contrast with 
violent blue. The picture is not strikingly beautiful, but is undeniably by Jordaens' hand. 

Fertility. — In the pictures executed by him for churches during this second period 
(1623—1630), Jordaens departs from his usual manner of painting; not only are they uncharacter- 
istic of his style, but they differ greatly from one another, as we have observed. But in works 
in another genre he is to be seen renewing his customary method, and continuing in it that 
gradual development and transformation which brought him nearer and nearer to the school 
of Rubens. His hardness decreases; his lights become warmer, his shadows tenderer, his 
compositions richer and more graceful ; the decorative element grows in importance. Excelling 
among the works of this transition period are two allegorical pictures which we believe 
may be placed between 1625 and 1628. 

Both are entitled The Fertility of the Earth, or Abundance, or Autumn, and represent 
a glorification of merciful bounteous Nature. One is in the Museum at Brussels, — a richly 
furnished, closely-packed scene. On the right side is an old forest god, with goat's feet, 
carrying a young faun on his shoulders; this little one holds out a vine branch with a 
bunch of grapes upon it at which a negro, standing in the background, casts a greedy eye. 



There are two satyrs to the left also. One of them approaches the spectator, bearing a 
large sheaf of fruit and vegetables; the other is crouching down and picks a fig from out of it. 
In the centre of the picture are four women, who most probably are intended to represent 
female satyrs, though they display no sign of their lower nature. One advances bearing a 
cluster of blue and white grapes in her scarlet cloak, which is draped round her back 

and arms, leaving the breasts expo- 
sed; another, a perfectly nude 
figure, seen from behind, stands 
erect and with both hands holds 
a white linen cloth in front 'of 
her; the third is seated on the 
ground, the upper part of the body 
bent ; her head rests on one hand, 
in the other she holds bunches 
of grapes; the fourth stands in 
the background and stretches a 
hand towards the grapes which 
the child on the old satyr's shoul- 
der is holding forth. A second 
child stands behind the reclining 
female satyr, and pulls at an iris 
which springs up in the right- 
hand corner. 

The picture is brilliant in 
colour, a hymn to Light, a joyous 
and impassioned song in praise 
of the wealth of the fertile earth. 
The figures have been artfully 
and happily arranged; they are 
true children of Nature, begotten 
by the ever fecund mother. 
They glow as they stand there; 
the heads of the four satyrs, 
that of the satyr with the child 
especially, are as masterly in 
execution as the goat-footed figure 
in the Peasant and Satyr at 
Cassel. The women play the chief 
r61e. With delight and without 
fear they display their gleaning 
and turnincr w* r k™i . flesn - Tne one wno is standing 

wen- ov" Z 1 1, T USj ,S a " imP ° Sing fi S Ure: over her ^ even back and 
2 ZZel^u* f r T,° f Hght fl ° WS Unbr0ken and ™<*e..ed. jordaens did 
felr b odv efle H t h T' " d ° WnineSS 0PfleSh; his Concern was t0 exhibit a 
t nt other . "1 i 7**™ fa their fU " b ^ htness - When, later on, he came 
paint other such female figures, as for instance in his Candaules, he sought more 

THE MIRACLE OF ST. MARTIN (Museum, Brussels). 


after sensuous form and tenderness of tint; at present, still, his work strikes one as being 

mainly an exercise of youthful daring. 8 

Not less striking are the figures of the reclining female satyr and the crouching satyr- 

on them the light falls more warmly than on the woman standing erect, throwing heavier 

yet more transparent shadows; from these it is reflected sharply on the satyr to the right and 

on the woman with the red drapery; more quietly on the satyr who bears the burden of 

the fruit; it exhausts itself on 

the female who stretches her 

hand towards the grapes. Very 

delightful is the play of sun and 

shadow over all the figures in 

the foreground; particularly over 

the little satyr who pulls at the 

iris, and to whose hair the golden 

sunlight clings lovingly. The 

powerful sheaf of fruit on the 

one side, and the fruit and vege- 
tation scattered everywhere, are 

undoubtedly by the hand of Snij- 

ders, and hejp to intensify the 

high splendour of the picture. 
We have spoken of the 

canvases of this time as works 
of transition, and "certainly The 
Fertility of the Earth is one of 
them. The strong smooth colour- 
ing of the nude female back is 
still the same as that of the man 
and the woman in the earliest 
examples of The Peasant and the 
Satyr. Her broad back, her awkward 
attitude and stiff arms, still bear 
the marks of Jordaens' earliest 
work; the head of the satyr car- 
rying the child with his burnt 
skin, his powerful muscles and 
the deep furrows in his face, 
resembles notably the old heads 

in the Four Evangelists; but here everything has been softened and enobled, the sunshine 
has become more abundant and warm, and the shadows play more lightly and happily 
on the tenderly rounded limbs. The artist's conception of life is brighter, and he regards 
Nature from a sweeter standpoint. 

The picture is signed Joroc . . . fecit. We discover it for the first time at the Delia 
Faille sale (The Hague, 1730), when it was described as „A picture representing Abundance". 
On the 27 th of September, 1762, it was put up for sale in the Confrerie Chamber of the 
art painters at the Hague. In 1763 it still was the property of this artist-society, and was 

Drawing, (Museum Plantin-Moretus, Antwerp). 

4 6 


referred to then as „A large picture by J. Jordaens, representing the fertility of the earth 
or abundance, being very beautifully and powerfully painted". 

On the 10 th of April, 1764, the Confrerie decided to sell the large picture „if it 
fetches 8 or 10 ducats, because it takes up too much room, and several other pictures 
could then be hung in its place." On the 30 th of May following, the picture was sold 
satisfactorily" for 50 guilders. (1) In 1814 it appeared at the sale of J. T. de Vinck de 
Wesel's collection at Antwerp; in 1827 at the de Vinck d'Orp sale, when it was bought 
by the Museum of Brussels. 

Mr. Heseltine, London, possesses a drawing made as a design for this picture; and 
Mr. Georges Querton, Brussels, a painted study for the figure of the nymph with fruit 
in her lap. 

Jordaens treated the same subject a second time in the picture named Autumn which 
belongs to the Wallace Collection in London. The satyr who carries the child, the negro 
next to him, the woman who carries grapes in her red drapery, the little satyr who pulls 
at the iris and the woman who sits on the ground, her head resting in her hand, are the 
same figures in the London and in the Brussels pictures ; except that in the former the negro 
plays on a double-flute. The satyr crouching on the left also appears in both ; but whereas 
in London he is goat-footed, in Brussels he has a man's legs. The real difference between 
the two works lies in the central figures. Here in the Brussels picture, next to the first 
satyr-child, stands a second, with curly hair; and taking the place of the woman reaching 
for the grapes, is an old satyr doing the same. But — greatest difference of all — the principal 
figure in the Brussels picture, the nymph standing erect, and seen from behind, gives place 
in the London picture to a beautiful woman, nude except for a blue drapery wrapped round 
her waist. She fronts the spectator and has nothing satyr-like in her figure. With one hand 
she holds a horn of plenty, overflowing with fruit and vegetables which strongly resemble 
those carried by the satyr in the Brussels picture, who has been left out of the London one. 

The substitution, for the rather overwhelming female figure with her rigid attitude and 
her tense colour, of a splendid beauty with elegant gestures and gracefully folded draperies, 
gives to the whole picture a more pleasing appearance; it becomes finer, more decorative; 
but it loses some of its character ; it becomes sweeter but more ordinary, and decidedly stands 
lower in rank than the picture at Brussels. There is no doubt about its being of later date. 
The manner of the painting alone would prove this; and in addition we note how much 
more natural and legitimate in the earlier picture is the attitude of the figure in question. 
In the first the woman stands turned towards the persons who bring her the products of 
the fields; and there need be little doubt, that it was this audacious attitude, with all the 
light showered on the back, that attracted Jordaens and chiefly led him to paint the picture. 
In the second canvas the beautiful woman is posing, and exhibits little relation with those 
who are approaching her. In the first, a powerful satyr figure bears the burden of the gigantic 
bundle of fruit and vegetables, x which again is quite a natural conception, with the right 
man in the right place; in the second this enormous sheaf is held without apparent 
exertion or difficulty by a beautiful woman for whom it is of course far too heavy. The 
first, and justifiable, composition was thus changed for one less natural and satisfactory, 
no improvement, but only loss, resulting from the alteration. 

The fruit and vegetables of the second picture were, like those in the first, painted by 

(1) Oud Holland XIX, 172. De Confrerie van Pictura, by A. Bredius. . 


Snijders, in his customary clear, brilliant manner and with his usual fineness of touch. Thus 
early, as later, Jordaens had the accessories in some of his pictures, more especially still-life 
and landscape, put in by fellow-painters, with them he worked in conjunction. For example, 
we find in the inventory of the estate of Jufvrouw Anthonette Wiael, widow of Jan van Haecht, 
dated July 5—7, 1627, an „Ascension of Our Lady with ten angels, by Qeert Snellincx and 
Jordaens", and „Two pendants by Tobias van Haecht (the landscape painter) with figures 
by Jordaens." (1) 

Pan and Syrinx. — To this period also belong a few mythological pictures; first 
among them the Pan and Syrinx in the Museum at Brussels. Syrinx in the Greek mythology 
was the daughter of the river-god Ladon; Pan, the god of the woods and fields, fell in love 
with her, and one day gave her chase. She fled, and just as he had almost reached her she 
was changed into a reed plant. Rocked by the wind, the stems brought forth plaintive 
sounds. Pan cut off one, and dividing it into little tubes of decreasing length, bound them 
together as a flute, the Pan-pipes. The painter has chosen the moment when Pan almost 
touches the escaping figure, and seeks to cajole her into listening to his declaration of love; 
she raises one arm to protect herself from him. A river-god, resting on his urn, and two 
satyr children, are present at this encounter, the scene of which is the waterside. 

What strikes us most in the picture is the absence of loud colouring and the sharp 
contrast between light and dark. Syrinx's nude body makes one large bright patch, dimly 
broken by finely transparent shadows on the arms, neck, and side. The Pan, on the contrary, 
is brown in tone, with heavy dark shadows covering breast and arms, and the head thrown 
deep in shade so that the features are scarcely distinguishable. The river-god is of an even 
heavier brown. Such painting of light and brown, with its softly fair and powerful chestnut 
tones, we find in no other of Jordaens' works ; the landscape painters of the XVI th century 
tried to find their effects of light and perspective by means of it, but the painters of 
the XVII th , Jordaens among others, rejected it for the softer, merging nuances between 
light and brown. The difference between this work and all his others is so great that one 
is inclined to hesitate about attributing it to Jordaens. But the head of Syrinx, with loose- 
hanging hair, eyes veiled with heavy lids, and parted lips, has an expression, somewhat 
good-natured and sleepy, which we often find in the master; the knotted muscles of the 
men also are characteristic of him; and the satyr children bear a striking resemblance to 
those in the Fertility. All this justifies us in ascribing the picture to Jordaens with certainty, 
and in classing it among the works of the period under consideration. 

That he treated this subject we know from Sandrart, who informs us that „once he 
reproduced, in six days, the life-sized story of Syrinx who flies from Pan into a wood, in 
a spirited and masterly way." In the sale of Jordaens' estate (The Hague, 1734) there was 
a smaller Pan and Syrinx, 3 ft. 3 in. high and 3 ft. 3* in. wide. 

Jordaens evidently had a great liking for painting satyrs. In every period of his life he 
drew them or painted them ; now studies of heads, now as tipsy satyrs, again reclining satyrs and 
nymphs, satyrs with children, or cupids, satyrs pressing grapes, or taking part in more complicated 
actions. In several of these pictures imitation of Rubens is plainly discernible ; no doubt some 
of them are wrongly attributed to Jordaens, and are really copies of his great predecessor. In 
some of these pictures Silenus is introduced, and they are named from the big-bellied glutton. 

(1) F. JOS. VAN DEN BRANDEN. - Collection of Pictures at Antwerp. (Antwerp Archivenblad XXI, 326, 327). 

4 8 


Bacchanalian Scene. - Ghent. - It seems to me that the canvas which was bought 
a short time ago for the Museum at Ghent at a sale in Amsterdam, and of which the 
subject cannot be named with certainty, is a satyr-picture dating from this period. On the right 
hand we see a young woman (the Fertility?) between a male and a female satyr; she is 
draped in a red and white garment which she holds apart, thus exposing her beautiful nude 
body Two satyr-children are standing in front of her; a woman or nymph, with her back 
to us sits on the ground; another, standing erect, carries a bunch of flowers and fruit 
on a' white cloth and offers them to the undraped woman. On the extreme left sits a 
river-god In the background are trees between which a canvas has been stretched; and 
among these trees is an old satyr handing a bunch of grapes to the woman, and a younger 
one, holding on to the branches. Again the lack of cleverness displayed by Jordaens 

in finding suitable figures for symbolic 
creations detracts from the intelligibility of 
his picture. 

Most probably it belongs to the same 
period as the Fertility. The nude figures are 
bathed in a brilliant glow, contrasting sharply 
with heavy shadows ; powerful light streams 
through the sky also, and vivid, brilliant 
reds, whites, and blues, colour the draperies. 
The painting is smooth, with a tendency 
to be china-like. It is a bright and happy 
picture. Beautiful young women, soft of 
flesh, between rough satyrs with dark brown 
skins, compose it, as in the large picture 
in the Museum at Brussels. 

Another large and important mytholo- 
gical picture, the Neptune and Amphilrite, 
hangs in the Arenberg gallery at Brussels. 
In the foreground we see two white sea- 
horses. On one of them Neptune is -seated, 
and he is lifting Amphitrite on to the other. 
Two little cupids carry his trident. To the 
left in the sea we notice a Triton who blows a horn of shell ; two others are trumpeting 
in the same way, while a fourth rides upon a dolphin. The seahorses are the finest part 
of the picture. Jordaens here shows as little respect as he does elsewhere for the old gods. 
Neptune looks like a Silenus, with a warm light without glow on his baggy body; Amphitrite 
is a fat, blown woman; she sits on a red cloth, the light falling brightly on her with 
an even lustre. The children with the trident are very sweet; the Tritons to the left 
insignificant. High overhead waves a large drapery, and hover two angel heads; in the 
foreground the sea is breaking with curling rollers upon the shore. The horizon glows with 
the setting sun. The picture is lightsome, bright in appearance, but superficial in the 
painting. The strong, big-boned back of the Triton in the foreground and the general browny 
tone indicate that the work was executed about 1630. 

The picture is mentioned under No. 162 in an edition of the Catalogue of pictures 
and antiquities etc. in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam: „Neptune and Venus drawn by 

(M. Wittouck, Brussels). 


seahorses and Tritons". It appeared at the sale of the pictures of William II, king of the 
Netherlands, (The Hague, 1842 and Amsterdam, 1850), and in that of Neville D. Goldsmid of 
the Hague (Paris, 1876). It is quite possible that this is the same work as that mentioned 
in the Catalogue of the pictures left by Jordaens (The Hague 1734, No. 71): „A very large 
picture being a Sea-Triumph, 8 feet high and 12 feet 5 inches broad". A painting correspon- 
ding to the one described above was sold in Amsterdam on the 22 nd of May, 1765 at a 
sale of pictures that came from Saxony. 

Jordaens treated the subject more than once. A picture of smaller demensions than the t 
one described above appeared at a sale in Amsterdam on the 5 th of June, 1765 and at" 
that of the widow of Robert Geelhand (Antwerp, 1888). In the Catalogue of' the Siebrecht 
sale (Antwerp, 1754) we find: „A picture without a frame, being a large triumph of the 
sea with all sorts of sea-fishes". At the Gerard Hoet sale (Amsterdam, 1760) was a drawing 
of „a triumph of Neptune in black and red chalk 
and a little colour". 

The Hunter with the Dogs. — Besides 
religious, allegorical, and mythological pictures 
in which the figures are life-size, Jordaens during 
this period also painted a few others, of 
either similar or different subjects, but all of 
them with smaller figures, and chosen partly 
in order to introduce animals. 

Two such we know. The first, dated 1625, 
belongs to the Museum at Lille, for which it 
was bought at the Tence sale (Paris, 1881). 
It represents a hunter with dogs. He sits amidst 
a very elaborate, hilly landscape with trees, 
sounding his horn; before him stand or lie 
eight dogs, — five greyhounds, two longhaired 
poodles, and the retriever with brown head 
and grey coat whom we have seen already in 

The Martyrdom of St. Apollonia, and elsewhere. This comparatively small picture (78 cm. 
high and 120 cm. wide) is a first-rate piece of work; it is suffused with a pleasant 
warm light, and in every way is bright and joyous. Both colours and shadows are trans- 
parent. The painter has taken particular pains with the dogs; here, more manifestly than 
in any other works so far discussed, he discovers himself an animal painter of unsur- 
passed talent. He himself was the model for the hunter. The excellent landscape was painted 
by Wildens. Jordaens chose the same subject for one of his designs for the tapestries 
which are now in the Imperial palace at Vienna. There is a copy in the collection of 
Viscount Bare de Comogne, at Ghent. 

Another work of the same character, though its subject was derived from a different 
source, is The Meeting of Eliezer and Rebecca in the Museum at Brussels. While it is 
of larger dimensions, the figures are still small. In the foreground is a well with a round 
mouth, and beside it a four-cornered sculptured basin. To the right stands Rebecca, 
giving Eliezer a drink from her jug; a servant holds Eliezer's horse by the bridle, and 
another has charge of two greyhounds. To the left are numerous servants, engaged in 


(Mr. M. Delacre, Ghent). 



unloading valuable presents from a donkey and two camels. In the broad landscape which 
compo es the background are (to the left) a' few high trees; and (to the right) , a formed 
"eTeva castle, into which a herd of cattle pass across the drawbridge; m the distance 
r hish rocky hill. It is a pleasantly inspired scene, laid in the open campaign; though 
it takes its title from Biblical history, in reality it depicts an episode of country life. It is 
cleverly and broadly painted, in tones which run from cool and clear on the one side to 
warm and dusky on the other. The handling of the figures is pleasant and solid, with a 
kind of glassy sparkle which throws up the cool lights from out the dull shadows. 
Corresponding closely to that of the hunter at Lille, this picture doubtless dates from the 
same time The two greyhounds in the latter are here reproduced in the same attitude, with 
their necks crossed over each other. The servant who holds Eliezer's horse does so with 
the same gesture, and wears the same clothing, as the negro with the horse in the 

picture at Cassel. 

Jordaens painted The Meeting of Eliezer and Rebecca a second time in a picture which 
appeared at the Huybrechts sale (Antwerp, 1902). There, as in that of the Brussels Museum, 
Rebecca offers Isaac's messenger a drink from her pitcher. To the left is the fountain, round 
which three maids and three men are gathered. A dog, a small monkey on the edge of 
the well, and, higher up, three camels, repeat Jordaens' favourite details. The picture is 
warmer in tone, but the backs of the men show the same knotted muscles as in the Miracle 
of St. Martin and in the preceding picture; like the last, it must have been painted about 1630. 

Diana's Bath in the Museum at Madrid also belongs to the series of pictures with 
small figures of this period. Diana and her nymphs are refreshing themselves in a pond, 
which lies in front of a portico that pretty faithfully reproduces the arcade which in Rubens' 
house separated the forecourt from the garden. In front at the water's edge, seated or 
standing, is a number of small women figures. A winged youth stands near by, to whom 
Diana stretches out her arms. To the left Cupid approaches with a peacock; another of 
these birds struts alongside of the bath. High above hover three little angels, who scatter 
flowers ; a little lower are five others ; a motive which Jordaens used again in The Offering 
to Venus in the Museums at Dresden and Brunswick. The light grey, which is the dominant 
tone of the picture, is varied with the blue of the drapery; the figures are pale with soft 
shadows; the work is of less importance than The Meeting between Eliezer and Rebecca 
at Brussels, but is in the same style. 

Portraits. — In the beginning of the XVII th century, as well as in the preceding 
centuries, the well-to-do Flemish burghers delighted to see themselves immortalized 
in painted canvases. Not only kings and princes, and nobles of high rank, but also 
respectable merchants, priests, and all who had distinguished themselves in art and 
literature, or whose fortune permitted such a luxury, knocked at the doors of our great 
masters, to have their portraits reproduced in a stately way. It was inevitable that Jordaens 
also, as his fame increased, should receive these commissions. And, indeed, we find such 
portraits among the works of the earliest period of his career. 

The earliest known belong to Mevrouw the Widow Bosschaert du Bois at Antwerp. They 
are three in number: a man, his wife, and an old woman, his mother or his mother-in-law. 
The first bears the inscription : „Aetatis 44. A . 1623", the second : „...3J. Jordaens fecit", (no 
doubt the 3, the only figure visible on the canvas, is the last figure of the date 1623). The 
portrait of the old woman bears no inscription, but is undoubtedly of the same period. 

i i 


The man, seated on a bench, is seen in profile; he has short black hair, a moustache 
and an imperial, and wears a white collar with small flat pleats, edged with lace, white 
wrist-bands, an ample black coat, with a black cloak over it. The right arm rests on a chair 
in front of him; in his left hand he holds his black broad-brimmed felt hat. His complexion 
is rosy, his hands are beautifully shaped; across these and across the head lie deep 
shadows. His attitude is easy and distinguished, and there is something lively and full 
of character in his expression. In front of him stands a little pedestal covered with a 
tapestry, on which rests a small statue. Behind him is an open arch in the style of the 
time, through which shows the blue sky. To the left hangs a red looped-up curtain. The 
arch is supported on the one side by a caryatid — a female figure with a double snake's 
tail, the ends of which encircle each other. The foot of the caryatid carries the inscription. 

The woman sits in a very large oak armchair, upholstered with black leather. Behind 
her is an open arch, in front of which hangs a red curtain in folds. She is seen full-face. 
The black hair has been combed backwards over small pads. The complexion is fresh and 
rosy, the expression good-natured. She wears a heavy goffered flat collar without lace, a 
locket with a coloured miniature on her breast, and a black silk dress. In her right hand 
she holds a closed fan which is attached by a ring to her thumb. We read the inscription 
on one of the caryatids of the arch. The attitude of the woman is not so easy and elegant 
as that of the man, but it is even more distinguished. The painting is careful ; the shadows 
are less dark, — more of a gray-blue. Gray reflected lights, such as van Dyck employed 
on his silk stuffs, glance over the black dress. The transparency of the linen and the fair 
delicateness of the hands are very striking. 

The old woman sits in a chair of the same kind as her daughter or daughter-in-law, 
and in front of a rectangular arch, partially hidden by a rumpled curtain. To the left is 
visible the side of a column; to the right a caryatid in profile, and on the same side a 
recess, or a piece of furniture shut in by a large pane of glass, in which can be distinguished 
a vase holding a tulip. The woman wears a little black cap which covers the hair and 
falls over the forehead, a small goffered collar, white cuffs, a black dress shot with grey 
reflections, and a fur boa, which hangs about her neck and down to her knees. She holds 
a handkerchief in the right hand, and a church-service book in the left. She looks about 
eighty years of age; her mouth is sunk, her hands are withered. The face has been 
tenderly painted, in a warm brown tone; the expression is restful. 

The three portraits seem to be related to one another; all three figures are seen to 
below the knee, and are lifesize; they are in the same attitude, and among similar surroun- 
dings; but judging from the treatment the old woman must have been painted later, say about 
1630. All three pictures, too, are of genuine value, showing that Jordaens at the age of thirty 
was a master in portraiture. The man especially is very successful ; he looks so calm and so 
distinguished, his attitude is so elegant, his hands are so beautifully shaped. The painting 
is still solid, but tenderer than in the family-portrait at Madrid. The light is not particularly 
strong, but its effect is harmonious. The young woman is paler in tone than the man. 

From Jordaens' early period, but undoubtedly a little later than 1623, comes the large 
family portrait in the Museum at Madrid referred to above. The group consists of the father, 
the mother, a little girl about four or five years old, and a servant. To the right stands the 
father with his right foot on the cross bar of a chair, his right hand on the back of it. 
In his left he holds a lute. He is dressed in black with a white ruff, white cuffs, and yellow 
stockings; the sleeve of the right arm is a yellow bronze. He is a young man in 



—.ties, good-looking, with .own ^ a mousta che andean imp^The woma, 

rirt ^i y 7r r- r^. The h em * h . red , TT ^ 

from under h r black dress; the front of her bodice is embroidered in gold. She has 
her right arm round her little daughter, and lays her left upon the child's left arm. The 
lite maid wears a white pinafore over a yellow dress; her head is covered a blue 
I wl In one hand she holds an apple, in the other a basket of grapes. The servant stands 
between the man and the woman, somewhat in the background. She wears a flat straw 
hat a standing-up collar, a red bodice, a white apron, and holds a basket with fruit in her 
hand. In the background we notice dark foliage; to the left a parrot on a stick, and a 

fountain decorated with a marble 
dolphin, with an Amor astride it; 
under a chair to the right is a dog. 
This is one of the best works 
of Jordaens in this genre: the 
grouping is happy, the expression 
full of life, the colour vivid, firmly 
kneaded, and finely handled. Mother 
and daughter stand in the full 
light; the little girl is simple, the 
mother distinguished. The maid 
is in half tones with thin shadows 
on the face under the brim of the 
straw hat, while a heavy shadow 
falls on the white apron; the 
father is in a darker tone; but a 
strong light on cheek and collar 
serves well to throw up the head. 
There is not the least doubt 
about the genuineness of the pic- 
ture, or about the date of its 
execution : the solidity of the pain- 
ting, the vivid colouring, the heavy 
shadows, the unbroken hues, prove 
it to belong to the early Twenties. The whole handling witnesses to the high pitch which 
Jordaens' art had already attained. 

Henri Hymans expresses the opinion that in this picture Jordaens has painted himself 
with his wife and eldest child. This child, Catharina, was born in 1617; and as the girl 
in the picture seems to be about five years old, it must, if this supposition is correct, 
have been painted in 1622. Jordaens at that date was 29 and Catharina van Noort 33 years 
old. But the father in the group seems to me decidedly older than 29, and moreover bears 
too slight a likeness to Jordaens to justify us in recognising the artist's portrait in it. His 
clothes, those of his wife, and all the details of the picture indicate a family in a much 
better position than Jordaens occupied at that time. 

To the same, or rather to a slightly earlier time belongs the family portrait in the 
Hermitage. There ten persons are seated in a garden, about a table. The eldest son plays 

ABANDANCE. Drawing (Mr. Heseltine, London). 



on the guitar; the father holds a glass of wine in his hand. To the right sits the mother 
with a child on her knee; behind the mother a daughter; in front of her again a second 
daughter; on this side of the table a third, with a dog. Higher up, a servant enters with 
a dish. Three little Loves are fluttering among the foliage of the trees. The painting is harder 
and darker than in that of the Museum at Madrid. The picture came from the Walpole 
collection, and whilst forming part of it was engraved under the title „Rubens and his family". 

In the second half of the year 1903 a portrait was placed in the National Gallery, 
London, which bears the coat-of-arms of the family Waha, „gules, an eagle argent striped 
sable" and the inscription ^TATIS SWE 63—1626. This work is described as the 
portrait of Baron Waha de Linter of Namur, and is attributed to Jordaens. It is a remarkable 
picture; a splendid figure, powerfully 
painted. The man is turned three- 
quarters to the left, and looks towards 
the right; his short, brushed-up hair 
is touched with gray, moustache and 
beard are wholly gray; the eyes are 
small but sharp; he is a healthy-looking 
carle, and evidently lives well. He 
wears a white goffered collar, white 
cuffs, and a black cloak over a black 
silk coat. Slantwise across the chest 
runs a three-ply gold chain, and 
from a belt round his waist hangs a 
sword with a gold hilt. The left hand 
rests on the hip, the right on a walk- 
ing stick. The face is burnt red, the 
nose scarlet; its colour is shown up by 
the warm white collar, and against 
the background of blue sky flecked 
with little thin white clouds, while 
to the left can just be seen a bronze- 
green, almost black curtain, with gold 
fringes faintly visible. 

The painting has something tho- 
rough, massive and free about it, and 
this, no doubt, explains its attribution 

to Jordaens. But these qualities are not invincible argument, and they are not so con- 
vincingly displayed as in his indisputable portraits. We may be permitted to express a 
doubt, therefore. It was certainly painted by an Antwerp artist; neither van Dyck nor Cornelis 
de Vos executed it, so that we are thrown back upon the alternative of Rubens or Jordaens. 
The picture, particularly in the hands with their bent finger tips, is undeniably reminiscent 
of Rubens The chestnut brown reflections on the curves of the figures and the blue- 
gray modelling also recall the great master. But the head betrays his style less clearly. 
It is lightly modelled, the colours have been fused, and the shadows are grey. Rubens 
painted more loosely and freely, and laid down the touches more separately; his flesh is 
fairer and is animated in a more vivid way by the red tints of the blood which course 

PAN AND SYRINX (Museum, Brussels). 



round the openings of nose and mouth. Here the colour on the face i« more hot; the 
naintin, is very firm and at the same time very broad; there is something at once bold and 
colon in the expression; all characteristics of jordaens rather than of Rubens And wh.e 
we lack complete certainty, in the present state of our knowledge we can attribute the 
picture to the first with more plausibility than to the second master. 

The Duke of Devonshire possesses a double portrait, which for a long time bore the 

FAMILY-PORTRAIT (Museum, Madrid). 

title „Prince Frederick-Henry of Orange and his wife."(l) The man does not in the least 
resemble the Stadtholder, and the woman has nothing in common with Amalia van Solms, 
save that she is stout and short of neck. If there were the least doubt about the figures 
being wrongly named, it would be dispelled by looking at the coat-of-arms at the top of 
the picture, which is that of the family van Surpele or van Zurpele, who lived in the 
XVII th century at Diest in South-Brabant. 

The background is taken up by a double arch; of the two openings, the one on the 

(1) WAAGEN. Art Treasures in Great-Britain, II. 94. 


left is open to the air. The lady of the house sits in an ample armchair with a 
red velvet back, and ample she herself is also, with her round head sunk between her 
shoulders, and both hands in her lap, — a typical Flemish matron of mature years. The hair 
has been brushed backwards, a wide collar edged with lace lies on her shoulders, deep 
cuffs encircle her wrists; she wears a dress of richly embroidered black silk. The man 
stands in front of the arch to the right; like his wife, he looks about fifty years of age. Solid, 
and firmly planted on legs set well apart, his right hand on a high walking-stick, the left 
turned backwards on his hip, he looks out at the spectator with calm eyes. His hair is 
thick and curly; he wears a large, soft white collar, a black garb, and round the waist a 
broad red sash, the richly embroidered ends of which hang down behind him; slantwise 
across his breast is slung an ornate belt from which is suspended a sword with a broad hilt. 
In the background, between the arches, we notice a caryatid with a satyr-head, above which 
hangs the coat-of-arms of the van Zurpele, „vair or and Azure, on a bar gules three 
hammers of the first". In the foreground is a little dog; and on an iron bar which runs 
across the arch perches a parrot. 

The painting is carefully executed, and gives all the details of head, hands, and 
clothes. The tone is warm and strong; the whole execution masterly. The background is 
furnished in the same way as in the portraits belonging to Mevrouw Bosschaert-Dubois. 
Here, as there, the woman is seated before an open arch, decorated with a caryatid with a 
satyr-head. But this picture is clearly of a later date, say about 1630: the painting is more 
tender and the shadows are more transparent than those of 1623; on the other hand it 
does not yet exhibit the fleecy warmth of the portraits of 1640. It is a masterly work, 
undoubtedly the most excellent of Jordaens' portraits. Excellent, because it has been carefully 
executed, and is really magnificent in its quiet velvety light; excellent also, because the 
couple represented are so distinguished and noble : the man with his proud bearing, holding 
his walking-stick like a commander's staff; the woman, who, though somewhat heavy, has 
yet the presence of one who inspires instant respect and is accustomed to exact deference. 


1631 — 1641. 


pieces — Portraits. 



is noticeable that Jordaens' 
manner of painting alters con- 
siderably after 1630. True, we 
cannot point with certainty to any 
. .-.*><, pictures as having been produced 

tr\ ftJ^JJlT \ -M \ - . t N^ft£. It* -»J lrsA i J?J immediately after that year: the 

earliest date which we find on 
any work painted after The Miracle 
of St. Martin is 1637. But in that 
year the changed direction of his 
work had already declared itself, 
and we may conclude unhesita- 
tingly that the modification to 
which we allude had been going on 
for some years, and was first notice- 
able shortly after 1630. It is this 
year, therefore, that we take as 
marking the close of his first 
period, — the stage of his career 
in which he distinguished himself by firm and more or less hard painting, by stiff lines, 
untempered light, and a powerful realism. In his second period, which we date from 1631, 
he becomes softer and more melting in tone, more downy in his light, more elegant in 
his forms. He is now evidently under the influence of Rubens; after having resisted 
it for twelve or fifteen years he submits, like his fellow artists in Antwerp and 
throughout all Flanders, to his paramount authority. He does not even now renounce 
his independence: he becomes no servile, or even faithful, follower of Rubens'; 
nevertheless, the change which we notice in his work is due to the impress of the great 
master, and it brings Jordaens nearer to him. The transformations which Jordaens' style 
underwent after he had, for good and all, adopted his second manner are of less impor- 
tance than those which were noticeable in it during the earlier period; and except the 

(Mr. M. Delacre, Ghent). 


few pictures which are dated, and those (also small in number) which are mentioned in 
historical documents, his works in it are difficult to arrange in regular sequence, and 
it is only after careful examination of them that we can trace the slow alterations of his 
style. In the case of other masters — of Rubens, for example, and of Rembrandt and van 
Dyck, — we see the change coming slowly, indeed, but unbrokenly; no doubt in Jordaens' 
work also similar continuous modifications occur, but they are certainly not so obvious 
to the eye, and they follow no regular line of development. Thus it is not possible to 
define them with the same certainty, and no one hitherto has even tried to indicate them. Yet 
to write the history of Jordaens' art without seeking to arrange his pictures chronologically 
is to wander blindfold, without a guide for oneself or a light for the reader. And though 
the task may be difficult, and full of pitfalls, it is also very attractive, for it forces us to 
study all the characteristics of every one of the master's pictures, and all the transfor- 
mations of his art in the course of his career. 

Jordaens does not now desert subjects drawn from everyday life; on the contrary, 
more even than in the earlier period he is the painter of homely scenes derived from 
the manners and customs of the Flemish burghers. But his way of representing these 
subjects differs considerably from his former treatment of them. 

The Peasant and the Satyr. Museum at Brussels. — The picture which shows 
most clearly this alteration in his manner of painting is The Peasant and the Satyr in the 
Museum at Brussels. The composition is essentially the same as that of the earlier examples 
of the subject. Now, however, the scene is laid in the open air, under an awning held up 
by a pole along which trails a vine. On the farther side of the table sits the peasant busy 
eating his porridge from a red earthenware pot. He blows on it as hard as he can blow: 
his cheeks are swollen, and his eyes are closed with the force he is putting into the 
action. Greedily he goes to work, little minding the laughter and jeers of the bystanders. 
To the right sits his wife with her child on her lap, her hand slightly extended with a 
gesture in keeping with her expression, as if she were saying: „Just look at the glutton!" 
In front of her stands a dog; behind her is a maid who has fetched her master a glass 
of beer; to the left is the satyr with uplifted arm, venting his indignation at the doings 

of the peasant. 

It is a beautiful symphony of light. The woman and the child are set in the full 
sunlight, which does not glow but rests softly on her healthy and rosy face, her white 
linen, her copper-yellow bodice, and on the white and red dress of the child. The light 
falls more warmly on the peasant. His skin is brown, and boldly touched in; his blowing 
works it into crinkles and folds which bring a play and "sparkle into the dusky glow 
of his face On the heavy, wrinkled, knotted, kneaded body of the satyr lies a sultry 
moisture over which floats a quiet light that glows and softly glistens, that here and there 
breaks through, disappears, and reappears on the surface a little higher up. It gains in 
strength on the shoulder; reaching the head, it becomes sharper, and flickering through 
the dark browns causes forehead and nose to stand out vividly. The whole head is a 
marvel of deep dusky tones and reflections, lacking firmness of lines but with flaring 
touches which cause the lump of tonality to sparkle with life The old servant in dull 
half-tones, and the scumbled background, throw the foreground figures into relief and add 
to the misty impression of the whole. 

The transformation in Jordaens' style, of which we have spoken, is here complete, and 



the difference between this work and those of the previous period is immense. Perhaps we 
still discover something of his early hardness in the awkward gesture of the peasant 
woman's extended arm, and in the stiff folds of her smiling face; but for the rest all the 
movements have become more supple, all the forms more yielding, all the tones softer. 
No fierce glow, no vivid, full colour is to be seen any longer; everything is wrapped in a 
velvety warmth, a suppressed glow, and a melting light. 

In the peasant we recognize Jordaens himself, and in the peasant woman his wife; 
both seem to be about forty, and very probably the picture was painted in the second half 

of the Thirties. 

In the collection of Mr. Fairfax Murray in London there is a drawing into which is 
introduced a piece of tapestry whereon the same scene reappears. The figures, however, are 

NEPTUNE AND AMPH1TRITE (Duke of Aremberg, Brussels). 

given at full length, while in the painting we see them as far as the knees only. Jordaens 
frequently painted this scene from peasant life, and in later years he took greater advantage 
of the assistance of his pupils in the production of slightly altered repetitions of his former 
versions of it. Thus the Count de Beauffort at Brussels possesses a copy of The Peasant 
and the Satyr in which the principal figures are the same as in the engraving by Neefs, 
while the accessory figures have been altered. All of them have been derived from earlier 
versions, but they are painted in a dark brown tone, with black shadows such as Jordaens 
introduced into his canvases in later years only. The picture in the collection of Mr. A. Harcq 
at Brussels is a much-altered copy of this favourite subject of Jordaens. It was painted 
in his studio by a pupil of undeniable talent, who, however, did not possess the powerful 
touch of the master and easily degenerated into caricature. 



The Peasant at his Porridge. — We must now speak of certain pictures related 
with the preceding, into the composition of which, however, Jordaens introduced considerable 
alterations. Evidently he realised that his illustration of Aesop's fable was insufficient, 
insomuch as the blowing peasant could only be pictured in one of his contradictory actions; 
and that (since this blowing figure was, after all, the real essential in the scene) he might 
easily and without great loss leave out the satyr and confine himself to the painting of the 
peasant and his household. He took this step in a picture in the Museum at Cassel, called 
The Peasant at his Porridge. 

It is rather astonishing that in recasting his old subject he takes the whole group, 
with the exception of the satyr, from the preceding picture; with this difference, however, 
that here, as in the drawing of Mr. Fairfax 
Murray, he paints the figures full-length. The 
feeding peasant, the mother with the child, 
the servant behind them, are absolutely the 
same in shape and colour as in the Brussels 
picture. In the background we notice the 
same vine climbing against the trellis-work. 
On the table are the same dishes; and in 
front of the table sits the same dog. The 
satyr has given place to an old peasant in a red 
blouse with bare legs, who throws back 
his head to drink from a pewter jug. The 
fantastic form which he still preserves 
recalls the wood-god to us. Between this 
drinker and the peasant stands a girl, who 
is biting a slice of bread and butter; on 
the ground to the right is seated a little boy. 
The little girl reminds us very much of the 
maid in the Fertility; the little boy of the 
one in The Miracle of St. Martin. In the 
foreground in the middle of the picture stands 
a grazing goat. 

It is a very pleasant rustic scene, in 
which boorish simplicity and uncouthness are 
mingled with artful arrangement and attractive 
figures. The general tone is the same as that 

in the picture at Brussels ; an abundance of soft light broken by transparent shadows envelops 
the scene. The golden tones are dominant here also ; they are carried throughout the entire 
picture, and are seen in the straw wall in the background, the yellow blouse of the peasant 
woman, the yellow dog, the fair hair of the children, the warm hues of the sky; but the sunniness 
is firmer, the colouring more vivid. The sultry indefiniteness of the satyr has been transferred 
to the drinking peasant and to the little girl in front of him. These figures, and indeed the 
whole work, have been executed in a masterly way. The Porridge-eater at Cassel and The 
Peasant and the Satyr at Brussels rank among the most perfect pictures which Jordaens 
produced in his altered manner of painting. The second, like the first, dates from the 
second half of the Thirties, but we are unable to say which of the two was the earlier. The 

(Mr. M. Delacre, Ghent). 



work at Cassel is known to have been there as early as 1749, and was carried off by 
Jerome Napoleon, and returned in 1814. We shall find later that Jordaens used four of the 
figures from this picture and from that in Brussels for the composition of the cartoons 
in the Proverbs series of tapestries. 

A second picture, corresponding in almost every detail with the preceding, is in the 
Museum of Strasbourg. It is signed and dated on one of the legs of the table, J. Jordaens 1652. 
The nakedness of the urchin is covered by a branch of the vine which he holds in his 
hand. It is a very mediocre repetition of the other, cold in lighting, the flesh looking as 
tough as leather: a painting, in a word, heavy and lumpish. It is certainly not by Jordaens; 

THE PEASANT AND THE SATYR (Museum, Brussels). 

at the most, unless we assume that the signature is altogether false, it is the work of 
a pupil, who inscribed on it the name of his master and the date of his copy. The original 
work was painted some twelve or fifteen years earlier than the date found upon this one 

In the Liechtenstein Gallery at Vienna there is a simplified version of the same subject. 
The peasant eating his porridge and the old servant who holds the glass of beer and the 
jug in her hand are all that has been retained from the central group. To the left we see 
a young woman with curly hair who laughingly lays her hand on the shoulder of the 
peasant. The picture hangs too high and is too badly lighted for us to say more about it. 

A similar subject is treated by Jordaens in A Peasant Meal, representing a woman, 
two children, and a shepherd seated at table, which appeared at the D. G. von Schauss- 


at e M P uni n ch aUSen ^ (C ° l0gne ' 19 ° 1); ^ '" A Pe ° Sattt FamUy ' m the Michel Collection 

The King drinks. - About 1630, or at all events shortly thereafter, jordaens began 
to treat a second subject inspired by the manners and customs of his people (and more 
particularly of the Flemish burghers). Once having chosen it, he never wearied of it but 

P . ai l Jt? gam and again; lt Pr ° vided him with material for sever al of his masterpieces; 

it exhibited him in the fullness of his individuality, in all his joy of life, in all his 

mastery as a painter. 

This subject is called: The King drinks, or The Epiphany. 
In Flanders and else 

where the feast of the Epi- 
phany has been an institu- 
tion for centuries; aged 

people of the present day 

still remember when it was 

celebrated in every house- 
hold ; in these later times it 

is less frequently observed, 

and in all probability it will, 

like so many other customs, 

disappear altogether. On 

Epiphany day, January 6, 

the family and relations 

gather round the board. One 

of the dishes is a cake, which 

has been baked with a bean 

in it; the cake is cut in as 

many portions as there are 

people present. He who finds 

the bean in his plate is 

declared king; he presides 

at table, and commands the 

obedience of all the others. 

The fun is started by his 

assigning a r61e to each of them, and together they spend a merry night eating, 

drinking, singing, and doing all sorts of jolly things. From what we know of the customs 

of that day these gatherings must have been not merely merry, but even very noisy and 

hilarious. And so, at any rate, Jordaens painted them. 

Besides the King, and the Queen whom he appointed, there were a Counsellor, 
a Secretary, a Chamberlain, a Steward, a Treasurer, a Cup-bearer, a Carver, a Confessor, 
a Doctor, a Porter, a Messenger, a Singer, a Musician,' a Jester and a Cook: or a few of 
these, if the company did not muster the full seventeen, which, however, was seldom the 
case. The Queen (who was never wanting), was the only female character, although of 
course the fair sex was not excluded from the fun. In one of the versions of The Epiphany, — 
that in the Imperial Museum at Vienna — Jordaens has indicated all the different officials 

(Mr. A. Harcq, Brussels). 


by means of little scrolls, which are pinned on to their caps or clothes, or are lying before 
them on the floor; in this picture are the Fool, the Carver, the Medico, the Queen and 
the Messenger. It is clear that, in Jordaens' pictures at least, the roles have not been 
decided by lot: the King is always the oldest, the Queen the prettiest, of the company. 

In these Epiphany festivities the master found an opportunity of painting the Flemish 
burghers at table. When Rubens and van Dyck bring topers and tipsy folk upon the scene, 
they always choose for these characters figures from the pagan Olympus: Bacchus, Silenus, 
Satyrs and Bacchantes are their heroes and heroines. The elder Breughel, again, paints 
weddings celebrated by peasants and peasant-women; Teniers also goes to the villages 
for the kermis-people. Jordaens' choice, on the other hand, falls upon townspeople of 
the well-to-do middle class. It was they whom he knew best; he lived with them, he had 
often sat at table with them; he knew how they enjoyed themselves, how valiantly they 
engaged in a meal, how loud their laugh and their song — how wild the one, how 
witty the other; how sentimentally this one and how shamelessly that behaved when 
excited by wine. The elder people among us still recall those ancestral bouts: the festive 
meals which began shortly after midday and did not finish before midnight; when the 
menu contained at least a dozen substantial dishes, where during desert witty songs were 
sung, and when the end was satisfactory only if the departing guest stumbled through the 
streets with uncertain steps in the small hours. 

In the seventeenth century they must have been even more wonderful affairs. The 
flourishing state of the Southern Provinces, more especially of the town of Antwerp, had 
come to an end in the last quarter of the XVI th century. The dreadful struggle with Spain, 
which raged from 1567 to 1585, had closed with the taking of Antwerp by Alexander of 
Parma and the rehabilitation of the King's power in the Southern Netherlands. The war 
with the Northern Provinces lasted until the Peace of Munster in 1648. After this year until 
the end of the century, Flanders was continually the scene of struggles between Spain and 
France, though Antwerp at that time was not directly concerned in them. People lived 
from day to day in a state of uncertainty — a state neither of war nor of peace, which 
did not allow the country to recover from the exhaustion caused by troublous times. 
Commerce was destroyed by the closing of the Scheldt; industry was interrupted by the 
apprehensive feeling in the country. The decline in the power of Spain as well as of the 
Spanish Netherlands became each year more rapid, and poverty increased in proportion; 
the burghers were oppressed by heavy taxes, which they might rebel against, but still had 
to pay. The Flemings enjoyed no longer an independant existence, but were ruled by 
Governors sent from Madrid. A present decline, a future without hope — such was their 
condition. They were moving slowly, but steadily, without jolting and pushing, to the 
abyss, and by the time that the seventeenth century had come to an end, they had reached 
the bottom: their resources were dried up, art had dwindled away, and all spiritual life 
seemed to have breathed its last. 

If it be true that those people are happiest who have no history, then were the Flemings 
a notable illustration thereof. They no longer played a role in the world; battles were 
fought on their soil, but they took no part in the fight; they lived on what was left over 
from former prosperity, and on what the tough industry, the inextinguishable love of work, 
and the stout spirit of the people could still achieve. Now and then complaints about the 
steady decline were heard; yet the burghers did not lose courage or cheerfulness; they 
seemed to adapt themselves to the dark times, and to regard adversity as a normal condition. 


The people hardened themselves to their fate, and with all the evil gratefully accepted 
any little good that came their way. They did not take things too much to heart, but 
enjoyed with a certain wantonness the days of respite, the hours of unconcern. 

It was due to this stubborn resistance to ruin, that the Flemish school of art reached 
the period of its greatest glory in the first half of the seventeenth century; thanks to their 
unquenchable cheerfulness, the burghers in those years of general depression never lost a 
chance of enjoying themselves, and of enjoying themselves exceedingly. 

We have sketched elsewhere the features of these festivities. (1) The deans of the Guild 
of St. Luke squandered its money, and sometimes their own savings as well, in yearly 
dinners which, about the middle of the XVII th century, had become the principal events in 
that old and venerable institution. In 1648 there was disbursed for the Knor (or „small 
dinner"), which was held on the day when the new dean entered office, 200 guilders; and 
for the grand dinner, on the day of St. Luke, 481 guilders (about 9000 fr. of our present 
money). In 1676 the dean, Theodoor Verbrugghen, expended 1300 guilders upon a dinner; 
yet the entire income of the guild amounted to 1800 or 2000 guilders only. In consequence, 
in 1678, it was found necessary to limit the expenses of the banquet to 1000 guilders. 

This was the order of things in the immediate surroundings of Jordaens, and it was 
nowise different in other circles. I have before me the annual accounts of the dinner of the 
Lofmeesters in the chapel of Our Lady in 1671, the year in which Balthasar Moretus, 
of the family of Antwerp printers, was installed. Jufvrouw Moretus, mother of the newly 
chosen master, gave a breakfast and an „evening meal" for the procession of the Lofmeesters, 
and a banquet when her son was escorted home. On September 29, 1671, on St. Michael's 
day, Balthasar Moretus himself gave a small dinner, and on the 24 th of January 
following a grand banquet which lasted three days. On the third day one and a 
half awm (an awm was equal to about 40 gallons) and one eighth of an awm of hock was 
drunk, and this cost some 166 guilders, about a thousand francs of our coin. The whole 
banquet cost him 944 guilders, 9 stuivers, — about 5500 francs. Sixty persons sat down 
to it; the first day there were served three courses with forty-two varieties of dishes; on 
the second day there were forty-eight different dishes; appetite had evidently languished 
a little by the third, for on it there were only forty persons present, and no more than 
thirty-five dishes on the menu. When on the 9 th of July, 1673, Balthasar Moretus again 
gave a banquet, in honour of his son's marriage, it cost him 1667 guilders, 4'/ 4 stuivers, 
or about 10,000 francs to-day: to the confectioner alone were paid 530 guilders and 3 
stuivers, that is, about 2000 francs. (2) 

Such was the manner in which one dined in the XVII th century at the tables of 
well-to-do burghers. Houses where we should have least expected such worship of pleasure 
and feasting were not behind-hand in these cheerful practices. In the registers of the Falcon 
Cloister in Antwerp, (3) we find on every page almost bills for small festivities celebrated 
on the occasion of the ordination of novices. Let me give one example. On the 
10 th of February, 1664, nineteen persons celebrated the „Marriage" of a novice; fourteen 
visitors were staying in the convent from Saturday night until Friday morning. They 
brought with them seven knuckles of ham, three tongues, cheeses, apples, cakes; and the 
nuns entertained them as follows : 

(1) Willem OOIER (New Sketch book, p. 120). 

(2) Archives of the Museum Plantin-Moretus. Bills. 

(3) State Archives at Antwerp. 

6 4 


„First, 20 white loaves, each half a stuyver, a salted leg of mutton, 2 hams, 2 pieces 
of dressed meat, 3 dishes of rice, 3 dishes of mutton-stew, with sausages and meat-balls, 
and 3 dishes of mashed prunes: these for the first course. 

„Item, 3 capons, a venison, a roasted shoulder, 3 dishes with forced-meat balls, 
3 dishes with little cakes. 

„Item, each one's share of dessert put in a dish, and set before her; it consisted of 
a large piece of almond tart, a mossafoel, a piece of biscuit, a white letter, and 20 sweets 
of large Spanish sugar, and wine from the gilt dish in which to drink the bride's health." 

On the second day the feast 
was continued on the same lavish 
scale. We also get an insight into 
how things went on at table. After 
summing up all that was consumed 
that day, the account proceeds: 

„Item, the dessert, 3 dishes 
Spanish sugar and 3 dishes of 
aniseed, which they divided in a 
rude way by snatching and grab- 
bing it to their plates; then there 
were 19 fancy dishes thrown 
into a lottery and marked with 
figures, of which each received 
according to the draw. There was 
great jollity, and the wine flowed 
liberally." And this was not always 
the end. The report of a similar 
wedding celebrated in the same 
cloister in 1673 finishes thus: 
„The friends all went home, quite 
content, on a waggon decorated 
with evergreen; there was violin 
music and singing, and some were 

Such was life in the convents, 
and evidently the sisters, far from 
taking offence at these feasting 
parties and their consequences, 
looked upon them as great fun, 
and were even rather proud of them. They considered them great events in the life of 
their cloister. In the same way as the Moretus family recorded with glee, one by one, the 
hundred dishes which they offered to the Lofmasters, the Falcon sisters chronicled with full 
details the weddings which they celebrated. In those turbulent days people who chronicled 
such events regarded them as glowing passages in their own and in Flemish history. 

The authorities, however, looked upon this excessive banqueting and junketting in 
another light, and did whatever they could to moderate it. In the 16 th and 17 th centuries 
they repeatedly issued decrees against the carousals held on the occasion of weddings and 

(Liechtenstein, Vienna). 



funerals. To cite one of many examples, mention may be made of the ..Proclamation and 
Ordinance against the revels at Weddings, banquets and Funerals" issued on the 30 th of 
September, 1613, by the Arch-Dukes Albert and Isabella, which was only a repetition of 
earlier proclamations of their own and of one even of a former Government, on October 7, 1531. 

This ordinance states that the abuse, nothwithstanding former proclamations, had reached 
to such a point that „one has known as many as five or six hundred persons gathered at a 
wedding, to the great inconvenience and impoverishment of our subjects, besides the 
improprieties, quarrels and fights which such a great multitude involves." The Arch-Dukes 
therefore forbade the invitation of more than thirty-two couples to a wedding or the 
prolongation of the festivities beyond two days. At funerals it had become the custom to 
have a banquet on the day 
of the interment and another 
the next day; it was now 
forbidden to entertain any 
but a few friends and rela- 
tions „with all moderation 
and propriety," and these on 
the day of the funeral only, 
under penalty of a fine. (1) 

The impression left by 
these saturnalia upon the 
foreigner, and particularly 
upon the sober Spaniards, 
can be gathered from the 
Cardinal-Infant, Governor of 
the Southern Provinces in 
1635—1641. He was present 
in 1639 at the great fair at 
Antwerp, and on the day 
following wrote to his brother, 
Philip IV: ..Yesterday they 
held here their great festival, 
which is called the Ker- 
messe ; there went out a large 
procession with many trium- 
phal cars : finer in my opinion 

than that at Brussels. After the procession they all went off to eat and drink, and at the 
end they all got drunk, for unless they did that they would not count it a festival here. 
They live, upon my word, like beasts." (2) 

This is not very polite, and one must make allowance for it in the mouth of a Spaniard 
who given to sobriety himself, considers drunkenness as the greatest of all vices. But it 
certainly was true that at this time the Flemish people were fond of show and excessive 
eating and drinking - more so than was decent, and more so probably than other nations. 
Not only was there a banquet at the Guild of St. Luke when a new dean was appointed, 

(1) Proclamations of Flanders, II, 171, 737, 738. 

(2) Letter of Aug. 29. 1639 (JUSTI- Velasquez. II. 458). 

Drawing (Boyinans Museum, Rotterdam). 


but it and all other guilds, societies, companies, and Chambers of Rhetoric improved every 
occasion in the same manner. No new magistrate was chosen, no eminent visitor arrived 
in the town, no bargain was struck, no notable event happened, without people gathering 
round a board where food and drink in abundance were served. 

On July 30, 1672, the Governor issued a proclamation prohibiting banquets at the 
expense of the community on the renewal of a magistrate's term of office, at the settlement 
of accounts, at fairs or on feast-days, on the passage through the city of important personages, 
unless it were to reward them or to show them gratitude — from which we gather that it 
was the habit to feast at all such times. 

On mournful occasions it was the same. At the funeral of a notable man, a great part 
of the population seemed to feel the need of expressing its sympathy by consuming dainty 
dishes and of drowning grief in deep draughts of wine. When Rubens was buried there not 
only was a banquet in his house for the family and friends ; but there was one also at the 
town-hall, attended by the members of the Magistracy and the Treasury, which cost 
250 guilders (about 1500 fr.), another to the members of the Confraternity of the Romanists 
at the „Golden Flower", when 126 florins were spent, and a third at the „Stag" to thirty-four 
members of the Guild of St. Luke and the „Gilliflower", which cost 182 florins. (1) 

The King drinks. Cassel. — That which was an offence to the Spanish prince, and 
a licence that the authorities tried to bridle, offered subjects to Jordaens which delighted 
his heart. Flemish people busy feasting, singing, love-making, in the midst of noise and 
hubbub, were to him so many choice models. True, he represents the land of Cocagne 
by the feast of the Epiphany only, but he gives us various versions of it. One incident, 
however, is constant in them all: that moment during the feast which he paints,— the 
solemn moment when „the king drinks", and all the company applaud this important act, 
and proclaim it with vociferous cheering. The pictures which represent this subject are 
called indifferently therefore „The Epiphany" and „The King drinks". 

Jordaens neither took nor asked advice from any one as to his choice of scenes of 
quiet or noisy fun; lie was led to these subjects by his own intuition. Yet it ought to 
be observed that in Flanders and elsewhere immediately before his time, as well as during 
it, similar jolly or disorderly scenes were treated with life-size figures. Michel Angelo de 
Caravaggio (1569—1609), the Italian naturalist, had introduced knaves and sharpers as 
heroes; his pupils, the Dutchman Gerard Honthorst (1590—1654) and the Frenchman 
Valentin (1591—1634?), following his example, painted by preference groups of dicers 
or musicians. In Flanders itself, also, Theodoor Rombouts was fond of representing 
subjects of this kind. But Jordaens, though he painted carousals, introduced no knavish 
tricks into his pictures; he was a jolly and bright-spirited man himself, and the actions 
and gestures in his pictures also are full of liveliness, while Caravaggio, Honthorst, Valentin 
and Rombouts, even in their merriest gatherings, are, compared with him, sad in tone, and 
stiff and timid in gesture. 

Of the examples of Jordaens' Epiphany known to us, the oldest is that in the Museum 
at Cassel. At a well-furnished table sits the merry company. To the right, at the head of 
the table, appears the king, ready to drink, holding in one hand the rummer, in the other 
the glass wine-jug. With a paper crown on his head, and a vivid red cloak around him, 

(1) MAX ROOSES, Rubens' Life and Works, p. 620. 


he looks rather soft, and not very imposing. Behind him stands the jester with a fool's cap 
on his head and his mace in his hand; he lays his arm on the shoulder of a maid who 
holds a pewter jug. Next to the King sits the Queen, a young laughing woman with a 
shouting child on her lap, who looks with interest at her drinking neighbour. Then follow 
to the left: an old man with red cap, red collar and blue clothes, holding a whistle 
between his fingers; an amorous girl, with silver tinsel in her hair, who rests her arm 
on the shoulder of the old man; a singing man raising his glass. To the left: a father 
with a curly-headed child, a young man standing erect, who helps himself to wine, a 
satyr-like old man trying to embrace a young girl; a man turning sick, and a woman 
who laughingly comes to his assistance and supports his head. In the foreground we have 
a trooper with a beaker in his outstretched hand, calling out excitedly. On the floor a dog 
is busy upsetting a tray with dinner-ware, and a cat hides under the table. The back- 
ground is the wall of the room, with a few windows to the left. 

The lighting of the picture is unusually powerful. There is an exceedingly brilliant 
glow upon the group composed of the king, the young woman and her child, the player 
on the pipe, and the two young women. The fool and the old woman are standing in a 
warm, dark shadow; the group to the left floats in a hazy brightness,— a little pale, like 
moonlight, and without solidity. The trooper in the foreground stands out against the 
light in massed, soft shadow. All this is very varied, almost unnatural and artificial; a 
conglomerate of very different people, very different actions, and very different lighting; 
merry and noisy enough, exquisite in treatment, but yet unsatisfactory. The light is still 
pronounced, the figures are sharply defined against the dusky background. Unity is wanting. 
One group of people is busy about the king; another is perfectly unconcerned about him, 
and has been pushed to the left in consequence. In this way the merry company is 
divided, in grouping and action, into two sections. The king, who ought to be the link 
which unites all, is rather a sorry, doddering figure, not at all attractive. 

There are beautiful passages and exquisite figures in the work ; but Jordaens' art is 
not yet ripe, and there is no doubt that the picture dates from the early thirties. The 
-queen is the artist's wife, and the child is his. The model for the pipe-player with his 
drawn, deeply-furrowed face, and sinewy neck is the same as for one of the Evangelists, 
and for the satyr in the Abundance. All this we regard as a proof that the picture 
belongs to a comparatively early time. 

The King drinks. Valenciennes. — In the Museum at Valenciennes there is a copy 
of this picture, which, however, omits the four persons to the left. It may be said with 
absolute certainty that it is not by Jordaens; it is an old copy, a careful but characterless 
work. The picture is interesting in as much as it shows us what the copies made in Jordaens' 
studio were like, and how far he stood above his followers. The figures have no muscles, 
no life; everything is rounded off, polished, enervated. The colour is without life, the 
light without brilliance; there is no transparency in the shadows, which do not merge into 
the light Everything is limp and smooth. The people are not really merry. They are Jordaens' 
men and women, but his spirit has not been breathed into them : artificial little puppets who 
open their mouths and eyes, but do not see or sing. This unhappy copy shows as distinctly 
as do his own works how joyous was Jordaens' spirit, and how well able he was to inspire 
everybody and everything with life and merriment. At the Massius sale (Paris 1825) 
appeared the same picture, or one similarly curtailed by the cutting out of the left group. 



The King drinks. The Louvre. - A second version of the same subject is in The 
Louvre It evidently belongs to the same period as the first, though of a later date, say 
about 1638. This is the date on the picture As the old Cock crows, the young one learns 
in the Museum at Antwerp; one of the principal figures, the young mother with the child 
on her lap, corresponds exactly in both, in form as well as in execution. 

In 1638 Jordaens' manner of painting underwent a considerable change; now he aims 
at elegance in drawing, bright light effects, transparency in the shadows, and shows great 
judgment in his composition. He does not always avoid uncouth or even repugnant figures, 
but he does paint pictures in which everything is thoroughly sedate. His Epiphany in 
the Louvre is an excellent example of this altered manner. 

THE KING DRINKS (Museum, Brussels). 

Once more the company is seated around the table, with the king at the head, but 
this time to the left. He lifts the beaker to his mouth ; he wears on his head a silver-paper 
crown, round his shoulders a dark robe, under his chin a white table-napkin. Beside 
him, at the table, sits an old man, who raises his glass, and behind him again stands a 
young fellow who with extravagant gestures fills his own tankard. The young mother, the 
queen, sits on the farther side of the table, in the centre, beautifully dressed, with a red- 
velvet, feathered hat on her head. Behind her stands the fool, who lays his hand on her 
shoulder ; in front of her, her little boy. To the extreme right a boy, with a pewter beer-mug 
in his hand, is singing at the pitch of his voice; besides him are an old woman, and a 
maid who carries a dish of waffels on her outstretched hands. In front of the table is 



a golden-haired young woman in a red dress ; next to her a dog and a basket of table utensils. 
We are again in the world of well-to-do burghers; the people are well-mannered in 
their merrymaking — not disorderly, scarcely even free-and-easy. The young fellow on the one 
side shouts rather loudly; but on the other side sits for the first time the king of the day 
in the person of the grandfather Adam van Noort, looking like a saint, enveloped in a glowing 
shimmer of light. The mother has put on her best festive garment, and sits motionless so as 
not to crush her splendid array. The young woman in the red dress, with the flowers in her 
hair, is the sweetest girl in the world, — blushing with health, sparkling with life, chubby 
in the velvety light which clothes her cheeks. They seem to be gathered here more for our 
amusement than for their own; they are dressed too finely, too richly; we admire them 




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THE KII^G DRINKS (Academy Museum, St. Petersburg). 

because they exhibit all that is finest in light and colour that can be displayed on people's 
head and clothes. Jordaens' awkwardness has disappeared, but with it has gone part of 
his originality. This is even more observable here than in the preceding picture. 

As a colourist he has undergone a noticeable and striking change. His people have 
no longer the firmness and solidity of his first period; they have all become more or less 
soft and unctuous; especially the mother and the child, and the singing youth; light and 
colour now flow and play more sweetly, and the effect obtained is softer, more exquisite. 
He has also become more aristocratic. The young mother behind the table wears a white 
cambric bodice, over which is thrown a transparent gauze kerchief, a white pearl necklace, and a 
pale green bodice with golden yellow lining; before her stands a glass cup filled with Rhine 


wine; her neighbour holds a gold cup towards her; the child on her knee with the 
light brown hair wears a sunny yellow waistcoat and a white collar. All this sun, these 
tender tones and reflections, make her a rich centre of luminous, transparent and intermingling 
colours and hues. Round this lovingly embellished figure, carressed with delight, the others 
group themselves in fuller, broader, flatter tones, according as they recede towards the 
frame. The little chap to the right is warm and sunny; the three persons behind him are 
duller and deeper in shadow; the flesh of the young woman in the red dress, and of the 
fool with the yellow cap, seems to melt into a luminous haziness. The drinking king is 
darker, like all on the left side : but there also everything is tender in tone, alive, rejoicing 
in the sunshine, and standing out in relief against the neutral background, which is 
cooler behind the warm figures and warmer behind the cool. Nowhere are vivid, strong 
points of light to be found, but everything basks in a soft glow; all the accessories 
as well as all the personages have been painted with masterly skill. The king and the 
fool are especially finely touched. 

The King drinks. Brussels. — A third version which must have been painted shortly 
after the last is the smaller of two in the Museum at Brussels. Here the king sits in the 
centre on the far side of the table, and by this change the composition gains in unity. 
But the scene has become more noisy; it is a little later in the feast than in the 
preceding picture, the moment when all the company are cheering and shouting in honour 
of the king; they have already been drinking sometime, and have not finished drinking 
yet; the fun threatens to degenerate into dissipation; all have not got that length yet, but 
some are already behaving with impropriety. 

The king brings his glass to his mouth; over his dull green fur-lined tabard he has 
tied his snow-white serviette. To the left, behind the table, are two very pretty, laughing, 
roguish women, wine glasses in hand. To the right are a singing boy and an old toothless 
woman. Behind the table stand the fool, who smokes, and holds up his pipe on high, a 
bagpipe player, to whom (for the first time) Jordaens gives his own features, and a young 
cup-bearer who holds up his glass. In the foreground, to the right, a mother with a wine 
goblet in her hand and a screaming child which lies flat across her knees; to the left a 
young man, both arms uplifted, with a pewter can in one hand and his cap in the other, 
while a dog puts its paws up against his legs; farther to the side a man, crying- and 
singing-drunk, drops a basket of table ware. At the top is the inscription on a cartouche: 
„It is good to be a guest in a free inn." Thus it is not so much a patriarchal family scene, 
where old and young pay due respect to the various dishes and season them with merry 
talk and fun; but a mixture of lighthearted happiness, excessive jollity, and coarse excitement. 
Jordaens must have been more attracted by the kaleidoscopic and coarse elements in the 
festivity than by the more sedate jests, for all his Epiphanies, except the one in the Louvre, 
show this combination of pleasant and repugnant figures. 

This picture is delightful in colour. The king is the central figure in it, as he is the 
principal person at the feast. He sits enthroned in full light, in all his dignity, in the midst 
of this far from solemn company. He seems to laugh all over, with his puckered cheeks, 
which narrow his eyes and broaden his mouth, the folds which merriment brings on his 
venerable head, his lusty complexion, the white table napkin under his chin, and the crown 
of silver-foil on his head. The cup which he holds in his hand reflects the light in bright 
rays, and by its sparkle enhances the happy figure. The king is set between the noisy drinker 


(with the strong colour in head and waistcoat, and the powerful warm tone in his gold 
yellow sleeves and trousers, and the dark shadows on his flesh) on the one hand; and 
on the other, the bagpipe player in warm, soft tones over which float misty shadows. 
On either side of these figures, the lights are high and luminous. To the right is the 
tipsy woman with the child in her lap. The light falls brightly on her golden dress 
and overlays it with all the various tints of old and new gold. Her powerful neck is 
as if modelled in congealed light; with soft modulations running up into the red flush 
on her cheeks and down to the grey shadow between the breasts. That neck is a 
masterly piece of painting, delightful in its high and calm splendour, in firmness and 
tenderness. Between the golden garment and the rosily tinted flesh runs a blue band which 
heightens the warmth of both by the contrast of its coolness. The red dress of the child, 
his white linen, his blue skirt, also combine to add greater variety and richness to this 
colour symphony. 

On the left another tone dominates; there the light is sharper, fresher, livelier. The 
tipsy mother and screaming child are no longer present. Their place has been taken by 
two charming young girls; one of them with a little white cap on her head and a white 
cambric kerchief over her shoulders, the other in a pale yellow dress with muslin edging 
over the breast. On these charming young figures lies laughing bright sunshine; a thin, 
gray shadow, which steals upwards from their cheeks, mistily clothes their flesh : all about 
them betrays softness, youth and happiness. They are children of the spring who have 
wandered in among these coarsely carousing guests. The weeping, tipsy fellow in front of 
them who stumbles with the table ware, and the jolly figure of the fool above, serve 
to enhance still further their refined merriment. 

The accessories have been painted with all the craftsmanship in which Jordaens is 
unsurpassed; the glasses from which the king and the women drink, the pewter cans, the 
tumbling table-ware, the pasties, the dishes, all are beautiful in their broad and tender 
brushing. Here, as everywhere else, the expressions of the figures are eloquent, rightly 
observed, and reproduced with ease. They make quite a patternbook of drunkenness. The 
king (as the Flemings say) „rejoices in the Lord"; he has a fine palate, and exults over 
the glass which provides him which so much enjoyment. The two little women have just 
taken a sip or two, and already are getting into a laughing mood. The young man with 
his arms in the air is obstreperous: the world has become all too small for him. The 
sprawling servant is done for; he would, if he could, continue the carouse, but his capacity 
for it has gone. The mother with the child on her lap arouses compassion or disgust; her 
eyes are wavering, her hand is limp, her voice without ring. 

The picture is undoubtedly one of the best versions of this subject in the style and 
dimensions of As the old cock crows, in Antwerp, and dates from the same time, about 1638. 
It is perhaps Jordaens' most perfect achievement. 

The King drinks. Engraved by Poletnich and Pontius. — A work that has the 
closest possible resemblance to this version of The King Drinks, is one which was engraved 
in 1769 by J. F. Poletnich. All the figures in the two works correspond exactly. The only 
difference is that on the right-hand side in the engraved picture the head of a fool is introduced 
which is wanting in the Brussels painting. A few heads have also been added in the 
background to the left. In the foreground to the right (to the left in the engraving) stands 
a child with a dog, and in front of the table a richly ornamented jug. In the engraving 



the tipsy mother does not hold the wine glass in her left hand, which is otherwise 
occupied with the child lying face downwards on her knee. Were it not that in other places 
also the two renderings differ, one might believe that the engraving is a reproduction of the 
original painting out of which Jordaens had left this single vulgarity. The engraving bears 
this inscription : Jac. Jordaens pinxit 1639. I do not doubt that this date was on the picture, 
and that it indicates the year in which the painting from which the engraving was made, 
as also the one at Brussels, was executed. 

Jordaens repeated the same subject several times in later years, but the version which 
he had engraved by Pontius undoubtedly belongs also to the period we are now investigating. 

THE KING DRINKS (Water-colour drawing, Plantin-Moretus Museum, Antwerp). 

That picture itself is unknown to us. It represents the king sitting facing us at the centre 
of the table, raising the glass to his lips. To the right are a man who holds up a pewter 
pot, a woman with a straw hat, a trooper with a pipe stuck through the brim of his cap, 
stretching his leg over a bench, a fool, and a mother carrying her child. To the left are 
a mother with a child on her knee, a bagpipe-player, an old woman in a basket chair, and 
next to her an old man and another man who is sick, and whose head is held by a 
woman. The foreground is occupied by a child playing with castanets and a dog. 

Jordaens made a drawing for this engraving; it is still in existence, and belongs to the 
Antwerp Museum. It is by far the most carefully worked little watercolour piece (in many 
colours, — brown, blue, yellow, red, etc.) which we possess of the master. Of the same 
dimensions as the copper plate, it has been executed with a fineness of line and touch such 
as one would expect from a miniaturist rather than from a „ history" painter. In this drawing 



Jordaens had originally sketched the mother giving her child a drink, but on a slip of paper 
attached to the finished sheet, he drew the child face down upon her lap, the vulgarer posture 
we find in the engraving by Pontius. For the rest the engraving and the watercolour 
drawing correspond exactly. 

Jordaens attached to the drawing for the engraving the inscription „It is good to be a 
guest in a free inn", which we have found already on the picture in the Museum at Brussels 
described on an earlier page. On Pontius' engraving we read : „Nil similius insano quam 
ebrius" („Nothing comes nearer a mad man than a drunken man"), a proverb which Jordaens 
painted afterwards on his „Epiphany" which now hangs in the Imperial Museum at Vienna. 

BOATING PARTY (British Museum, London). 

Since we cannot find a painting to correspond with the engraving, it is allowable to suppose 
that Jordaens did the drawing specially for the engraver, and never transferred it to canvas. 
The painting which most nearly resembles it is the picture in the Museum of the Academy 
at St. Petersburg. The centre group is exactly the same in both compositions : on the right 
hand side the King, the mother with the child, lifting a wine glass, and the bagpipe player 
behind her; on the left, the singing woman with the soldier next to her, and the man who 
with one hand lifts his tankard while he thrusts the other into the bosom of the woman 
nursing her child. As has been explained already, Jordaens altered this last figure in his 
drawing. The group, composed of the two old people in armchairs and the woman who is 
assisting the sick man, which in the engraving is on the left hand side and ought to be on 
the right in the picture, is wanting here. In the painting the figures are not full-length, 



as in the engraving, but are seen to a little below the knee only. The picture at St. Petersburg 
is undoubtedly one of the best renderings of the subject; it is painted very finely and 
tenderly, without much force, in a soft tone with half-warm insinuating light, quite in the 
style of As the old cock crows (of the same year, 1638) in the Museum at Antwerp, to 
which it would make an excellent pendent. Other versions of the same subject painted by 
Jordaens in later years are to be discussed farther on. Let us here, however, mention a 
drawing in the Print Room at Berlin, which shows a good deal of similarity with the picture 
in the Brussels Museum already described. 

As the old cock crows, the YOUNG one learns. Antwerp. — It was during this period 
between 1631 and 1641 that Jordaens began to treat the third of his favourite subjects, — 
one illustrative of the proverb: As the old ones sing so the young ones peep, the Flemish 
equivalent of our „As the old cock crows, the young one learns". The meaning of the 
proverb is quite plain: As the old birds sing, so the little ones try to; in other words: 
the children follow the example of the parents. Jordaens takes the proverb as literally as 
possible. Voluntarily or involuntarily he changes it slightly. Instead of interpreting it in the 
real sense: As the old ones sing so the young ones peep; that is, As the old ones sing 
so the young ones bring forth their first peeping sounds, he alters „to peep" into „to pipe" 
(to play the pipe) and depicts, next to the singing grandfather and grandmother, the grand- 
children with pipes at their mouths. The moral remains the same: „Like parents, like 
children"; or „So shown, so imitated". Sometimes he uses the moral lying in the proverb 
instead of the metaphor in which it is expressed, and writes on his scene: Ut genus est 
genius concors consentus ab ortu. The Latin is not very clear, but consentus no doubt 
stands for consensus, and there is never any doubt about the meaning. „The mind of the 
child corresponds from its birth with the mind of the race". 

This truth, in his conception of it, suggested to Jordaens material for a homely scene, 
in which old folks and young make music, both in their own way. As a rule his characters 
belong to the well-to-do middle class; they are rather dignified folk, and behave very 
sedately; he paints them in a scene of quiet, homely pleasure. What the young ones learn 
from the old is a cheerful spirit and a happy nature. This, at least, we conclude from the 
earlier versions of the subject; in the later, as we shall see, the scenes become noisier and 
the children are set an example by their parents in other things besides singing and piping. 

The picture in Antwerp Museum bears the date 1638. Jordaens seems to have thought 
it more important than his other versions, for he chose to have it multiplied by the 
engraver. Schelte a Bolswert engraved one of his masterly plates after it. Did Jordaens 
think more of this picture because it was the earliest, or because it had succeeded best, or 
because it translated his thoughts in the most fitting way? We do not know; the one 
reason does not exclude the other, and it seems to us that he might have been affected by 
all at the same time. 

In the Antwerp version the family, consisting of grandfather, grandmother, mother and 
two children, are seated behind the table, on which stand a pewter wine-jug, a rummer 
with hock, a ham, a pasty, bread and fruit. The house-dog rests his head on the table, 
and with ears pricked-up listens to the music. To the left sits the grandfather with a song 
book in one hand, and the other raised to beat time. He is a distinguished-looking old man 
with a full beard, long hair, and an Adam van Noort head. He wears glasses, a black scull-cap, 
a dark robe. Behind him stands a bagpipe player (Jordaens -himself), blowing on his instrument 


with cheeks puffed out. In front of the grandfather stands a little boy, leaning against the 
table, blowing with all his might into a whistle which he holds in both hands. Behind 
the table is the mother. On her loose locks sits, a little awry, a stylish blue silk bonnet, 
decked with feathers and precious stones; round her neck she wears a double string of 
pearls, over her breast a fine muslin bodice; her youngest child sits on her lap, and he 
also tries to pipe with all his might. To the right sits the grandmother in a hooded basket- 
chair: in one hand she holds a page of music, with the other she keeps her glasses up. 
At the top is the cartouche with the inscription J. Jord. fecit 1638. 

It is a group of distinguished people, painted in a distinguished way. The table is richly 
decked, the colours are splendid, the faces fine. These folks are taking their fun calmly, 
almost sedately. The room is sunny like their hearts. In the burgher houses where this 
picture hung, generation after generation learned to look at life from the most pleasant 
and most beautiful side. The picture is also cheerful and charming on account of its 
rich, full, and strongly variegated light. On the face of the young mother it is sharp and 
clear and struggles with heavy shadow; on that of the grandfather it shines mistily 
through the velvety glow. The colours are rich : the scarlet dress of the child on the mother's 
knee, the firm, enamel-like face of the young woman, her splendid soft white bodice, the 
fine embroidery of the kerchief across her shoulders, and her light amber-coloured sleeve, 
form the heart of this resplendence of colour. To the left it merges into the golden tint of the 
bagpipe, into the parchment binding of the song book, and the warm, flickering complexion 
of the old man and his dark gown; towards the right it subsides into the white linen upon 
the head and shoulders of the old woman in her sunny brown chair. The delightful still-life 
in the picture, — the table-dishes and food, — and also the dog's head, all full of light, 
respond with their charming display of many colours and fine touches to the glowing centre. 

Here, as in other productions of the painter, the heads of the two old people are 
particularly interesting on account of the flowing softness with which light and shadow mingle 
on their faces. Compared with them, the young woman with her fair enamel-like complexion 
is cold and lifeless. Equally great is the difference in their emotional life; while the grand- 
father and grandmother are wholly absorbed in their occupation, every feature bespeaking 
full attention, their daughter sits, cool and indifferent, staring at her father, concerned about 
nothing save only to look beautiful. 

In the engraving by Schelte a Bolswert we notice some slight alterations, no doubt 
added by Jordaens himself to the drawing after his picture. The shape of the cartouche on 
which the proverb has been written is different, and the letters are differently formed. On 
the canvas also the letters have been repainted, and the originally larger ones have been 
replaced by smaller, but the date has not been touched. While in the engraving the back 
of the chair on which the young woman sits is partly visible, in the picture it is not, and 
there also her hair is curlier and her breast more exposed. From the picture we can see 
that the original canvas was a little larger on all sides, especially at the top. 

A picture almost entirely corresponding with the one in the Museum at Antwerp 
appeared at an anonymous sale in Paris at the Hotel Drouot on the 10 th of June 1893. 
There were these differences in it, — on the hood of the old woman's chair perches an 
owl, a cat sits on the ground to the left, and a parrot perches in a window recess, while 
there is a full back view of the dog. The persons correspond in both pictures; but that 
of Antwerp is oblong and the figures are seen down to the knees, while the other is upright, 
and the figures in it are full-length. 

7 6 


At the Julienne sale (Paris, 1767) there was a picture representing the same subject 
which was catalogued as engraved by Schelte a Bolswert, — but this is a statement which 
must not always be accepted literally. The two pictures appearing at these Paris sales 
may have been the same, or they may have been two copies made by pupils or assistants, 
with slight alterations. 

As the old Cock crows. The Louvre. — A second version of the same period, 
which we are probably right in dating a year or two earlier than the preceding, is the 
Louvre picture. The characters are the same: grandfather, grandmother, mother, two children 

THE CIRCUMCISION (Boyman's Museum, Rotterdam). 

and the bagpipe-player; but they are differently placed and posed, and there is introduced 
among them a young woman with a {child on her arm. The grandfather here sits facing 
us at the table, which again is richly laden with eatables and drinkables; he wears a 
black cap on his head, spectacles on his nose, a table-napkin under his chin, a fur- 
trimmed black cloak over his shoulders; he sings,, and holds one hand to his breast, while 
with the thumb of the other he lifts the lid of a pewter-jug which stands on the table 
before him. Next to him, to the left, sits the grandmother singing from a broad-sheet on 
which one can decipher: Een nieu Liedeken (A new song). She wears a white tight-fitting 
cap, a white kerchief over her breast, and a black dress; and she sits in a high-backed but 



hoodless basket-chair. In front of her is a child in a pale blue dress, playing the pipe. 
At the right-hand side of the table sits the mother holding out a glass with her right 
hand, while with the left she carelessly lifts up the little shirt of the child on her knee. 
Her hair is golden, and is decked with flowers and pearls; a string of pearls is round 
her neck; she wears a red garment round her loins, white linen across her breast, a 
white skirt and a blue apron. Her child, who also holds a pipe to his mouth, is dressed 
in red over a white undershirt. Behind the grandfather stands the bagpipe-player with a 
powerful Jordaens' head; and a singing maid carrying on her arm a child who plays the 
pipe. On the back of the grandmother's chair is perched an owl; on the wall to the right 

y ii ) iiii ani i *-Si--H ■ h , i ' 

GIVE AND THOU SHALT RECEIVE (Drawing, Mr. Fairfax Murray, London). 

hangs a bird-cage. In front of the table stands a child. To the left we see a window, 
through which the warm sunlight enters the room. In the centre at the top of the picture 
is the cartouche with the inscription already mentioned: Ut genus est genius concors 

consentus ab ortu. „*_,.., 

As in the last canvas, so here the several members of a well-to-do family give and 
take lessons in sociability and in looking light-heartedly upon life; but though they still 
sing and play with all their heart, composure is far to seek, for noisiness has taken its 
place and the people stretch their lungs in singing and piping. Though the young mother 
does 'not join in the singing, she joins in the fun; and it no longer consists merely in 



making music. The wine glass in her hand, the wine jug in the grandfather's, and the 
duller eyes of both and of the servant, are enough to show that they have not allowed 
their throats to grow parched. 

The picture is like the former, rich in light and colour, festive in appearance. Mother, 
child and grandfather sit in full brightness, the grandmother half in the shadow; the 
figures in the background stand altogether in the shadow. This is heavier here than in 
the picture of 1638, but it is always downy and soft, and got by quick light strokes, 
that leave no heavy, dark impression, but bring out the bright tones well; only the 
maid with the child on her arm stands in coal-black shadow, and has that spectral 
appearance which Jordaens has given to certain figures introduced into the background 
of others of his pictures in order to throw the figures in the foreground into sharper 
relief. The principal personage is the singing grandfather (painted with a full brush), who 
takes life to his arms, and gives forth the reflection of it from flesh and eyes as from a 

polished mirror. 

This picture, like The King drinks in the Louvre, formed a part of the celebrated 
Lebrun collection. Both works were bought by King Louis XVI; As the old cock crows at 
the sale of 1791, the other a little earlier. 

A great similarity is to be discovered between this Louvre canvas and one belonging 
to the Earl of Wemyss, at Gosford House, .which was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
Winter-Exhibition in 1889. It was then discribed in the catalogue as follows: „Round a 
well-furnished table are seated a number of persons eating and drinking; on the 1. a 
woman with a glass in her hand, and a child on her knee blowing a whistle, leans 
towards an old woman next to her, who is singing from a paper which she holds; beyond 
her again is another child blowing a whistle; then comes an old man with a jug in his 
hand, who also appears to be singing; behind is a man playing a pipe, and another man 
pointing to a bird-cage in his hand; on a screen in the background is perched an owl; 
and in the foreground, near a chair on which is some fruit, a dog is seen coming from 
under the table." 

As the old Cock- crows. Dresden. — A fourth version of .As the old cock crows 
belonging to the same period is possessed by the Museum in Dresden. The personages 
figuring in it are those of the Antwerp canvas, while in features they resemble more those 
in the picture in The Louvre. At Dresden, as at Antwerp, the grandfather sits to the right 
and holds a page of music in his hand; the grandmother is seated next to him in a large 
hooded chair, with her glasses on, and she sings from the same sheet. In front of them stands 
a little boy playing the pipe. On the right-hand side of the table sits the mother, who as 
in the Paris picture holds up her wine-glass, while the child on her lap puts a pipe to its 
mouth. She wears a large straw hat with a feather, a pale blue dress, with pale yellow 
sleeves; her bosom is veiled with a white kerchief. The bagpipe player stands in the 
background. In front of the table is a wine-cooler with richly-worked earthenware cans ; on 
an empty chair to the right a little dog; on the back of the chair a parrot; on the table are 
all sorts of viands, bread, cheese, a waffle, a pewter can, a metal mug, a burning candle. 
Higher up to the right is a recess with a skull on two books, and a paper with the words, 
Cogita mori; next to that a tulip in a glass. In the middle, at the top, a cartouche with 
the words; Soo D'oude Songen Soo Pepen De Ionqe. 

In brilliancy of colour this picture stands far behind that at Antwerp. The tones are 


neither vivid nor powerful, but subdued, — wan blue, faded yellow, dull brown; and the 
light in the same way is suppressed, robbed of some of its strength, as if it fell into 
a low-ceiled room. But there is something remarkable in the thin transparent shadow 
which lies over the whole scene, and the harmonious veil which it spreads over the picture. 
The pewter, the silver cup, the glass which the mother holds in her hands, sparkle with 
a few bright reflections; the cut cheese strikes a fine, firm note. The figures, too, are 
inferior to those of the Antwerp picture. The young woman, with her up-turned lip and 
her heavy double chin, is not engaging; the children, the bagpipe-player (again Jordaens 
himself), and even the old folks have been negligently painted. Their expression is not so 
well felt; they show no animation in their singing and playing. The young mother 
appears to listen to her child reluctantly; all of them look more like accessory figures 
than interested participators in a merrymaking. The picture bears every sign of being a 
rendering of a subject already treated, in which the painter no longer took much interest; 
it lacks the pith of a first version, and most likely was painted not long after that in 
Antwerp, about 1641. 

As the old cock crows. WOrzburq. — The fifth version is in the palace at Wiirz- 
burg. In addition to the six customary figures, — grandfather, grandmother, bagpipe-player, 
and the mother with her two children — we find in it a jester with a cat on his arm (who, 
as we shall see, was also painted by Jordaens separately), and a third child. The grand- 
father seated at table facing us, a flat, four-pointed cap on his head, sings from a sheet 
held in both hands, on which we read: Een nieu liedeken van Callo {A new song of Callo). (1) 
The grandmother, standing erect behind him, joins in the singing; one of her hands resting 
on his shoulder, the other on the table. The bagpipe-player and the piping child stand to 
the right; the mother is seated on the extreme left, song-book in hand; one child stands 
behind the table, the other in front of it, both playing the pipe. The standing fool with the 
cat occupies the background; the dog ^tands in front of the table. Through the window 
in the rear we get a glimpse of the houses in the town; while a mirror on the wall 
reflects the old woman's head. With inexhaustible fertility, Jordaens has once more varied 
the grouping and expression of his stock figures. The composition is less stiff, the mood 
happier; the grandfather shakes with laughter; the grandmother is enjoying herself 
thoroughly; the fool is in his element. A sharp light falls through the window upon the 
group to the left, most fully on the young woman whose partially exposed bosom and 
white collar gleam brightly. The light diminishes in its fall to the right; still it lies in 
strong bright patches on the heads of the old people and on the table. Heavy shad6ws 
conspire to throw up the more strongly-lit portions in a magnificent way. The picture 
dates from about 1640, and was engraved at Paris, in the second half of the XVIII th century, 
by F. A. Moitte. 

As the old cock crows. Berlin. — There are many points of similarity between 
the Wurzburg picture and one in the Museum at Berlin. In the latter the grandfather sits 
singing at the table, facing us; the grandmother, seated to the extreme right, with a 

(1) The last word is not very legible. On a copy of the head of the old singer in possession of Mr. Victor Jacobs, advocate, 
Antwerp, we find Callo; in the Wurzburg canvas it reads more like Callo. According to the former (and more likely) reading, 
the man is singing a song in celebration of the victory of the Spanish troops over the Dutch at Calloo, near Antwerp, in 1638 
This, if right, proves with certainty that the picture was painted about 1640. 



page of music in her hand, has her head reflected in the mirror on the wall; a bagpipe- 
player also is in the far-off corner to the right; two children are playing the pipe, while 
a third looks on. In the background is a window through which are seen women in the 
fields; on the table are two jugs and two wineglasses. On the other hand, here there is 
no fool- while to the left are introduced two women, seated and singing. A parrot has 
perched 'on an open window-shutter; a dog sits in front of the table, and a cat on a chair. 
The elders are singing lustily, with all their heart. The grandparents look rather less 
distinguished than usual; the two young women, however, make a sweet group. The room 
is mostly in shadow, but through the window (which occupies a considerable part of wall 
to the back) there enters a flood of warm light, which touches the old man's head, and 

AS THE OLD COCK CROWS (Louvre, Paris). 

the heads and shoulders and arms of the two young women, and scatters patches of brightness 
here and there over the scene. The picture lacks the fine brilliancy of the Antwerp and 
Paris works. The shadows are heavy and lacking in transparency. It is not a work by 
Jordaens' hand, but one by a follower who, however, was not a nobody. Evidently, too, the 
master retouched some portions, particularly the head of the grandfather. 

Besides Jordaens' various versions of As the old cock crows, there exist many copies. 
Thus in the Gallery of the Duke of Aremberg we find a very faithful one of the Wiirzburg 
picture. It is rather weak and flabby in the painting; evidently the work of a pupil 



retouched by the master. The head and hands of the grandfather, the child to the right, 
and the dog, seem to have been painted by Jordaens himself. 

And we know that Jotdaens, like Rubens, was assisted in his work, and made no 
secret of furnishing clients with pictures which were only partly his own handiwork. In a 
deed, dated August 25, 1648, to which we shall make further reference later on, he 
acknowledges that certain pictures which he had sold to Sr. Martinus van Langenhoven 
two years previously, — an As the old cock crows was among them — „had been copies, 
but that to improve them and to enhance that which displeased him in the originals, he 
has, while altering them, painted with his own hand, overpainted, and repainted, in such a 
way that he regards them as principal (original) pictures, as good as any of his works 
produced in the ordinary way". Such a picture undoubtedly is As the old cock crows in the 

AS THE OLD COCK CROWS (Drawing, British Museum, London). 

Aremberg gallery; a second is the copy of The King drinks to be found in the Museum 
at Valenciennes; and we shall meet with others later. The copies were not in all cases 
complete. For example, the picture at Valenciennes, mentioned a few lines above, renders 
a part only of the Epiphany at Cassel, and later on we are to discuss a picture which 
contains only a portion of the Munchen Museum version of As the old cock crows. 

Concerts, Jesters, Proverbs. — Jordaens was particularly fond of representing merry 
companies, especially musical gatherings, concerts, and serenades. Several examples of the 
last class are mentioned in catalogues. Mr. Leblon of Antwerp possesses a „Senerade". 
The beauty honoured on this occasion sits laughing at an open window, clasping a little 
dog in her arms. Evidently she does not take the demonstration of her admirers very 
seriously, and is rather amused at all the pother. In front of her, and almost on the 


same level, are standing three men ; two of them playing the flageolet and the third a bag- 
pipe. Looking on are an old woman, a little boy who is singing from a page of music, 
and a greyhound. The bagpiper has Jordaens' features; the laughing girl's is exactly the 
same head as the woman's with the basket of fruit in the Museum at Glasgow. The picture 
is painted in a very warm woolly tone, without great force of colour, and evidently dates 
from about 1638. Jordaens treated the three musicians separately in a picture which belongs 
to Lord Yarborough. The execution excels that of the larger canvas. The painter represents 
himself as the pipe-player, and the earnestness and conviction with which he enacts the 
character are really comical. Again, in a picture which is the property of Mr. Duverdyn at 
Bruges, he represented a man and a woman playing, he with a violin, she with a tambourine. 
The man may very well be the portrait of a musician. 

The jester with the cat, whom we have met already in the picture As the old cock 
crows at Wurzburg, forms, as we have said before, the subject of a separate picture by 
Jordaens which was engraved by Alexander Voet. The jester is represented with his cat 
in his arm, and wearing a cap, half-blue, half-yellow, that hangs over head and shoulders. 
The picture appeared at the Nuncio Molinaris sale (Brussels, 1763), the Thomas Schevinck 
sale (The Hague, 1767), Mrs van Griensven van Berritz sale (The Hague, 1862), Nicolas 
Nieuhof sale (Amsterdam, 1877), and the Beurnonville sale (Paris, 1881). A smaller picture, 
representing the same figure, appeared at the Bruyninck sale (Antwerp, 1791); another, in 
which the fool looks through a window, is catalogued in the Wilson collection 
(Paris, 1873 and 1881). 

The engraving by Alexander Voet represents the head and shoulders of a fool, who 
wears a fool's cap with bells and feathers; he is laughing and holding a cat in his arm. 
In the print he is framed by emblems of folly. The title of the picture is given as 
Fatuo ridemur in uno („We all laugh through this one fool"), and under it stand the verses, — 

Ick pronck met veer en klinck met bel 
My kittelt tlieve minne Spel 
Hupz en vrolyck laet aent grysen 
Lach ick vuijt al 'sWeirelts wijsen. 1) 

At the Martin Robyn sale (Brussels, 1758) appeared a work representing two foojs, a 
man and a woman, playing with a cat (4 feet 2 in. high by 4 feet 3 in. broad). This 
picture, at present in the possession of M. Porges at Paris, is a delightful piece of work. 
The man is clad in a blue- and yellow-striped costume ; he wears a cap, trimmed with bells, 
and decked with a feather, and holds a cat in his arm. Seated next to him is a young 
woman, holding his fool's mace and laughing at him. She wears white linen and a scarlet 
dress. Both figures are leaning out of a window, and the light and colour on both are 
brilliant. The head of the fool is splendid. What fun! what roguishness! His laugh 
animates his whole being, and infects everybody who looks at him. Jordaens is here an 
easy first; probably no one else ever painted so jolly, so witty, so comical a head. 

At the Bogaerts sale (Antwerp) appeared a picture by Jordaens in which was repre- 

1) „I prink me with feather and jingle my bells; 
The sweet game of love diverts me; 
Blithe and merry, eluding old age, — 
A snap! for the world's wise-acres." 


sented a fool tying a little bell round the neck of a cat. It bore the inscription : „He shall 
bell the cat." This was not the only picture in which he treated proverbs; he was a 
burgher, and had a great regard for burgher wisdom and spirit. 

As the old Cock crows is a case in point, as we have seen; and there are others. He 
seems to have had a preference for those into which cats could be introduced. The Louvre 
possesses two copies of a drawing, on which is written the proverb it illustrates : „ An old 
cat does not play with a ball." An old man is seated at table; an old woman in a hooded 
basket chair is next to him, and lifts a glass of wine to her lips; next to her again is 
a young woman with a child on her lap. At the extreme right-hand corner of the table 
stands a second young woman. A cat sits under the old man's chair; a boy seated in the 
foreground tosses her a ball of worsted; but she looks at it with suspicion, and does not 
stir. The work bears a mutilated signature „J. Jordaens" and (probably) the date 1648. 
This copy is on public view; the second, which is kept in a portofolio, differs from it in 
several respects. Besides the cat which the boy is tempting to play, there is a second, 
sitting in the foreground, and watching what the other is doing. 

A drawing which appeared at the Habich sale (Cassel, 1899) represents an old woman 
offering to sell some animal in a bag to a poulterer. Next to her stands another woman 
with a child; in the background is a young couple busy sweet-hearting. At the top, on a 
cartouche, is to be read: „One cannot buy a cat in a poke" The sheet seems to bear the 
date 1672. Another drawing illustrative of the same proverb belongs to Mr. J. Rump at 

The Print Room at St. Petersburg possesses a drawing with the inscription: 

„Gaept als men de pap u biedt 
Oft anders en crijgdij niet." 1) 

A peasant family is seated round a table like the family in The Peasant and the 
Satyr; several children are sitting in front of the table, the father and mother behind it 
facing us; a dog to the right, cows to the left. The parents are eating porridge, the mother 
offers one of her children a spoonful and recites for the occasion the little rhyme above. 

A small picture which forms part of the Steengracht collection at the Hague treats 
the proverb: „The pitcher goes once too often to the well." A young woman stands near 
a well with a broken pitcher in her hand. A peasant seated on the ledge of a rock 
addresses the girl ; next to her stands a peasant woman leaning against the rock. Near the 
edge of the well stand a hunter, grinning at the young woman, and a woman who looks 
at her. The maid with the broken pitcher listens with a stupid, confused face; maybe, 
judging from the lines of her figure, her conscience accuses her of a more serious fault than 
the breaking of a pitcher. A much larger picture of the same subject appeared at a sale 
at Amsterdam held on the 30 th of April, 1821. 

A watercolour drawing presented by Mr. Cardon of Brussels to the Museum Plantin- 
Moretus shows another rendering of the same proverb. It contains only three people: the 
girl with the pitcher, the old woman admonishing her, and a man leaning on the edge of the 
well. The scene is represented on a piece of tapestry hanging from a beam carried by two 

1) „When offered porridge, gape, 
Or else you'll go without it". 

8 4 


caryatids. Jordaens wrote the title of the subject across the drawing: „De Krayc gaet soolange 
te waeter totdat sy breeckt"; with the date, 1638. 

A drawing in black and brown representing an old woman and a man, each holding 
a lighted candle, belongs to Mr. Eug. Rodrigues of Paris. Between the two figures stands 
a young woman holding an ordinaal; lower down are a child with a basket, or it may 
be a fire-basket, and a dog. At the top is written the proverb: „Het syn goede keersen 
die voor lichten", a modification of the proverb used often in earlier days, „The candle which 
leads gives the best light". 

Mythology. Jupiter fed with the milk of the goat Amalthea. Louvre. — The 

AS THE OLD COCK CROWS (Museum, Berlin). 

years from 1631 to 1641 were for Jordaens a time of great industry. His talent had fully 
ripened. All that was angular and hard in his painting had been toned down. His fame 
was established; commissions and patrons arrived in large numbers. Another class of subject, 
besides domestic scenes, for which he showed a great preference, was the mythological'. 
From the history of the inhabitants of Olympus and their relations here on earth, he 
chose neither the tragic nor the epic episodes, but only the homely ones, - those in 
which the gods and goddesses and their families were seen in familiar intercourse, either 
among themselves or with ordinary mortals - the little Jupiter who is being refreshed with 
the milk of the goat Amalthea, and cries with thirst; Bacchus traversing the open with 
his merry band of satyrs and bacchantes; the judgment of Midas; or scenes in which 



nymphs exhibit the splendour of their nudity. Or, again, others in which animals play an 
important role, — Prometheus and the eagle, Argus with the cows he has to watch, Neptune 
and his seahorses. The sublime and supernatural elements in the legends, invented under 
the clear sky of Hellas by an art-loving population, attracted him little. He transformed 
these ideal creations into a material actuality, and made the gods and goddesses of the 
South burghers of his own northern country. 

The Rearing of Jupiter was his favourite subject: a naked nymph who milks a goat, — 
the rough-haired Amalthea; the screaming little Jupiter, who has forgotten his godly serenity; 
a goodnatured or mocking satyr who takes part in the homely scene, — what better subject 
could our painter of animals and citizens wish for? 

His first version of it, which is in the Louvre, may be considered the most original, 





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AS THE OLD COCK CROWS (Duke of Aremberg, Brussels). 

and the most important, seeing that the painter chose it for an engraving by Schelte a 
Bolswert. The scene is laid at the foot of a slight incline. There in the centre stands 
the goat Amalthea with her hindlegs towards the onlooker. The nymph is seated on the 
ground, her legs half-doubled under her, and with nothing save some linen round her 
loins; she rests one hand on the animal's back, and with the other draws the teat and 
makes the milk squirt into a red earthenware dish. She turns her head to the little Jupiter, 
so that we see her full face. Jupiter holds his milk bottle in his hand, and cries bitterly. 
To the right sits a satyr, who is bending down a branch of a tree to attract the 
attention of the little god, and so keep him quiet. At his feet lie various vegetables. 
It is a gem of broad, tender painting, sound and spirited. The nymph is quite a 


Rubens' woman, powerful in build, but without heaviness, delicate in feature, but not over- 
refined and not affecting a charming pose. There is something a little wild in the startled 
and anxious looks which she casts at Jupiter, and in the hair, which is massed in a tangle 
on her head; she is painted in full, warm sunshine, without fantastic play of light, and 
with a minimum of shadow, even through which plays a luminous reflection. It is nature 
in its most wholesome aspect rendered by the richest art. The nymph is the principal 
figure; the little Jupiter and the satyr are supplementary. The young god with his soft, 
chubby flesh and the firm, brown satyr, throw into relief the powerfully treated nude nymph. 
The goat is one of those masterpieces of broad, fat painting which leave Jordaens an 
unequalled limner of animals. Through the heavy, long, shaggy fleece, the light flickers 
upon the hind quarters, while the head disappears in velvety shadows. The background 
consists of a landscape with a heavy, dark tree and some smaller growth, standing out 
against a blue sky, flaked with warm white clouds; all making an austere framework for 
the powerful, thoroughly natural painting. Without doubt the picture dates from the time 
when the master's style still possessed all its firmness; when, for example, he still gave 
sinewy necks and deeply furrowed faces to his satyrs. 

The engraving by Schelte a Bolswert introduces a few alterations from the painting. 
The satyr holds up a tambourine; while in the painting a brass milk-can standing behind 
the goat is wanting. The canvas seems to have been slightly curtailed along the top and 
along both sides. 

The Louvre possesses a drawing representing the nymph, milking the goat Amalthea; 
a study for the picture, but differing from it in details. In the Museum at Brunswick also 
there is a drawing of the same figure, corresponding with the painting, and signed A° 1671 *■£■; 
on the back of it a little Jupiter has been scribbied holding a feeding bottle in his right- 
hand; a satyr stands beside him. 

The Rearing of Jupiter. Cassel. — A second beautiful interpretation of the same 
subject hangs in the Museum of Cassel (No. 103, formerly No. 94, in the catalogue). The 
nymph is seated on the ground in pretty much the same attitude as in the preceding 
picture; only here she has turned her head to the goat she is milking, so that we see her 
almost in profile. Amalthea has put a leg into the milk-pail, and tipped it over, and the 
white liquid flows over the ground. She has also turned her head round to the front, 
and in so doing upset the earthenware jug as well. At the sight of these mishaps, which 
threaten him with unquenched thirst, Jupiter has commenced to scream, and throws up his 
arms. Beyond him is a nymph, resting her head on her arm; she looks out at us with an 
enticing expression. Still higher up in the composition sits a nude satyr, playing the pipe. 
To the left, in the foreground, a few sheep and a goat; a view of distant hills in the background. 

As in the previous picture, so here the principal figure is the nymph milking. Her form is 
even more voluptuous, but it is less-elegant; her expression also is less animated, more rustic. 
The modelling of the flesh on breasts and limbs is indicated by blue-grey tints; a slight 
flush plays over the curves of arms and legs. Her face is in dim light, warm and trans- 
parent. Jupiter is a capital study of a naughty child in ungovernable passion. The 
golden-haired nymph looking on confides to us, by her roguish look, her sense of the 
humour of this transformation of the divine into the human. She reminds us forcibly of 
the beauty in The Serenade belonging to Mr. Leblon of Antwerp, and of The Fruitsetler 
in the Glasgow Galleries. She is more slender of figure, sweeter of nature, more mischievous 


in expression than the milking maid. On the other hand, the satyr is just a mass of fat, 
seen in dim, transparent brown light. The picture has been carefully painted throughout; 
soundly and naturally, without any attempt to embellish or to vulgarise. It is in Elysian 
decorative style; yet about the characters and their actions there lurks someting scornfully 
sarcastic in this representation of a heavenly household. 

The catalogue of the Cassel Museum offers a suggestion that in this picture (and 
also in the one to follow) it is the upbringing of Bacchus, rather than of Jupiter, that is 
treated. But there can be no doubt about the subject. We know that Jupiter was fed from 
the milk of the goat Amalthea, but never heard so of Bacchus. Besides, the inscription 
which Schelte a Bolswert engraved under his print (no doubt with Jordaens' consent) solves 
all difficulty, if indeed there ever was any. In it we read: 

Quid mirum natura Jovis si sedat Amori 

Et vaga per thalamos ambulet illicitos. 
Ecce inter Satyros nutritur lacte caprino, 

Naturam caprae suxerat et sequitur. 

(„Can it be wondered that Jupiter is guided by love, and strays to unlawful beds: 
behold how he is nursed with goat's milk, amid satyrs! He has sucked in the goat's 
nature, and acts according to it"). 

This moral in the picture is a little far-fetched; but from the inscription it is quite 
clear that Jupiter was Jordaens' young hero, and the engraver's also; as, indeed, has been 
the general opinion for more than two centuries. Jordaens, moreover, was not the first 
painter to treat this subject. It seems very probable that he had seen casts of antiques 
which gave him his inspiration, in the same way as Poussin was led to treat the same 
subject through seeing the original pieces of sculpture at Rome. 

There is in the Cassel Museum a second, but less important, rendering of this subject 
(No. 104, formerly No. 95, in the catalogue). In the centre, half-kneeling, half-squatting on 
a blue cloth, the nymph milks the goat. Beside the copper pail into which she is milking 
stands an earthenware pot. She turns her head to the little Jupiter — he is not crying 
here — who has a reddish yellow scarf over his back and arm. Seated next to him is 
a satyr, giving him a drink from a dish. In the background stands a large peach tree, 
round which a gourd winds its branches. 

Jordaens has signed this picture Jac. Jordaens fe., an unusual thing for him to do. 
Although undoubtedly by his hand, it does not hold very high rank among his works. 
The painting is firm and smooth, the shadows dark, the flesh of a brown tone. The goat 
is less successful than in the other treatments of the subject. Everything is rounded-off, 
commonplace, without, without any play of colour and light. From repose the fair body of 
the nymph and that of the little god is emitted a certain radiance; the sky also is warmly 
luminous: these are the best and most animated parts of the work. We were struck at 
the same time by the Rubens-like character of child and nymph. 

At the Loquet sale (Amsterdam, 1783) appeared another Rearing of Jupiter, with life- 
size figures. The nymph sits in the foreground, milking Amalthea; she looks sideways at the 
crying child. To the right is seated an old woman, with a tambourine in one hand, a copper 
milk-can in the other. To the left, a looker-on, sits a goat-footed satyr. Various fruits strew 
the foreground. This picture was again sold at a later sale at Amsterdam, October 19, 1808. 

Another of these pictures, smaller in dimensions, appeared at the de Vinck de Wezel 



(M. Porgfcs, Paris). 

sale (Antwerp, 1814). In it Jupiter, attended 
by Bacchantes and lying on his back, is 
being fed from the goat Amalthea: a satyr 
holds up her leg. Two satyrs are playing 
the pipe; a third embraces a woman. With 
these is a second goat. A picturesque 
landscape forms the background. This 
picture was bought by Stier d'Aertselaer. 
At his sale it was assigned to Mrs Wellens, 
Brussels ; to appear once again at the Stevens 
sale (Antwerp, 1837). I came across the 
torn fragments of it quite recently, exposed 
at an auction. 

M. De Buck of Brussels possesses a 
still smaller version, which appeared at the 
Jordaens exhibition of 1905. There, in a 
landscape, appears the little Jupiter, lying 
on his back, being nursed by Amalthea; a 
satyr lifts up her leg, and a nymph holds 

her by the neck. Behind the goat appears a young satyr, who plays the tambourine; and 

to the right an old person with a basket of fruit. We observe a second goat against a 

tree to the left. It is a neatly painted little piece, warm in tone and smooth in texture. 
Mention must also be made of a Childhood of Jupiter which came up at the Vrancken 

sale (Lokeren, 1838). The young god lies 

in a cradle, beside which stands Rhea, 

his mother, looking down upon her son 

who has escaped the wrath of Saturn. 

Two nymphs are attending on the child. 
In 1652 Jordaens himself hit upon the 

episode as the subject of an etching. Here 

the little god lies on his back at full length, 

sucking the teat of the goat; a nymph 

seated beside them presses the udder. 

A satyr holds Amalthea by the horns. 

Another plays the pipe. On one side we 

see a copper milkcan, and a tree with 

a gourd round the stem. 

Triumph of Bacchus. Cassel. — Of 
all the dwellers in Olympus, the one who 
attracted Jordaens most is, of course, 
Bacchus — the god of wine; the leader 
of merry processions, composed of all the 
revellers and carousers, all lovers of the 
bottle, of Amor, of joke and laugh, who could 
possibly be found among the immortals TE^SST 


is half-open, the lips are without mobility. The old woman who pours out the wine for him 
is painted i'n darker warm-brown tones; her features are wrinkled and bony. The young 
woman with the loose cap looks like a Flemish Bacchante: chubby, amorous, with an 
expression on her face of pleasant roguishness. There is no single full, strong tone dominant;- 
a vaporous softness lies over all, heightened and enlivened by the golden yellow drapery 
of the young woman to the left, and of the small boy to the right. The accessories — the 
tambourine, the brazier, the drinking utensils on the pole held by the negro, the coat of 
the goat— are all bathed in a velvety glow of light which adds to the charm of the whole. 

The picture dates from the period which we have at present under review. The Bacchus 
is represented with that corrugated torso which we have observed in the works of Jordaens 
painted about 1630. The misty tone which veils everything, however, belongs to the late 
thirties; the little pipe-player is one of those figures with which we meet in examples of 
4s the old Cock crows between 1638—1640. The work was in the possession of the Duke 
of Hesse as early as 1749. 

From an old copy of this painting in the Museum at Arras we again perceive how 
little of the magic of Jordaens in this period remains where he has not himself inspired 
the figures with life and soul. They become empty forms, without spirit or brilliancy, who 
grin without laughing, and repel by their coldness instead of attracting by their bright 
joyousness. There is a second old copy of this work in the collection of Prince Branicki 
at Warsaw. A Bacchus and seven other figures appeared at the Robyns sale (Brussels, 1758). 

Nymphs. Female Beauty. — Of mythological figures besides the jolly Bacchus and 
the squalling Jupiter, Jordaens delighted particularly in the nymphs, the nude nymphs. 
They personified for him female beauty. During the years of which we are writing, his 
female types underwent great changes. He had begun, as in The Adoration of the Shepherds, 
by painting the Flemish mother, in burgherlike simplicity, with complexion and flesh deadened 
by confinement in living-room and kitchen, without down, without bloom. A year or two 
later, in the earliest versions of The Peasant and the Satyr, he takes for his model the 
Flemish peasant-woman, of whom his wife must have been a type, — sturdy in build, with 
regular features and rosy complexion, a long oval face, heavy jawbones, and protruding 
chin. He endows her with little spirituality: for him, she is the fertile mother, the generous 
nurse, the careful housewife. He likes to contrast with her the young peasant wench, of 
high colour and roguish expression, — the pretty flower of the field. A little later still 
he is attracted by the nymphs. In The Fertility of the Earth he painted the type, exposing 
herself in all the splendour of her nudity: beat upon, on the broad surface of back and 
loins, by the full, clear light, she discovers the gauche confusion of the undraped woman, 
or, carelessly and boldly displays the firm, shining flesh, and feasts on her own triumphant 
beauty. Jordaens attains this ideal in the nymph who is milking Amalthea. She is power- 
fully and opulently built, with a head that would be perfect in its symetrical beauty, did 
not the wide space between the eyes impart to her a certain wildness of expression. He 
contrives to make the powerful limbs and solid torso look slender, and folds them grace- 
fully and naturally; he makes the whole figure twine and bend, so as to bring out its 
full perfection. Then, in his domestic festivities he presents to us the same woman splen- 
didly garbed; her beauty softened by the vaporous veil he casts over her. Or, again, he 
paints her as a young maid of more timid .charm and artificial embellishment. Next he 
passes from tender plumpness to the fleshiness which, for example, we find in his later 


Susannas and nymphs, with their large-boned bodies amply developed, devoid of their 
former suppleness, or even wobbling masses of fat, robbed of all grace, such as one is too 
apt to regard as Jordaens' true and choice ideal, whereas he only painted them at intervals 
among others, and mainly in the last stage of his career. 

One of the finest of his paintings of nymphs is the Sleeping Nymphs with Cupid which 
belongs to Mrs Bougard of Brussels. Three nymphs lie asleep on the ground. The nearest 
reclines on her back, with her arms above her head; a white cloth around her waist. The 
second, to the right, rests her head on her arm, which lies on a scarlet cloth, the upper-part 
of her body supported by an elevation of the ground. The third, turning her back to 
us, has her face hidden on her arm. Cupid stands to the left, bow in one hand, arrows 
in the other. A piece of red drapery with a broad golden border is suspended above the 
sleeping nymph on the right; to the left appears the open country, with small trees and 
some water. In the foreground beside the nymphs lies a basket of flowers; and on the ground 
near by a sleeping little child. The scene is bathed in full light, with abundance of tender 
shadows, — blue-gray on the nymphs, downy-gray on the Cupid. The head of the love 
god is particularly deep in shadow, wrapped in brown tints, in the same way as Jordaens 
afterwards veiled his heads in gray. The flesh has no longer the early hardness, but has 
become more flakelike, as we find it about 1640. 

That which strikes us most in this work is the beautiful female bodies; they are 
plump, but not exaggeratedly so; naturally supple, like Rubens' nymphs, — indeed, were 
it not for the rustic features of the foremost, and a certain coolness in the shadow, one 
might easily take them for Rubens' figures. The Cupid is quite a Jordaens' child, in the 
manner of the curly-headed boy in The Miracle of St. Martin. Fine spots of light fall 
on his chest, while plenty of shadow lies over the rest of his body. Each of the nymphs 
is beautiful, but the arrangement of the group is less happy. The variety of broken light 
on the three nude bodies is remarkable. It falls most strongly on the nearest nymph, the 
warm flesh tints modulated into the strong blue shadows; on the tender flesh lies a white 
cloth, bolder in colour; the second is of a softer, duller hue, with dimly shaded modelling, 
while her locks melt away in shadow; the third one is still more lost in shadow, her 
head half blotted out in it. There is an agreeable play of beautiful bodies, rising out of 
the quiet, melting background, where nothing distracts the attention. From the carpet the 
red radiates with a quiet glow, which throws a warmth over the two sleepers higher up. 
When the picture appeared at a sale held in Amsterdam on the 7 th of June, 1738, it was 
described as „Sleeping nymphs with Cupid, being a capital, good picture". 

Among the effects of Jordaens (The Hague, 1734) was scheduled a picture, „Three nude 
women and an angel", 3 ft. 1\ in. high, by 3 ft. 5 in. wide, which was smaller therefore 
than the preceding, and was valued at 10 guilders, 10 stuivers only. At the Joh. Lod. 
Strantwyk sale (Amsterdam, 1781), a work was catalogued as „Three nymphs sleeping in a 
clear, beautiful landscape and regarded by Cupid ; a little further off are some cows grazing, 
and a castle on the water's edge". At the Neyman of Amsterdam sale (Paris, 1776) was a 
drawing, „Three nymphs sleeping under an awning stretched between two trees. Cupid and 
several animals complete the composition". Evidently the subject is the same as that in 
the preceding picture; the accessories only being varied. We also find at a sale at 
Amsterdam on May 14, 1832, „The three Graces and one or two children in a landscape", 
and a picture very similar to the foregoing at the Pieter Lyonnet sale (Amsterdam, 1791), 
described as „A nude nymph resting in a well-wooded landscape. Before her stands 



Cupid, with an arrow in his hand, as if he wished to pierce her. Further details are several 
land- and water-birds". 

Ariadne in the train of bacchus. — The picture with this title in the Dresden 
Museum presents, both in subject and in execution, a great similarity with the other we have 
just been discussing. Here also are to be seen several nymphs lying on the ground. 
Ariadne, seated on a small elevation, is what the Flemings call a „ thick, fat puss", — more 
flabby than chubby. She is surrounded by other three nymphs; one turns her back to us; 
a second reclines on the ground, resting on one elbow; the third sits straight up and 
regards the spectator full face. All are as fleshy as Ariadne, but less plump in form than 
she. From the left hand side two satyrs approach, carrying a cornucopia, full of fruit 

and vegetables. One of them 
is fat like Sijenus, the other 
is much more slender. A 
Cupid offers an apple to 
Ariadne; two satyrs are seated 
in a tree behind her, one 
holding a bunch of grapes 
in his hand ; a young woman 
is offering an artichoke, while 
a fat satyr, leaning his head 
on his hand, looks on. 

The two women, of whom 
we have a back view, are 
beautifully painted, with 
tender modelling of the 
luxurious flesh. Ariadne is 
too fat — „fat as mud" as 
the Flemings say — ; the 
nymph seen in full front is 
too dull in the lighting; 
the little woman, bringing 
the vegetables is particularly 
sweet; the other figures, especially the satyrs, are rather blurred. The principal group 
reminds one very much of the nymphs in Mrs. Bougard's picture; except that the Dresden 
one is fatter, and more empty ^ and puffy. Jordaens here painted women who doubtless were 
beautiful. uj< his eyes; but to ours he has made Chinese graces of them, heavy and flaccid. 
The picture probably dates from the same time as the Diogenes and the Prodigal Son 
at Dresden. 

At the. Gustave Couteaux sale (Brussels, 1874), a picture appeared treating another 
episode in the history of Ariadne. Bacchus meets her after she has been deserted by 
Theseus on the island of Naxos ; he falls in love with her and succeeds in consoling her, 
Ariadne is seated on the ground in a landscape decorated with a monumental fountain, 
and holds a tendril of the vine ; her shoulders are covered with a panther's skin,, and she 
offers the god a bunch of grapes. 

At a sale in the Hague on the 18 th of July, 1753, appeared a picture of Bacchus and 

Drawing, (M. J. Rump, Copenhagen). 



Ariadne; at the Johan van Nispen sale (the Hague, 1768) was a painting, and at the 
Klinkosch sale (Vienna, 1889) a drawing, of the same subject. 

Diana Reposing. — In the same style was Diana Reposing at the Kums sale (Antwerp, 
1898). It is a picture of an exuberant mirth. In the centre of the scene is Diana, 
enthroned on an elevation. She is seated, with her legs crossed, on a crimson robe; a 
warm white cloth is wrapped round her limbs and on her chubby flesh falls the bluish 
light of the moon. To the left is a nymph stretched out upon a blue cloth with a 
yellow border; one hand, holding her foot. A second nymph to the right, with the full 
light falling on her back, which is turned towards us, is wrapped in mallow-coloured 
drapery. Behind the goddess stands a nymph in yellow, the soft moonlight falling on her 
face; a fourth sits asleep, her head resting on her knees. The produce of Diana's hunt 
— roe-bucks, hares, birds, a boar — 
is spread on the ground or hangs 
from the branches of the trees. 
From the left arrives a procession 
of quite a different nature. In front 
is a corpulent satyr with goat's- 
feet, who carries, pressed against 
his heavy paunch, a basket with 
delightful fruit; his naked brown, 
crinkled skfn stands out in a 
strong light; his eyes sparkling with 
sensuality, and his wanton, laughing 
mouth explain sufficiently the 
sensations which the beautiful 
goddess and her followers have 
aroused in him. Behind him is 
another satyr blowing his pipe; 
and one of Diana's maidens 
defends herself from the attempted 
embraces of a third. In the fore- 
ground trips a satyr child with 

tambourine and pipe. In the background is an awning stretched between two trees. 
The game and fruit have been painted by Snyders in his firm, highly-coloured style. 
The picture was bought by Mr. Tony Dreyfus in Paris. It passed through the 
Lecandele sale (Antwerp, 1881), the Countess de Rubiano sale (Brussels, 1838), and the 
van Schorel sale (Antwerp, 1794); and it was etched by the painter Andreas Lens when 

it belonged to Schorel. 

There exists a second version of the subject, which was found in the Lebrun collection 
(Paris 1777) and was engraved by Dambrun in „Lebrun, Galerie des peintres flamands et 
hollandais" The composition is the same; only there are nine nymphs round Diana, some 
standing some sitting. The implements for the hunt are missing in the foreground; a 
greyhound sits between the satyr with the basket of fruit and the nymphs. Later, the picture 
appeared at the Abbe Guillaume de Gevigny sale (Paris, 1779), and at the Fesch sale 
(Rome 1845) At the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, there is a weak copy of it. In the 

Drawing, (Museum Plantin-Moretus, Antwerp). 


catalogue of the collection of Salzthalen, which has passed to the Brunswick gallery, 
mention is made of a picture of a similar composition. 

The oblation to Venus. — The Museum at Brunswick possesses an Oblation to Venus 
of the same period. To the left stands the marble statue of Venus with a cupid in a 
recess cut out of a rock. On the ground in front of her kneels an old man, wrapped in 
a red cloak; a little satyr is busy fixing a wig with two horns over his bald crown; a 
cupid beside him points to a satyr and a woman, who are billing and cooing, thus 
indicating the signifiance of the horns. On the top of the rock five satyrs are engaged hanging 
flower-garlands between the trees. Towards the sanctum of Venus a group of nude 
Bacchantes is approaching. The first carries a lighted torch; the five following her are 
carrying wreaths of flowers in their hands and on their heads; the last one induces a 
reluctant woman to come along with her, guiding her by the hair which has fallen over 
her face; then follow women dancing or being carried by satyrs; to the left are another 
courting couple, and a man who is holding a woman down on the ground. A satyr, seated 
in a tree, is playing the pipe. In the centre of the upper part of the picture a group of 
love-gods is floating in the air; the foremost of them carries a flaming heart. In the 
background we notice a mountainous landscape. 

The picture is undoubtedly by Jordaens, though for a long time there was uncertainty 
regarding it. It represents a playful, indecorous scene of exuberant emotion, with magnificient 
but heavy female figures ; very decorative in the accessories and indeed in the whole com- 
position. The group of cupids in the sky is especially delightful; it recalls the amorini 
of Sandro Botticelli in his Christ's Birth in the National Gallery, London, and is the most 
charming group Jordaens ever painted. The picture is brown in tone, without much glow; 
the muscles are knotty, the draperies fall angularly, and everything points to a date about 
1630. The Museum at Dresden possesses a very fine replica of this picture from 
Jordaens' atelier. One of these pictures, or else a third example, appeared at the Schorel 
sale (Antwerp, 1774). 

Jordaens as an Animal Painter. — We have been discussing certain of Jordaens' 
works which repeat the same subject; during this period, also, we come across several 
others in which the same material is treated in different ways. If one had to point out a 
characteristic common to them all, it would be that they give up a considerable space to 
the animal world. We have remarked already, and do so again here, — because in our 
opinion too little attention has been paid to the fact — that Jordaens was a first-rate animal 
painter, the equal of the greatest Flemish artists in this genre, and they are acknowledged 
to have been the greatest in the world. Wherever he could introduce animals into his 
work — and where could he not do so? — he seized the opportunity; he painted large 
animals and small, but the large by preference ; quadrupeds, birds r fishes, all were accept- 
able to him so long as he could pour his colours over their fur, and make their feathers 
sparkle with precious stones, and their scales glisten with gold and silver. Sometimes he 
borrowed assistance from a professional painter of animals; but in such cases, no doubt, 
he did so with the object of saving time rather than in the hope of producing better work 
by their four hands than he himself could achieve with his two. 

A picture in which (as an exception) he did not paint the animal, — very possibly 
because it was a bird, not a quadruped, — is The Chained Prometheus in the Museum at 


Cologne. The fire-robber is chained to a rock, his head hanging downward, one leg straight 
up, the other doubled; he screams loudly with pain. The eagle has stuck one of his 
claws into the abdomen of the martyr, and pulls forth the bleeding liver. In powerful 
flight the gigantic bird extends its two wings, thus filling the whole scene from right to left. 
Higher up we notice Mercury, holding on to the branch of a tree; lower down is the female 
statue to which Prometheus desired to impart life. Prometheus is given knobbly muscles, and 
knotted lumps of flesh cover his breast and arms; Mercury's flesh is as deeply furrowed. 
Both figures markedly recall the Miracle of St. Martin; and the picture, which is not of very 
great value, is probably of the same date. The eagle was painted by Snyders, and is smooth 
and firm, and without play of light, as that master always painted his birds. 

The Fishmonger. Brussels. — One of the pictures in which an ample space is occupied 
by still-life is The Fishmonger and Poultry-dealer in the Museum at Brussels. To the right 
we notice a counter, on which meat and poultry are spread; suspended by hooks from a 
hoop are poultry and game; there are baskets with fruit, and vegetables are lying on the 
ground. To the left, an old man is engaged in emptying a hamper of fish upon the floor 
which is already strewn with lobsters and crabs. Beside him stand a young girl with a brass 
pan in her hand, and an old woman of whom the head only is visible. The picture is 
signed AN F A 1637. The monogram is to be read, „Adriaan van Utrecht, fecit", showing 
that the still-life was painted by that artist, Jordaens undoubtedly painted the three figures, 
and has done so with much care and art. The old man with his brown, grainy, wrinkled 
face, white hair, white beard and bare knees, has the head of Adam van Noort. The girl's 
is a taking, chubby little face, the eyes a little oblique, Chinese-wise; her head is encircled 
by an abundant wreath of curls, through which the sunlight plays. We recognise an 
old acquaintance in the aged woman with her brown skin painted in shadow. The still-life 
is a masterpiece in Jordaens' warm, brilliant tones ; we cannot doubt that he touched up the 
whole of it, and especially the poured-out fish. If any one would dispute this, let him, 
compare any other fish and poultry picture by van Utrecht with the one discussed here, — that, 
for example, in the Museum at Ghent, which is signed in the same way. He will notice 
at once how cold and wan the still-life is beside the glowing and ardent painting in Jordaens'. 
The figures in the Brussels picture are of importance to us because they are strongly 
characteristic of the master's manner of painting in 1637. The man is powerfully built, 
and vigorous in his actions ; the young woman poses, her eyes fixed straight in front of her, 
doing nothing, smiling in a simpering manner; there is little of the people apparent in 
her, — she plays the winning maiden, the „got-up", pretty miss. Particularly striking is the 
hazy, flowing vapourous light, which hovers over the faces, and surrounds them with a warm, 
soft glow. The shadows have become more abundant and darker than in earlier years, without, 
however, losing their warmth and transparency. The vivid passages flash out like so many 
crystallised lights. The picture in the Brussels Museum was bought in 1887 ; it had appeared in 
1837 at the Stevens sale in Antwerp. The Museum at Hanover possesses an insignificant copy. 

Jordaens repeatedly put in the figures in pictures of shops or storerooms, where other 
hands had painted game, poultry, and vegetables. Parthey mentions an example at Prague, 
in the Stratow collection: „A table with bread, game, and poultry; a man embraces a 
woman; to the right an old person." 1) 

1) G. Parthey. Deutscher Bildersaal. Jordaens No. 100. 

9 6 


At the Paulus van der Speyck sale (Dordrecht, 1805), there was a study of a woman 
standing before a table on which were a few fillets of salmon, a fish-kettle, and other 
kitchen utensils. It was catalogued a Jordaens. At the Salamanca sale (Paris, 1867) appeared 
The Shop of a Poultry-dealer. On a table lies poultry of all kinds ; high up, from a cross 
beam, hangs an eagle, a child trying to pull at its head; on the floor, vegetables and 
accessories; on a wheelbarrow a hamper with fruit. In the background we see a man in a 
red coat, carrying a basket of poultry; a saleswoman, wearing a straw hat holds a child 
on her arm, and points to its little brother who stands laughing by. 

In the hall of the Guild of the Young Cross-bow at Antwerp there hung, about the 


middle of the eighteenth century, a picture of which Berbie says: „A fityj picture by 
Joannes Feyt, Anno 1645; painted, full of all sorts of wild Animals: Dogs, Hares and 
Birds, with a Swan, and several Dogs, with 5 figures painted by Joannes (sic) Jordaens, 
as beautiful as Rubens; this picture was completely spoiled three years ago, through the 
carelessness of a framemaker, who rubbed Olive Oil on the back of the canvas, through 
the moisture of which nearly all the paint on the front has fallen off." 1) 

The Gifts of the Sea. — There is much similarity between the canvas in the 
Brussels Museum and a picture in the Schonborn Gallery at Vienna entitled The Gifts of 

1) Gerardus Berbie, Description of particular pictures etc. Antwerp, 1756. p. 58. 



the Sea. Neptune has taken a fish from the water and holds it up on his tripod. Two 
sea-gods blow on a conch shell. Amphitrite carries a tripod from which large fish are 
hanging, and two sea-nymphs are near by. To the left we see Cupid on a rock, fishing with 
a rod, and Mercury pointing out a fish to him. To the right are two more sea-goddesses, 
and a sea-nymph, taking a piece of coral from the water, and carrying a string of 
pearls. This gigantic picture is a masterly example of Jordaens in his bright, fat manner 
of painting, with soft, transparent shadows. The fish and the accessory work are ascribed 
to Jacob van Es, but the similarity between the still-life in it and in the picture at Brussels 
is so marked that we do not hesitate for a moment to say that here also Adriaan van 
Utrecht painted the fish and Jordaens retouched them. And we have as little doubt that 
both pictures date from about the same year. 

It seems evident, however, that there were other still-life painters with whom Jordaens 
collaborated. At the Ferdinand 
van Plattenberg and Witte sale 
(Amsterdam, 1738) was a large 
picture of dead game and 
poultry and fruit by Frans 
Snyders „with a figure by 
Jordaens". Again, at the sale 
of the painter's own effects 
there were a Wreath by 
„Velvet" Breughel with a little 
figure by Jordaens (necessarily 
painted before 1625), and a 
Fruit-piece by „ Father" Segers 
with little figures by Jordaens. 
At thejacob de Wit sale (Amster- 
dam) was mentioned „a Holy 
Family in a beautiful wreath 
of fruit", — very probably the 
picture which now belongs to 
Mrs. Errera at Brussels. 

Belonging undoubtedly to the same time as The Fishmonger at Brussels is A Woman 
with Black Cherries possessed by Lord Darnley. A young woman holds in her hand a 
dish of black cherries, from which she has lifted one. Behind her stands a man on 
whose hand is a parrot biting at the cherry which the woman holds out to it. The old 
man is the same as in the Brussels Fishmonger, and the woman is the maid from the 
fishshop ; she is painted wholly in a warm tone, and wears a white collar on her red bodice. 
She sparkles with sunshine; her loose, wavy hair surrounds her chubby face like a tender 
aureole. The old man is a burnt brown tint, with the warmest glow that Jordaens ever 
put upon a face; with white hair and a white beard. He is in love: his small eyes sparkle 
lustfully, and perhaps it was Jordaens' intention to personify here what Flemish people call 
an old „kreekenplukker" (picker of black cherries). The two warm figures stand out 
luminously against the cool blue sky and the gray window which form the background. The 
picture was in the collection of the Duke of Choiseul, and was engraved by S. Couzeau 
in 1771. Mr. F. de Witte of Antwerp possesses a picture which repeats the same group, 

* ' 13 

Drawing, (Louvre, Paris). 

9 8 


but in a lighter, paler key, and with a few alterations in the accessories. Both pictures 
prove, as do others also, that Jordaens sometimes liked to repeat a subject with a trans- 
position of key; in this case, for example, the first treatment is altogether in gold, the 
second in silver; the one in warm sunshine, the other in pale moonlight. 

A drawing representing a woman with a smiling face, holding a parrot in one hand, 
a stick in the other, appeared at the Hazard sale (Brussels, 1789). 

The Prodigal Son. Dresden. — This picture, in the Dresden Museum, treats a subject 
drawn from Biblical History, but as a matter of fact is more allied to the genre of mixed 
animal and figure painting, to which belong the pictures we have just been discussing. It 
introduces us into a farm-yard. The farmer is surrounded by his domestic animals and 


cattle, — a white horse, a couple of white and brown cows, four pigs at the trough, and 
a dog. In addition to him we find his old wife, with a brass milk-can in her hands, a 
young farm maid with one on her head, and a child playing the whistle. In the back- 
ground to the right is seen a landscape under the setting sun. In the centre appears the 
Prodigal; he is quite naked, save for a rag of white cloth round his loins. He holds out 
a hand, begging for a copper, and cries with hunger; not only his expression, and his 
stretched-out hand, but all his body also begs and laments. The people appear sympa- 
thetic. The farmer holds out his hand encouragingly, the two women regard him with a 
kindly curiosity; the dog only shows aversion from the strange intruder, and bares his 
teeth. But the Biblical tale — the touching story of the young ne'er-do-well and of .the 
people to whom he appeals for help — is a secondary matter. The great concern is the 
animals, and the art with which they are painted. The dog is excellent in his threat- 


ening and suspicious movement; the other quadrupeds have been fluently yet tenderly 
brushed in. Like the whole scene, they are suffused with a warm light which seems 
to penetrate them and make them transparent. Men and animals are enveloped in a sunny 
vapour, which deprives them of all hard outlines, of substance even, and infiltrates them 
with its fine glow of light. 

How far we are from the hard and wiry Jordaens of the first period ! He has become 
completely his own antipodes. Instead of the hard, enamel-like surface of his earlier 
period, his painting now shows a transparent thin impasto, soaked and swimming in oil. 
He aimed at being tender and radiant in his light, and warm and brilliant also, and this 
he achieved when in 1637 he adopted this new manner; but with rapid steps he fell 
into an exaggeration, and in his pictures of 1641 and 1642 he has lost himself in a mazy 
style, without firmness, without strength, his figures wanting in bone and muscle, imbedded 
in fat. Fortunately this excessive reaction was not lasting; before the forties are half past 
he returns to a healthier and sounder method. 

THE OFFERING TO VENUS (Museum, Dresden). 

The picture invites comparison with The Fishmonger of 1638; from the group in the 
latter are derived the various figures in this one; the shopkeeper there is the farmer here, 
the maids are the same, and the old woman in the shop figures now as the farmer's wife, 
the same in features, but in the one dressed like a towns-woman, and rigged out like a 
country woman in the other. Their softness has increased, however, and comes nearer to 
that in the 1641 portraits. The Prodigal Son may be placed between the two dates 1638 
and 1641 It is not a masterpiece; but swimming in light as it is, it has an importance by 
virtue of showing plainly Jordaens' turning-point. It appeared at a sale at Amsterdam on 
June 26 1742, and Was probably bought for the Elector of Saxony, for as early as 1753 
we find 'it mentioned in an inventory of the royal collection at Dresden. 

Jordaens repeatedly treated the subject on a smaller scale. At the sale of pictures left 
by him (The Hague, 1734) was one of these. Another is in the professed house of the 



Society of Jesus in Antwerp. The Museum at Lille possesses a third, which, however, 
cannot compare with that at Dresden in artistic merit. 

In the Jordaens exhibition at Antwerp in 1905 two of these smaller versions appeared. 
Both are conseived characteristically: evening is falling; on one side of the picture the sun 
is setting behind a house in the valley, which is framed by its radiant beams; on the heights 
on the other side, the farmer and his wife emerge from their farm; in the centre kneels 
the Prodigal Son, who has brought his herd home, begging with outstretched hand for food 
to appease his hunger. One of the pictures, that of Mr. Wouters of Ghent, discovers a 

landscape on which the gloaming 
has fallen deeply; the beams of 
the departing sun lay sharp touches 
of light on men and animals. In 
the other, belonging to Mr. Tous- 
saint of Brussels, in which the 
evening is less advanced, the con- 
trast between day and dusk is 
consequently less acute. Both pic- 
tures reveal a very remarkable side 
of Jordaens' talent, a dreamy sensi- 
bility of the realistic artist for the 
charm of an evening landscape in 
which the figures disappear into 
the approaching night, which throws 
a fantastic halo over the slumbering 
earth. Both, too, give fresh proof 
that he frequently painted the same 
subject, similarly conceived, in 
different keys. 

Diogenes looking for a Man. 
There is in the Dresden Museum 
still another picture in which 
animals and still-life are conspi- 
cuous. This is Diogenes looking 
for a man. True, the fearless and 
bold philosopher stands in the 
centre, undeniably the principal 
actor in the scene, but it is evident that the painter was less concerned with him than 
with the accessory persons and objects. Diogenes wears no other garment than a hide round 
his loins ; with one hand he leans on a heavy staff, with the other he holds aloft a lantern. 
All about him is the stir and bustle of the market place, — buyers and sellers, spectators 
and idlers; armed men are looking at the cynic. A woman with a child on her arm sits 
on the ground and seems to shriek with delight over this weird apparition and his strange 
action; a boy is kneeling beside her with his hands on her lap, and a vegetable market 
woman sits by her wares. To the left: a few saleswomen, a young courting couple, and 
an old man leaning on a stick and laughing at the scene; two other men have climbed 

.PROMETHEUS (Museum, Cologne). 



upon the pedestal of a column the better to watch the commotion. To the right are four old 
men, looking on, and two of the Town Guard on horseback; and in among them all, two 
cows, a donkey, and a couple of pigs. In the foreground are all sorts of fruit and vegetables. 
The market-place with its busy stir and lively diversity of people, animals, and other 
objects, was that which principally attracted Jordaens; here was the manifestation of the 
corporate, serried life of the people in the streets; he did not paint the market-place of 
Athens, though he clothed his figures in a sort of antique drapery, but a market in the 
Flemish country, and those whom he introduced into the scene were the peasant women 
who brought their wares to Antwerp and offered them for sale there upon the pavements, 
and the cattle-dealers who drove their cattle and swine into its market. The heaps of fresh- 
cut greenery and foliage, the rich and many-coloured fruits, — the cattle, so many radiant 

THE FISHMONGER (Museum, Brussels). 

sunny blots in between, — had often charmed him, and he employed them now as the 
furnishings of a large scene with which the people's costumes and bare skin mingle 
their variegated hues. He was not the first Fleming to be fascinated by the bright colour 
of the market-places. Joachim De Beukelaer had painted them before him; Pieter Aertsen 
and Pieter Huys had chosen models from among vegetable women and cooks. But Jordaens 
conceived the scene in his own way. Joachim De Beukelaer, in his „Ecce Homo's," intro- 
duced them in the foreground, as something apart from the historical action; as a kind of 
"stage-scene, a still-life alongside which the living persons appear. The others had chosen 
figures with vegetables typical of their occupation. With Jordaens the market with its 
multitude combines with the action, and is reproduced in all its full and busy stir; it is 
the scene of the heterogeneous life of the people; it spreads itself out in the open air, 
sparkling with light and colour, full of bustle and noise. The figures who appear are large, 
their gestures broad; and these are interpreted by a powerful art. 



It is quite a drama, at once amusing and philosophical. The cynic, with his mocking 
laugh and piercing look is searching for a man, and with exasperating chuckle signifies 
that none is to be found; the vegetable women who deride and pity the queer doings of 
the wise man; the little boy who frankly laughs at him; the two lovers who seize the 
moment when all attention is diverted from them to be very sweet to each other; the old 
men and women who are looking on astonished and laughing (among whom the fat one 
with the eyeglasses, who posed to Rubens for the Pharisee, strikes us most); the guards 
standing by, vigilant yet unmoved; and last of all the few wiser people who ask if after all 
this quest of Diogenes is as foolish as it seems — one reflecting, finger on mouth, another 
next to him looking on calmly with compressed lips; a bald man who with his chin in his 
hand bends forward against the column with an astonished curiosity to see what this 

THE PRODIGAL SON (Museum, Dresden). 

curious creature intends doing: — they are all characters in a comedy, the comedy of the 
people's life, shrewdly observed, simply constructed, with Diogenes as a nucleus, and set 
in action with incisive humour and sparkling verve. 

The colour is abundant and rich, the light warm and penetrated with a dull glow. 
Diogenes' brown wrinkled skin, the transparent shadows of his flesh, the variegated tints 
of the vegetables, of some of the draperies, and of the cattle, leave the tawny colour 
dominant; to which respond the red of some five garments and the white of a few draperies 
and of the horse. Supreme, however, is the all-penetrating sunshine, shimmering through, 
slightly thinner to the right, more strongly to the left. In this happy atmosphere the roaring 
drama of market life unfolds itself. 

The fleecy airiness of the whole picture shows it to be a work of about 1640. The 
swine too, have been painted in the same way as those in The Prodigal Son; the sweet 



lass who is held under the chin by her lover is the same as the one in the Fish-shop at 
Brussels; Jordaens repeats this group more than once; the boy with the whistle also we 
find recurring in several pictures of this time. 

In 1695, the picture was mentioned in the inventory of Sebastiaan Lierse, under the 
title „A large picture Diosines, painted by Jordaens"; and afterwards, on the 20 th of April, 
at a sale in Amsterdam: as „Diogenes, a capital picture." It was bought in 1742 by de 
Brais for the Elector of Saxony. At the sale of Jordaens' goods (The Hague, 1734) appeared 
a smaller example; and in the Catalogue of the F. Bernard Stanstead sale (London, 
1783) and van Geertruyen and Beeckmans sale rAntwerp, 1850) mention is made of a 
„Diogenes searching for a man". Messrs. J. & A. Le Roy at Brussels possess a drawing 
in colour, representing the left side of the Diogenes, and signed: „J. Jordaens, 1642", most 
probably, the date of the picture itself. 

The Ferry boat at Antwerp. — Sandrart mentions another scene of popular life 

THE PRODIGAL SON (Mons. Toussaint, Brussels). 

painted by Jordaens, which he describes thus: „So he has also reproduced, along the 
length of the long hall, the large ferry boat of Antwerp in an incomparably fine way; in 
which are to be seen animals and people who all work according to their trade". One can 
understand how this scene, which he must have witnessed often at Antwerp, would 
fascinate Jordaens and that the riverside, the boatmen and the crowd of passengers added 
a peculiar attraction to it. 

The picture seems to be the same as that which for many years, and until quite 
recently, hung in the Castle of Finspong in Sweden, (2.77 m. high and 4.68 m. broad). 
It bears the title, „St. Peter taking the penny from the fish's mouth", and it is true that on 
the right hand side of the picture, which represents a ferry boat, we do see a man who 
has pulled a fish out of the water and is looking at the coin he has found in its mouth. 
But this is merely a secondary episode. 

Only the group to the right (that of the apostles who are standing round Peter) 
concern themselves in the least, about him and his find. All the others remain indifferent 



to him : they are, indeed, no more than ordinary passengers in a- ferry-boat. They form 
two groups, apart from the companions of Peter. The first, in the centre, comprises a man 
hoisting the sail and a second pushing off the boat, two strong fellows naked to the waist, 
behind whom, watching them at their work, are several villagers. Among these is a child who 
cries because its orange has fallen into the water. There is an ox, also, with its head on 

the gunwale. In the second group, 
to the left, are a sailor, pushing 
off the boat from the shore, and 
some of the populace, including 
a woman in a straw hat, holding 
a child on her lap, and with her 
feet over the side of the boat, and 
a negro. A horse hangs its head 
and neck over the side. The 
picture is very decorative, admi- 
rably fitted to embellish a wall- 
panel in a large hall; the figures 
are varied, in nature and attitude ; 
the groups are well composed, 
and happily united; all is life and 
movement. The painting is rather 
superficial, but light and colour 
are diversified and harmonious. 
The picture is believed to have 
been taken from the Netherlands 
to Sweden by Louis de Gier, a 
native of Liege, for whom the 
castle was built, or by his son (also 
a Louis de Gier), about 1695. It 
was exhibited at the Jordaens ex- 
hibition at Antwerp. 

The Museum at Amsterdam 
possesses a smaller picture treating 
this subject, partly in the same, 
partly in a slightly different way. 
St. Peter, who pulls up the fish, 
the man hoisting the sail, one of 
the two men pushing off the boat, 
the child crying for its orange, the 
woman with the straw hat, all fill the same part in both compositions, and are almost 
identical in action ; the majority of the other figures, however, have been altered. To the 
right has been erected a rude staging under which is gathered a number of people Over 
it peep the towers of the town. This Amsterdam picture is emphatically neither a sketch 
nor a replica, but a second, smaller version of the bustle and confusion on a ferry-boat 
It seems to me to belong to the middle of the Forties. An intense, strong light casting 
heavy shadows, falls on the multi-coloured crowd; there is a sharp contrast between the 

DIOGENES SEARCHING FOR A MAN, Drawing (J. and A. Le Roy, Brussels). 



figures on the boat, §0 distinctly picked out, and those on the landing-stage and on the 
shore, which are a dull grey in tone. 

A third picture with a boat for its centre of action belongs to Mr. J. Heinrich Tack 
of Crefeld. Here we have a vessel in which several men, all naked to the waist, have 
taken their seats; the boat is being pushed off at the prow and the stern. On the edge of 
the water we see four cows. Behind and above them are seen two more. Beside them 
stands a woman in antique drapery, and a soldier in armour, she holding up her left hand, 
he his right, as if they were vowing a compact. In the background is a landscape. The 
meaning of the picture is not clear. It has been supposed to represent Circe and Ulysses 
at the moment when the goddess takes an oath that she will not change his companions 
into swine on their departure. It seems as if here Jordaens had seriously attempted to 
represent a scene from Greek mythology. 

THEJTRIBUTE MONEY (M. Ringborg, Norkopfng). 

A picture of similar composition appeared at the Thomas Schwenck sale (The Hague, 
1767) and at the Jean Tack sale (Amsterdam, 1781). In the first it was catalogued as 
A Contract, a title that refers to the pair with uplifted hands in the background. 

The Miracles of St. Dominic. Oldenburg. — Though undoubtedly Jordaens painted 
altar-pieces during the period now under review, we cannot point to any of them with 
absolute certainty. But there is one, The Miracles of St. Dominic in the Museum at 
Oldenburg, which to me appears to belong to this period. There is more than one point 
of similarity between it and The Miracle of St. Martin in the Museum at Brussels. The 
background of both is occupied by an open portico, while in the foreground a demoniac 
is writhing convulsively; the woman who is holding the sufferer is the same in both 
pictures; one of the two monks looking on in The Miracles of St. Dominic has the features 
of the master of the possessed man in The Miracle of St. Martin. But there are also 




important differences. In the Oldenburg picture we see the miracle-worker within the 
opening of the arcade, with rolling clouds under his feet, and both hands outstretched; 
on his left hand a white rose stands upright on its stem; near his right shoulder flutters 
a white dove; he wears the white robe of his order, with a black cassock, and oyer it a 
red-gold stole. Directly underneath the saint is a naked man, rising out of his coffin, the 
lid of which is being lifted by a brawny workman. More in the foreground we see a 
demoniac, struggling to free his arms from the chains which bind them. He is held by 
a man in a slate-blue garment, a woman in red with a blue apron, a kneeling boy with 
with a red waistcoat and yellow trousers, and a man bending forwards; all implore the 
assistance of the saint. Beside the woman lies a dead child; a greyhound stretches out 
its head to sniff at it. To the left we notice a young woman in a white shift and light 
yellow skirt, with two children; behind her, an old woman; both raise their faces to 

THE TRIBUTE MONEY (Rijks Museum, Amsterdam). 

the saint. Higher up are several spectators. Surmounting the arcade hangs a picture repre- 
senting Our Lady and the Child. The little Jesus bends forward as if to look forth from 
the frame upon the scene. 

The saint is a gentle, beautiful, young, figure, with half-closed eyes expressive of 
rapture. A strong, warm light plays over the whole scene, with brown shadows on the 
lower part, and cool shadows on the woman with the two children and on the two vene- 
rable men higher up on the right of the canvas who are looking down on the scene. The 
picture, which has been loosely brushed, is powerful in relief and light-effects; and much 
clearer in tone and brighter in colour than The Miracle of St. Martin. It was evidently 
painted some little time after that picture, yet apparently in the first half of the Thirties. 

The Flight into Egypt — There are a few pictures which bear the date of the last 
year of this period, 1641. First at all, a Flight into- Egypt belonging to Mrs. Bosschaert— 


Dubois of Antwerp. The holy family is shown travelling through a landscape. Mary sits 
on an ass, the child Jesus on her lap; she wears a white kerchief over her head, a red 
dress, and a blue cloak wrapped round her. Joseph walks in front; he is bare-headed 
and wears a blue garment over which a gray plaid is flung; an ox walks besides him. A 
large angel draped in yellow, pointing out the way, is preceded by three little angels; 
the first carries a basket with clothes On his head, while the two others guide the ox by 
a cord. In the background we see a landscape, with small trees on the left and a large 
one on the right. The picture is signed : J. Jor, fe. 1641. 

The work is important on account of its bright tone and suffused light (wherein 
it closely corresponds with the last pictures painted in the Thirties), as well as of the 
freshness of the landscape, which stretches out against the gray sky. The effect is decorative, 
and probably the picture was painted for an overmantel. 

ULYSSES AND CIRCE (M. Tack, Crefeld). 

In the Church of St. Anthony at Antwerp there is a copy of this work, evidently from the 
school of Jordaens. The large angel who shows the way to Joseph is missing. There are changes 
also in the landscape : to the right stand four large trees, and a fifth is found in the centre. 

Pontius engraved the principal group. Mary, Joseph and the three little angels with 
the ox are walking along the bank of a stream across which they evidently intend to 
wade. The large angel has been left out here also. In the background an idol („Adonis" 
is the inscription on it in the engraving) standing on a pedestal and holding a ball in its 
hand, is shown broken in twain, the upper half tumbling forward. 

Waagen mentions still another Flight into Egypt in the collection of Prince Schuwaloff 
at St Petersburg. There exists a drawing of this subject in black, red, and white chalk (with 
a few other colours), which appeared at an Amsterdam sale (30 th October 1780), the Pierre 
Wouters sale (Brussels, 1797), and the Walschot sale (Antwerp, 1817). The catalogue of the 
last describes it thus: „Mary seated on an ass led by Joseph ; they are preceded by angels." 


Portraits. — In this year, 1641, Jordaens painted a few portraits, of which one, a 
man's, appeared at the Huybrechts sale (Antwerp, 1902), and now belongs to Messrs. 
Colnaghi, London. The subject is a corpulent gentleman, seated in an armchair on a red 
cushion. He faces three-quarters to the side, and wears a hemispherical cap, a black 
silk jacket, a collar with limp pleats, and plain turned-over cuffs. He is seventy-three 
years of age, gray-haired and gray-bearded. Very peacefully he sits there, calmly looking 
in front of him, installed in a wealthy house, amid all the signs of luxury! The right hand 
lies on the arm of the chair; in his left hand, resting on his leg, he holds a folded paper. 
In the background an arcade between two columns is open to the air. The picture is 
signed on the pedestal of the column, to the left, Aetatis 73 Ao. 1641. Here more than 
ever the atmosphere is impregnated with warm light which spreads a golden vapour over 
everything, and imparts to the painting a genial tenderness. In none of his other works 
does Jordaens show to the same degree this very striking quality; after 1637, in The 
Fishmonger at Brussels, we see him inclining to this nebulous style; in 1641 he has 
reached its extreme limits; in the second half of the Forties he discards this exaggeration 
and again adopts a concise manner. The dates of the pictures marking this development 
are incontestable proof that he affected the style in question for a few years only. 

The Museum at Brussels possesses the pendant to this portrait, the wife of the 
distinguished-looking gentleman. She is seen full-face, and sits in a wide chair with both 
elbows on the arms, her hands in her lap; in . her left she holds a handkerchief. She 
wears a dress of black flowered-silk, with gold buttons down the front, a striped black- 
silk cloak edged with fur, a white goffered collar, a white cap dressed in open shell shape 
on the temples. She is a distinguished-looking, well-to-do, good-hearted, burgher wife, 
sixty-six years old. The picture is inscribed, {ALtat) is 66, 1641. The painting is of the 
same style as the man's portrait, except that the flesh is decidedly unpleasant; the face 
is cream-coloured, with green tints which give the sitter a sickly appearance, and stain 
the forehead, cheeks, nose and chin; the eyes are watery. Everything in the work is 
tender and transparent enough, yet the portrait is decidedly unattractive. 

The Louvre possesses two unusually well preserved studies for these two portraits, 
executed very broadly and in full colours, and ranking among Jordaens' best drawings. 
The figures are identically the same as in the painted portraits, but the accessories show 
some slight discrepencies. 

In The Museum at St. Petersburg there is an old copy of the man's portrait which 
came from the Crozat collection. 

Portraits of Jan Wierts and His Wife. — The Museum at Cologne possesses the 
portraits of a similar couple. The man, seated in an arm chair, is seen almost entirely in 
profile; his right arm rests on that of the chair, and in his left hand is a paper on 
which we read: Eersamen dischreten Sr. Johan Wierts Coopman totte Ant. Behind him, 
to his left, ar,e an open window with a broken arch, and a caryatid which rests on the 
cornice of the mantelpiece. On his left is a table with a red cover, a wine-glass and 
grapes. Above him is a piece of a red drapery. The man has a strong, healthy face, ruddy 
cheeks, short gray hair, a gray pointed moustache, and a broad imperial. He wears a 
black dress, white soft lace collar, and cuffs. 

His wife sits in a chair of similar shape in the same room; the window is open and 
we see both caryatids of the mantlepiece. She is placed three-fourths in profile, and 



wears a black dress, a stiff, goffered collar, lace cuffs; with strings of pearls in her hair, 
round her neck and wrists, and on her breast, and large pearl earrings. In her right 
hand she holds a fan (of which we see the handle only), fastened to her wrist by a 
string of pearls. 

These portraits have the same warm vaporous tone as the two preceding ones, but are 
more firmly painted. Here, again, the woman is less successful than the man; and here 
also we have a couple from the well-to-do burgher class, blessed with wealth and health. 
The designation, „Jan Wierts, mer- 
chant at Antwerp", causes us to 
be pretty certain that these are the 
portraits of the parents of Jordaens' 
son-in-law; the title „merchant'' 
proves that the man is not the 
son-in-law himself. Under the frame 
on the man's portrait we find 
another inscription, which unfort- 
unately, however, has partly dis- 
appeared, and reads, „AETATIS 
48. 16....". (The two last figures 
are quite illegible). Probably the 
father of Jordaens' son-in-law was 
about the same age as the artist 
himself, in which case the picture 
must have been painted about 1640. 

We seem to identify these 
pictures with two which appeared 
at the Gemert sale (Antwerp, 1778), 
— „Two portraits of a Merchant 
and his Wife, very powerfully and 
beautifully painted". 

A female portrait, belonging to 
Lord Chesham, may be ascribed to 
the same period, but some ten 
years earlier in it, say about 1631. 
It represents a lady holding a little 
dog. She wears a bronze-green 
dress, a white muslin scarf over 
her breast, and white sleeves. In 

the background we notice a balustrade, a column, and some dark-blue drapery. The 
painting is very soft, fine, and fused. On the flesh, and over the whole picture, the dominant 
tone is a brown-gray that reminds us of that which Jordaens, in 1630, spread over The 
Miracle of St. Martin. Features and attitude are particularly distinguished; but although, as 
a whole, the picture looks rather too aristocratic for Jordaens, yet we do not for a minute 
hesitate to ascribe it to him. The flaky softness of the flesh, the good-natured expression, 
the slack eyelids, are characteristic of him ; the little dog which the woman carries on her 
arm resembles that of the beauty in The Serenade of M. Leblon. 




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Jordaens' Portrait. - At this time, about 1640, Jordaens painted the portrait of 
himself which is known to us only through the engraving made from it by Peter dejode 
and published by Jan Meyssens in his collection: Image de divers hommes d 'esprit sublime 
qui par leur art et science debvront vivre eternetlement et des quels la louange et renommee 
faict estonner le monde. A Anvers mis en lumiere per Jean Meyssens peinctre et vendeur de 
Part au Cammestraet Van MDC XUX. jordaens' engraved portrait bears this inscription : 
Jacques Jordaens. Excellent peinctre en grand, faict connoistre son esprit releve par sa 
belle maniere de peindre est inventif en toute sorte d'ordonnances, soit en poesie histoire, 
en devotion et d'autres, il a faict les belles choses racourtantes pour le Roy de Suede et 

plusieurs autres princes et seigneurs, 
est ne a Anvers Ian 1594 (this 
ought to be 1593) le 19. de May, 
a faict son apprentissage chez son 
beaupere Adam van Oort, tenant 
sa demeure en la ville de sa nais- 
sance. J a. Jordaens pinxit. Pet de 
Jode sculpsit. Jo. Meyssens excudit. 
Jordaens in this portrait looks 
like a man of about fory-five; so 
we may take it that he painted it 
about 1638. He wears a flowing 
garment which is buttoned on to 
his shoulder. His left hand is 
outstretched, and holds a roll of 
paper; at the neck the points of 
a soft collar fall over his cloak. 
We find among Meyssens' portraits 
other sitters amply draped thus in 
a kind of Roman toga, but none of 
them with the garment thrown 
about him so carelessly as- in the 
case of our painter; and none of 
them concerns himself so little 
about elegance and distinction. 
In the arrangement of his hair 
we find the same disdain of 
appearance, bordering on uncouthness. The body has become heavy, and the head 
seems to have expanded in proportion, and to be unusually big and, especially, broad. 
The forehead is high, with two slight wrinkles; the eyes look across it to their right 
with a bold, rather impudent expression; they are not quite alike, for above the one 
the eyebrow is pencilled regularly, while that above the other is slightly drawn up; 
the nose is thick, the jaws are coarsely modelled and strongly protruding. He wears 
a turned-up moustache and an imperial; his hair hangs down to his neck in long 
locks on both sides; on the top of the head it is brushed into a tuft. His appearance 
is in fact unshapely and without form, but enlivened by the large, bold, piercing 
eyes; a doughty man, little concerned about adornment or dress, deliberate in expression, 

PORTRAIT OF A MAN Drawing (Louvre). 



full of strength, thinking and acting according to his own light, and heedless of other 
people's opinion. 

At the Philip van Dyck sale (The Hague, 1753) appeared the picture after which this 
portrait was engraved; it was described as „The portrait of Jordaens, painted by himself 
in a powerful and manly way, for engraving". 

A drawing of the same picture came up at the Artaria sale (Vienna, 1886). 

In several of his pictures Jordaens painted himself, generally blowing the pipe, with 
puffed-out cheeks. He takes upon himself the role of the eater in most of his versions of 
The Peasant and the Satyr, and that of the bagpiper in those representations of As the old 
Cock crows, and The King drinks, and 
in Serenades, in which the bagpipe 
plays a part. It has to be observed 
that it was only after 1635, when 
he had turned forty, that he adopted 
this habit of assigning to himself 
a place in his pictures. In the 
works of the last twenty years of his 
life we come across him no more. 

Van Dyck had painted him 
ten or twelve years earlier, about 
1628. Even in that portrait he had 
heavy, strong features, and a thick 
moustache and imperial; but his 
hair was arranged with more care, 
and the tuft was smoothed down. 
One hand, with the five fingers 
outspread, lies on his breast. 
Instead of the plain linen collar, 
falling with two points over his 
cloak, he then wore a broad and 
elegant one of muslin, hanging 
limp across his shoulders. Round 
his wrists are cuffs of the same 
material; he wears a jacket with 
buttons across the chest, and a 
cloak across one shoulder and 

drawn round the waist. He has an air of distinction as he faces us shrewdly and fearlessly, 
more distinguished than rude. Van Dyck as was his habit has lent him some of his own 
ostentation and elegance. 

In the collection of self-portraits of artists in the Uffizi at Florence hangs a ..Portrait of 
Jordaens" so-called. There is a slight likeness between this model and our painter, seen in 
the heavy, strong, somewhat coarse features; but the resemblance is not so great as to 
cause us to believe for one moment that it is a portrait of himself. But it is certainly a 
work by his hand. The face is longer and narrower than his, and the nose more oblong, 
and broader in bone; the eyes lie deeper, the chin is larger, the thick brown red hair is 
brushed away carelessly, moustache and beard are thin and downy. They who labelled the 

PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN Drawing (Louvre). 


portrait with the name it now bears were thinking of a Jordaens in the early Twenties; 
but even so great an advance in age could not account for such a change of features. 

The man in the Uffizi wears a soft, full muslin collar; an ample cloak is thrown 
over the upper part of the body; with his right hand he holds a book against his breast. 
The execution is broad in brushwork; the handling loose and bold. The Museum at Edin- 
burgh possesses an old copy of this picture. 

There are other portraits of Jordaens and his family, rightly or wrongly so indentified. 
Thus there was at the Prince de Conti sale (Paris. 1777) a group, „Man, and Wife", more 
than half-length, catalogued as „The portrait of Jordaens and his wife." The woman is giving 
a plum to a parrot. The picture was sold for 2000 francs. It came originally from the 
Due de Choiseul sale (Paris, 1772). It is the portrait of the woman with the black cherries, 
in the picture discussed by us on p. 97. In 1763 the Society of Painters in the Hague 
possessed two pictures described as Jordaens, and the latter's housewife" (1) 

At different sales we find genuine or fictitious portraits of Catharina van Noort. In one 
of them, at the Jean-Leopold-Jos. de Man d'Hobruge sale (Brussels, 1820), she wears a 
red dress, a white collar, a broad-brimmed hat; with both hands she holds a basket 
against her breast (canvas: 78 cm. high, 61 cm. wide). Another canvas (68 cm. high, 
54 cm. wide) appeared at the Thore-Burger sale (Paris, 1892); a third (92 cm. high, 72 cm. 
wide) at the Febvre sale (Paris, 1882). We cannot determine the accuracy of this identifi- 
cation ; all that we know of Jordaens' wife is from those pictures in which it seems likely 
that he chose her as his model. 

A girl's head in the Lubeck Museum seems to me to be one of Jordaens' children. 
She has rich, fair hair, brown eyes, small nose and mouth; it is more a sketch than a 
finished piece of work, and brown in the shadows. 

(1) 1763. Memoir of the pictures belonging to the Confraternity of Painters at the Hague, all being marked with a P. „Nos. 80 
and 81 „The portrait of Jordaens and that of the latter's housewife bought at said sale being there Nos. 11 and 12". The said sale 
was that of Mr. G. Copius. (A Bredius. The books of the Hague Society of Painters. Oud-Holland XIX. 72). 


1631 — 1641 (Continued). 


THAT Jordaens and Rubens were 
acquainted in their youth admits 
of no debate. The earliest 
indisputable evidence of this is 
their each painting at the same 
time one of the three altar pieces 
for the Augustine church at Antwerp. 
This was in 1628. It is certain 
that Rubens was consulted by the 
fathers as to the choice of subjects 
and of artists to execute them ; and 
equally so that Rubens recom- 
mended Jordaens, and discussed 
with him the St. Apollonia which 
he painted for the right-hand altar. 

The Entry of the Cardinal- 
Infant. — We find the two masters 
collaborating, for the first and only 
time in their lives, in the middle 
of the period 1631 — 1641. It was at the end of 1634 that Rubens was commissioned to 
prepare plans and sketches for the decoration of the city on the occasion of the State entry 
of the Cardinal-Infant Ferdinand, brother of Philip IV of Spain. On account of the speed 
with which the work had to done, and its vast extent, he called in the assistance of a 
considerable number of his fellow-artists. For most of the painted panels, of which a 
great many were used in the erection of the theatres and triumphal arches, he made hasty 
little sketches, leaving them to be worked out and finished by his assistants, within his 
own studio and outside. 

To Jordaens and Cornelis de Vos was allotted the painting of the Arch of Philip, one 
of the two principal ones in the scheme of decoration. The contract for the work was 
settled on November 28, 1634, the sum agreed upon being 4200 guilders. It had to be 
completed by January 8, 1635. Over and above the contract price, the two artists were 
paid for supplementary work, — first 700 guilders, and afterwards another 54. From top to 
bottom, and on the two sides, the triumphal arch was covered with paintings. The subject 

A MUSIC PARTY Drawing (Mons. M. Delacre, Ghent). 


chosen for the front or principal panel was The Marriage of Maximilian of Austria with 
Mary of Burgundy. On the summit sat enthroned Jupiter and Juno, with Providence and Time 
beside them, and next to these again the symbolic figures of. Austria and Burgundy. This 
group and the four figures standing by themselves were carved in outline, and stood out in 
relief against the sky. Above the portico and on its sides appeared a number of Spanish 
Kings, — Philip I and Philip II, the Emperor Maximilian I, and Philip III, the Emperor 
Charles and Philip IV. In addition to these, this grotesque colossus was composed of 
caryatids, cartouches, syrens, and other decorations. On the main panel on the other side 
of the arch was painted the Marriage of Philip the Fair with Joanna, Infanta of Spain, and 
above it allegorical figures representing the power and benevolence of the Austrian Imperial 
house; round the portico were the portraits of Ferdinand of Aragon, the Cardinal-Infant 
Ferdinand, Isabella of Castille, and the arch-dukes Ernest, Albert, and Isabella. 

Jordaens, with Theodor Rombouts, put some accessory work upon the paintings on 
the Temple of Janus which were executed by Theodor Rombouts, Jan Cossiers, Artus 
Wolfaert, and Geeraard Weri. 

When the festivities were over, the municipal government of Antwerp decided to present 
the Cardinal-Infant with the principal works of art and sculpture composing the decorations 
for the state entry, but first had them re-touched by some of the leading artists. Thus 
even Rubens did some fresh work upon two canvases which he had painted for the Stage 
that stood near the Church of St. George. He also repainted the portraits of the arch-dukes 
Ernest, Albert, and Isabella on the Arch of Philip, and they are now in the Brussels 
Museum. Jordaens, again, was commissioned to do similar touching-up for several 
others, — as, for example, the centre piece for the stage of the „Welcome", near the Church 
of St. George, representing The Arrival of the Prince. Cornelis Schut, who had executed 
it originally, declined to re-touch it; for this work Jordaens received 300 guilders, and 
he was paid the same amount for freshening up the two pictures on the sides of the 
Arch of Ferdinand, in which Caspar van den Hoecke and his son, Jan, had represented the 
Battle of Noordlingen and the Triumphal March of the Cardinal-Infant after the battle. 

Of Jordaens' original work, which he also retouched, there have been preserved the 
two principal pictures in the Arch of Philip; in 1899 they were in the possession -of 
Mr. Simon, in Paris. The Battle of Noordlingen, painted by the van Hoeckes, and retouched 
by Jordaens, is in the Royal Collection at Windsor Castle. It is a large canvas, in which 
appear the Cardinal-Infant and Ferdinand, King of Hungary, galloping from the left to 
the right, each with a commander's baton in his hand. The battle wages on the slope of 
the hill and in the valley to the right; in the foreground we have a dense crowd of foot- 
soldiers in armour. It is very noticeable how Jordaens has enlivened and heightened the 
effect of the picture by casting a bright light upon the Cardinal-Infant and on the armour 
of the soldiers, and carrying it over the crest of the hill into the background. 

In the Museum at Madrid is an Apollo, Conqueror of Marsyas by Jordaens (No. 1637 
in the Catalogue). Apollo, still holding his lyre, has taken king Midas, his asinine critic, 
by the beard. Marsyas, on the right, sits playing his flute. A richly-garbed satyr looks on. 
The pictures formed part of the Metamorphoses of Ovid, commissioned from Rubens in 1637 
by Philip IV for the Torre de la Parada, of which a great many were done by assistants 
and pupils from the master's sketches. Twenty years ago the sketch for this particular 
picture was in the Pastiana collection at Madrid. Jordaens' painting from it measures 1.81 m. 
in height, as do several of the series, from which we conclude that this also was one; 


it bears the painter's signature (J. Jor), and is entirely in the nebulous manner of this 
stage of his art. In the same museum there is a copy of it (No. 1636) by a pupil. 

The Disciples at EmmaOs. — The Madrid Museum contains a picture by Rubens 
which is astonishingly like Jordaens' work. It is Christ with the Disciples at Emmaiis. 
Jordaens treats the same subject in a picture which the Brunswick Museum possesses. 
In it the Saviour is seated to the right, at the head of the table; he lifts up the bread, 
which he blesses as he looks heavenwards. The two disciples, seated on his right and 
left, have recognised him, and extend their hands in amazement. In the background we 
notice a maid carrying a dish on which is a basket with food. To the left the fat host is 
busy pouring wine from a pewter jug into a glass. On the table are viands; a dog sits 
under the table, a cat under the chair. To the left, also, there is an open door, giving a 
view upon a landscape ; to the right, a mantel-shelf, with kitchen utensils on it. The picture 
is painted in a roasted tone; the shadows of dusk prevail. Christ has an emaciated, 
ascetic face; he wears a violet-blue garment, and has a white table-napkin on his knees; 
the other persons have full-blooded, round heads; the gray disciple is a fine figure; the dark 
one, taking off his cap, has a powerful head; the host is a caricature of grossness; the 
maid, very full-bodied, is painted in a soft luminous tone. The harmony of the evening 
light reminds us of The Last Supper at Antwerp; but there the lighting is stronger than 
in the Brunswick canvas, in which the shadows are less transparent, duller, and softer. 
The work is by Jordaens' hand, and executed with care; but it is less successful than the 
other; though the composition is good, and the exalted expression of Christ and that of 
astonishment on the faces of the diciples, are well rendered. 

Its similarity to Rubens' picture strikes one so much that the latter at first sight calls 
to mind Jordaens' work. In Rubens', the figure of Christ, in form and attitude, is the same 
as in Jordaens'; the gestures of the diciples also are similar, and the host is the same 
amusing fat figure. Rubens, however, represents the host holding the jug and glass in his 
hand, but not pouring the wine. The picture was bought from the house in which Rubens 
died by Philip IV; in the catalogue of Rubens' works left behind him at his death it is 
mentioned as having been painted by the master, and it was engraved by one of his usual 
engravers, Jan Witdoeck, under the master's name. It is, therefore, as certainly his as the 
Brunswick picture is by Jordaens, and no other explanation of the peculiar resemblance is 
possible than that Rubens here followed that master. 

Works for Greenwich-House. — In the last months of Ruben's life, he and Jordaens 
were competitors for a commission of a set of pictures intended for the ceiling and walls 
of the cabinet of the Queen of England in the palace at Greenwich (Greenwich-House), 
built by Inigo Jones. (1) On the 4 th of November 1639, Balthasar Gerbier, deputy at 
Brussels of the king of England, Charles I, put the required information on paper, and 
sent it to Edward Norgate, one of the clerks of His Majesty's Seal, to deliver to William 
Murray, gentleman of the King's bedchamber, with whom the commissioning of the pictures 
lay. Immediately on receiving the necessary instructions, and also the dimensions of the 
paintings he was to commission from Jordaens, Gerbier had copies made, but translated 
into French, so that it should not appear for whom the works were intended. He made use 

(1) NOEL SAINSBURY, Papers relating to Rubens. Pp. 212—234. 


the Abbot of Scaglia, then residing in Antwerp, who appeared to him to be the most 
suitable person to arrange matters with Jordaens. Scaglia, who was also kept in ignorance 
of their destination, undertook the task; and a few days later was informed by Jordaens 
that his price for the work would be 680 pounds sterling, and that he could not 
undertake to have it finished in less than two years. He wished to be paid for the 
sketch when he did one, and this Gerbier also thought desirable; and in accordance 
with the custom of Antwerp painters, he suggested that he should dispatch two or three 
pieces of his work at a time, as he finished them. Gerbier desired William Murray to 
recommend this arrangement to His Majesty, and to see that the work was paid for as 
it was received by bills of exchange drawn on Lionel Wake, of London, or on his father, 
Lionel Wake, in Antwerp. If His Majesty approved of all this, William Murray was to 
take the exact measurements by means of packing threads, at the ends of which were to 

be fastened pieces of parchment, indicating 
the pictures to which the said measurements 

Jordaens drew up a specification in French, 
which has been preserved. It runs: 
The ceiling consists of 9 pieces, 

large and small, to cost. . . 2400 guilders 
In the first quarter of the hall, 
.-j^^^^^^mM^^tm on the mantelpiece, 3 large 

pieces, to cost 1800 „ 

In the second quarter, where 
there are two balconies, and 
where their will be five pieces, 
large and small, to cost about 1000 „ 
In the third quarter, where there 
is a balcony on the eastside, 

3 pieces, to cost 700 „ 

In the fourth quarter, where the 
door is, shall be two large 

pieces, to cost 900 „ 

6800 guilders 


(Museum, cologne). To this is added, in a different hand- 

writing, „which makes 680 pounds sterling" (1). 
Gerbier, a trusted friend of Rubens, was jealous at the idea of this important work 
for the Royal palace going to any other than the greatest of the Antwerp masters; and on 
Febry. 4th, 1640, he wrote to Edward Norgate, requesting him to ask the King whether he 
would not prefer Rubens to do the work, if that painter would undertake it for the same, 

(1) The note of Jordaens the painter. 

Le sofit consistant en 9 pieces tant grandes que petites importera pour Ie prix flo. 2400 

Au premier quartier de la salle sur la cheminee 3 grandes pieces qui importeront flo. 1800 

La deuxieme quartier oil il y a 2 balcons oil il y aura 5 pieces tant grandes que petites importera environ . . . flo. 1000 

Le 3me quartier oil il y a un balcon vers levant 3 pieces estimSes a flo. 700 

Le 4me quartier oil est la porte il y aura 2 grandes pieces quy importeront flo. 900 

t,r- ■_ i con ,m x faClt .... flo. 6800 

Wich makes 680 ffi sters. ^^ 

(Document of Jordaens: London. Public Record Office. Foreign Papers — Flanders 82). 



or about the same, price as Jordaens. „Both men," he wrote, „are Dutchmen and not to 
seeke to represent robustrous boistrous druncken-headed imaginary Gods, and of the 
two most certaine Sir Peter Rubens is the gentilest in his representations: his Landskipps 
are more rare and all other circumstances more proper." Gerbier had asked Rubens to make 
a drawing, which he might submit for the King's approval, but Rubens did not seem inclined 
to comply with the suggestion. Meanwhile Jordaens had forwarded his sketch ; but Gerbier 
delayed its reaching the King, and kept urging that the commission should be given to 
Rubens. His representations, it would seem, were not greatly heeded at the English Court, 
and negociations with Jordaens pro- 
ceeded. Gerbier instructed Scaglia, 
his colleague in diplomatic errands, 
to talk the matter over with Jordaens; 
and he wrote to Inigo Jones, the 
King's architect, on March 24 th that 
he would send word to that painter, 
through the Abbot, to make the 
features of the women in the first 
work intended for the Queen, as 
beautiful, and their figures as 
elegant and slim, as possible. 

Rubens in the meantime had 
fallen seriously ill, and indeed was 
now beyond cure, but Gerbier had 
not lost heart, and on May 9 th 
he told Scaglia to propose to 
Jordaens to confine himself to the 
pictures for the walls, and to let 
Rubens execute those for the 
ceiling. „Perhaps", he wrote, „the 
Sieur Jordaens will be very glad 
to get rid of the said sofito, on 
account of the fore-shortenings, and 
that Mons Rubens will not make 
any difficulty (being in a fit state 
to work) about undertaking the said 
sofito." By this time Jordaens had 
painted a picture from the sketch 

which had been sent to England and returned to him through Scaglia with instructions for 
its improvement, to which he attended. He was still ignorant of the fact that the commission 
was destined for the King of England, but had set industriously to work upon it. 

Rubens was asked his price for painting the ceiling. The renowned master had entered 
upon the last month of his life, but he could not give up all idea of work, and answered 
that he would undertake the commission for the sum of 2000 patakons, — that is 480 pounds 
sterling, or half as much again as Jordaens' price. Rubens proposed — so Scaglia reported — 
to depict in the centre the Feast of the Gods : on one side, Cupid, striving to make Psyche 
fall in love with a mortal, and falling in love with her himself; on the other side,. Psyche's 

(Museum, Cologne). 



ascent to heaven. The six other pictures could be replaced by grotescos without figures. 
Rubens' death on May 30 th , 1640 put a stop to all this intrigue; and Jordaens, now (as 
Gerbier expressed it) the „prime painter" in his country, received, the full commission. 

Of its execution we cannot speak with certainty. On December 18 th , 1640, the painter 
had received 100 pounds sterling as an advance upon it. When Scaglia died on May 21 st , 1641, 
Jordaens, we know, had seven scenes in hand for him (1), and these undoubtedly were 
intended for the Queen's cabinet at Greenwich. In his correspondence, from which these 
particulars concerning the negociations have been drawn, Gerbier does not refer to the 
matter after 1640, and he left Flanders in August 1641. 

What has become of these paintings? The Greenwich Inventory mentions, among the 

works of art originating from the palaces 
of Charles I, eight pieces by Jordaens, 
valued at 200 pounds sterling. These, it 
would seem, were the pictures of which 
we have been speaking (2). 

Was a „ Feast of the Gods" executed 
for the ceiling, as Rubens had proposed, 
and if so was it painted by Jordaens? 
We greatly doubt it, though we cannot 
speak with certainty. It seems to us 
curious, and worthy of notice, that the 
large „Feast of the Gods" in the Lacaze 
Collection in the Louvre, which is attri- 
buted to Jordaens, is less characteristic 
of him than it is of Rubens. A picture 
with a similar subject and a similar 
ascription was mentioned in a former 
catalogue of the Royal Museum at the 
Hague but it has disappeared from the 
present edition. The same or a similar 
painting has come up at various sales 
also. A sketch, differing in composition, 
however, from the Louvre work, appeared 
at the Ravaisson sale (Paris, 1903). 

What subjects did Jordaens choose 
for Greenwich? We are nowhere told. 
But Gerbier's correspondence shows plainly the intention that the ceiling pictures should 
illustrate the history of Psyche, and we may assume with some confidence that this also 
was the theme given to Jordaens for the walls. And we know that he repeatedly painted 
the story of love. At the sale of his works at his death (the Hague, 1734) we find three 
versions of it: a ceiling of five pieces and two small flower-pieces, together 23 feet long 
and 17 feet wide (No. 74 of the Catalogue); a large square piece with four large oblique 
pieces intended for the ceiling of a large room, representing the story of Psyche, painted 
by Jordaens for Queen Christina of Sweden, together 24 feet in length, 22 feet in width 

(Engraved from Van Dyck's painting). 

(1) F. Jos. VAN DEN Branden, History of the Antwerp School of Painting. P. 837. 

(2) Claude Phillips, The Picture Gallery of Charles I. P. 45. 



(No. 78) ; and a separate piece, Cupid and Psyche, 2 feet 6| in. high, by 3 feet 1 in. broad 
(No. 52). When, later on, we come to speak about the pictures he made for his own house, 
we shall see that for the ceiling of one of his rooms also he painted the story of Psyche. 

After the death of Rubens, the king of Spain, Philip IV, bought from his house a great 
number of pictures by the deceased master. Among these were two unfinished works, a 
Hercules and an Andromeda; and the painter's heirs commissioned Jordaens to put the 
finishing touch on them, and paid him 240 guilders for so doing. The first picture has been 
lost; probably it was a Hercules killing the sons of Earth, which is mentioned in the 
inventories of pictures belonging to the Spanish Crown in 1686 and in 1700. The other is 
the Perseus and Andromeda now in the Madrid Museum. Andromeda is fastened to the rock, 
and Perseus, who has slain the monster, is 
about to loosen the rope which binds her 
to it. The picture is a gem of art, and had 
it been produced by Rubens alone we 
should call it one of his most charming 

Jordaens' work upon it has not done it 
any harm; he has managed to make his 
colours consort with those of his predecessor 
so well that we can hardly distinguish one 
from another. The reflections on the head 
and naked, arm of Andromeda seem to have 
been laid on by him, and the little cupids 
in the background were probably retouched 
by him; and, far from contrasting with the 
rest of the picture by a less rich colouring, 
these parts appear to have had greater bril- 
liance communicated to them by Jordaens. 

Two of Jordaens' pictures were included 
in Rubens' estate: No. 266 in the inventory, 
The Birth of Christ which we have mentioned 
already; and No. 265, a History of Ulysses 
and Polyphemus (as the French Catalogue 
calls it) or Polyphemus and Ulysses on canvass 
(as the English text has it). We do not know 
what has become of this picture; and the 

same has to be said of „an Ulysses, painted on metal", mentioned in an inventory of the 
goods of the painter Jeremias Wildens, son of Jan, who died on the 30 th of December 1653; 
as well as of a large picture with figures, „Ulysses recognized", appearing at a sale held 
in Amsterdam in May, 1715. The picture „Ulysses discovered by the Princess Nausicaa" 
which came up at the Nicolaus-Cornelis Haselaer sale (Amsterdam, 1742) is now in the 
possession of Mr. van der Ouderaa, artist, at Antwerp; and a „Ulysses at the feet of the 
daughter of Alcinous (on canvas)", probably the same as the preceding, was put up for 
auction at Amsterdam on the 29 th of April, 1817. 

Jordaens a pupil of Rubens. — By more than one writer, Jordaens has been called 

PORTRAIT OF A MAN (Uffizi, Florence). 


a pupil of Rubens. If by this is meant that he received lessons from the great master, or 
frequented his studio, the assertion is wholly without warrant. But if it merely conveys 
the opinion that from his predecessor Jordaens learned much, it is true enough. As we have 
explained already, there existed, immediately previous to the appearance of Rubens in the 
Antwerp School, a delight in high, full colours and powerful forms, such as is plainly 
shown by the works of Abraham Janssens (1575—1632). Sharing this taste at the beginning 
of his career, Jordaens gave expression to it in a manner all his own. From the very first 
he was a colourist, though, as a colourist, violent, hard, and rough, as he was in all his 
thoughts and actions. Half way in the Thirties, when he himself had turned forty, he 
distinctly exhibited the influence of Rubens in his attempt to let one colour intrigue with 
another, and to introduce into his canvases nuances of tone and play of light and shade. 
He learned to render his colours transparent, to refine their scale and to catch and to mingle 
in his painting the rarest reflections. More than once he modified his manner; and having 
ranged himself with the school of Rubens, never deserted it; but was never at any time a 
were imitator of Rubens himself. After his spell of nebulous tones, he becomes again, as 
he was before 1637, the powerful colourist par excellence. Throughout the whole of his 
career almost, his light, his unbroken sunlight, is stronger and bolder than that of Rubens ; 
just as his colour is firmer, and his shadows heavier than those of the great master. Rubens 
is always softer, more harmonious, more tender; his play of light and shade, of radiance 
and reflection, of colour and tint, is richer, looser, and altogether more distinguished. While 
he is the painter of the fair, clear light, the other is equally that of the warm and ruddy 
glow; and while Rubens in his brushwork becomes swifter and more playful as time 
advances, Jordaens grows duller and heavier with his years. 

And so it is also with their form, and their conception of life. Rubens remains to 
the end the heroic painter, the historian of noble figures and noble action. Jordaens, on 
the other hand, is always the burgher, introducing his characters into the scene as he had 
met them in daily intercourse, in their every day life, and, even when placing them upon a 
higher sphere, preserving them faithful to their own natures. He treats saints and gods and 
goddesses in a familiar way, and brings them down to his plane rather than himself rising 
to theirs ; a realist who strikes us more by his keen observation than by his sense of drama. 
Rubens ever ennobles; he dramatises his characters, making heroes of them, and lifting 
them into elevated regions of life and emotion. Jordaens is the student of the actual, of 
real life and the individual man; he reads in the human face, as in an open book, all that 
is passing through the mind, and interprets what he sees with equal ease and clarity. His 
grinning satyrs, his mocking fools, his half-debauched Bacchus, his king the bon-vivant, his 
hypocritical or vindictive pharisees, and his whole world of laughing, joking, courting, 
noisy characters, are drawn from nature, and keep alive in his canvases the life he watched 
in them. Jordaens' taste was always less refined, less academic and polished; but this in 
itself explains why he preserved greater terseness, and greater daring and variety. True, in 
the second half of his career, he followed the example of Rubens, and gave his models 
more elegance of action, but even then he remained the painter of everyday life in all its 
varying moods. 

The consequence of his lack of refinement, as shown in his work, is its inconsistency. 
From an exquisite discrimination he easily falls into coarse insensibility, and from sharp 
observation and wonderfully neat expression into slovenly carelessness or vulgar foppishness. 
But throughout, his enormous energy never fails him, and low as he may fall, he easily 



rises again. Artists in his day were not so conscientious, and the public not so critical, 
as in ours: a painter of repute might come short of his best without endangering his good 
name. The aristocrats of the art, Rubens, van Dijck, Teniers even, were more jealous of 
their fame than Jordaens: he was a democrat in art, — frequently too much so. But unequal 
as he might be, and often as he proved unworthy of his own talent, he never ceased to 
be himself; and though the path he took was not always the right and noble path, at least 
it was always his own, and he never slavishly followed the guidance of another. 

Jordaens' Pupils. — In Gerbier's correspondence we have proofs of how high Jordaens 
stood in the estimation of connoisseurs and buyers, and another proof of the repute which 
he had attained is to be found in the large number of pupils who entrusted themselves to 

HUNTER WITH HOUNDS (Museum, Lille). 

his guidance. On the 11 th of August. 1641, there were in his studio six such, (though not 
one of their names is mentioned in the registers), all of whom „learnt the Art of painting 
at Signor Jacques Jordaens'" (1). They were Jan de Bruyn, twenty-one years old; Hendrik 
Wildens and Hendrik Kerstens, both twenty years of age ; Daniel Verbraken and Jan Baptist 
Huybrechts, both nineteen; and J. B. van den Broek, eighteen. This is the second time we 
come across important omissions in the registers of the Guild of St. Luke concerning facts 
which we have to mention about Jordaens; in 1621 his deaconship is not recorded, and 
now the names of six of his pupils are not given. Both cases prove that though, generally, 
we may assume the trustworthiness of the official books of our painters' guilds, yet they 
leave much to be desired as regards completeness and accuracy. 

In 1623—1624 Jordaens had accepted two other pupils: Jan Kersgiter and Mattijs 
Peetersen; in 1633—1634, Rogiers de Cuyper; in 1636—1637, Henderick Willemsen; in 
1640 — 1641 he receives another, Hyndrick Rockso; in 1644 1645 another, Gilliam de Vries; 

(1) F. JOS. VAN DEN BRANDEN, History of the Antwerp School of Painting. P. 817. 



in 1646—1647 he accepts six new ones, Orliens de Meyer, Jan Goulincx, Andris Snyders, 
Conraet Hansens, Adrian de Munckninck, Pauwels Goetvelt. All these are mentioned as his 
pupils in the registers, but nothing further is heard about them ; evidently they did not get 
the length of being masters. No doubt Jordaens received several more; but after this year 
of great abundance we find only a few others mentioned : Arnoldus Joerdaens in 1652—1653, 
and Mercelis Librechts in 1666—1667, both as unknown subsequently as all the others. 
We possess far too little information about Jordaens' pupils: only the names of a few of 
them, no more. Until recently, we took it for granted that Jordaens did not found a 
school, and that he had no followers except Jan Cossiers ; and about his collaborators and 
assistants we were as much in the dark. But when in 1905, while arranging for the 
exhibition of his work, we were asked to assist in making a selection, from the numerous 
pictures sent in, it struck us how many of them were clearly imitations of the master: 
pictures evidently never touched by him, but executed in his studio or outside it, by 
painters who had been apprenticed to him, and who had not only cribbed his colour 
and his drawing, but also stolen his subjects as well. Who they were, we do not know, 
but we do that they differed in talent and merit. All of them stand below the master; but 
while some made caricatures only of his creations, others displayed so much talent that we 
sometimes feel inclined to ask whether it was not possible that the fickle Jordaens on 
occasion took liberties with himself, and painted a work which though very different from 
his good pictures was yet not altogether unworthy of him. However, all his pupils, assistants 
or followers, whether clever or insignificant, have this in common, that they are unknown, 
and most probably will remain so. 

Jordaens' House. — At the end of this period of eleven years, Jordaens had a house 
built for himself, in which he took up his abode and remained until the end of his life. 
On the 15 th of January 1618, he purchased a large back-house with an open courtyard in 
the Hoogstraat, and a porch, giving upon the street, situated immediately to the south of 
the house of the merchant Nicolas Backse. The year after he received (on the 16 th June, 1633) 
his share of his father's estate, he bought several properties ; and no doubt in those imme- 
diately following he became richer through the proceeds of his art, for on the 11 th October, 
1639, he added to them Nicolas Backse's house, called „de Halle van Lier" or the „Turnhout 
Halle", now No. 43. As this building stood in front of the back-house, in which he had lived 
since 1618, both properties formed one lot. Jordaens then had both back and front house 
pulled down, and in 1641 built a commodious dwelling on the space thus left available (1). 
_ This dwelling consisted of two houses, one in front, another at the back, the latter 
built round an open space which stood in direct communication with the Hoogstraat by 
means of a large porch situated on the south side (2). Between the front- and the back- 
house lay a small courtyard. Coming through the large portico into the large forecourt, one 
faced the studio of the painter; on the three other sides also were low buildings of two 
storeys. In the wing on the south side (to the right of the entrance) was a drawing-room, 
the ceiling of which was decorated by Jordaens with the History of Psyche. 

(1) Documents in the possession of Mr. Ch. van der Linden. - F. Jos. VAN DEN BRANDEN, Op. cit. p. 831 - SlMIT and 
VAN GRIMSBERGEN, Leven van Rubens, p. 512. - AUG. THYS, Straten van Antwerpen, p. 564. 

(2) In the deed of sale of the house situated next to that of Jordaens, drawn up on the 13th Febr., 1749 it is mentioned 
of this property that it is: ..standing and situated in the hoogstraete between the house called the small golden helmet on the 
one side and the entrance of the portico leading to the backhouse, formerly having belonged to Jacques Jordaens, and separated 
from this, coming over the entrance of the portico of the afore-mentioned backhouse, the entrance of which may and must 
remain of the same height and widith as it is already." 


Johan-Jacob Wierts, President of the Privy Council and the Audit-Office of H. M. the 
King of Great-Britain (William III), Prince of Orange, and his sister Susanne-Maria Wierts, 
wife of Anthonis Slicher, Counsel-in-Ordinary at the Court of Holland, Zeeland, and 
Friesland, the only remaining children of Jordaens' daughter, Anna-Catharina, and of her 
husband Johan Wierts, sold the house of their grandfather, on the 27 th of September, 1708, 
to Jacobus Ambachts. The property was then described as comprising „a beautiful 
building of blue freestone, as well as the embellishment and decorations inside it, com- 
missioned and made by the famous art-painter, Jacob Jordaens, also the pictures, running 
ceilings or shortenings adapted for the ceilings in the two back-rooms, lying next to one 
another on the south side of the garden, mostly painted by Jordaens". 

The house was again put up for sale in 1713, and on this occasion was bought by 
Joan-Carlo van Heurck, merchant and almoner of the town of Antwerp. After the death 
of his widow, in 1763, it passed to her son, Johan-Carlo van Heurck, Counsellor of 
Commerce and of the Mint, who sold it a year later to the widow of Laurentius Solvyns. 
By a deed of 23 d August, 1770, it became the property of her son Laurentius-Petrus Solvyns, 
who paid 18,000 guilders for it. He found the house in exactly the same condition 
as our painter had left it. In the deed of sale it is thus described: „A large dwelling 
with lower rooms, courtyards, back-house, different drawing-rooms, a garden now converted 
into a courtyard, previously three dwellings called the Halle van Lier or Turnhout Halle, 
grounds, and all the appurtenances standing and situate in the Hoogstraat here, between 
the said house on the one side to the south, and the Weert Halle on the other side to the 
north, and in addition another house standing next to it, having a large porch also, with 
the grounds and appurtenances and with all embellishments in the said house being fixtures, 
including the figure with its pedestal standing in the courtyard against the separating building, 
and the furniture, such as panelled fire-places, looking-glasses, ceiling with pictures, and 
other ornaments, fixed and on panels, being as others specified in his marriage contract on 
the 3 d August, 1765, before the notary Melchior Kramp". The wainscotings and the fire- 
place which are mentioned here were introduced by one of the owners in the course of 
the XVIII th century, as was also a ceiling in the style of that time. They remained in the 
house until 1880, when the proprietor at that date had them taken down and transferred 
to his own house. Laurentius-Petrus Solvyns had the facade at the north side of the court- 
yard removed, and an exit made, which is still in existence, into the Reynderstraat. 

On October 22, 1823, the merchant Joannes Franciscus Henricus van der Linden bought 
the house from Jufvrouw Maria Theresia Gertruda Solvyns, for the sum of 19,500 Nether- 
land guilders; and up to now it has remained the property of his descendants. He had 
the front building pulled down and rebuilt in the style of his day. The new building 
stretches across the courtyard, where formerly stood the portico that led to the building 
at the back. 

Of the old building, three only of the four sides along the courtyard are still in 
existence : of two of them, the studio and the wing opposite it, the facades remain as they 
were in Jordaens' day. They give us a very favourable idea of the original structure, and 
are excellent examples of the so-called „Rubens' style", prevailing at that time: solid in 
construction, with decorations in good relief, the lines of which are broken without being 
involved or erratic. In the facade of the studio we notice a porch in the centre, above 
which is a head of Bacchus in a niche, and on either side a pilaster with an Ionic 
capital and fluted shafts crossed by three bands. Above the porch is a balcony with a 



balustrade, and behind it an arched window with scrolled ornaments, surmounted by a 
triangular pediment, under which is a bust in a round niche. To the right and left are two 
flat-arched windows in the ground floor, and two windows with arches with broken corners 
on the first floor. The whole front is crossed by strongly marked bands. The fagade 
opposite this is in a similar, but rather more sober style. Above the bust in the 
pediment we read the date 1641. 

The Pictures in Jordaens' House. — The paintings with which Jordaens decorated 
the ceilings of his large room facing the street (which had the shape of a Greek cross), 
of his drawing-room giving on the inner court, have also been preserved. The first series, 
representing the twelve signs of the Zodiac, were taken down in the eighteenth century 
and sold, with the other pictures, after the death of Mr. Joan Carlo van Heurck, the 

owner (1). The purchaser 
carried them to Paris. In 
1802 they were bought by 
the Administrators of the 
Palace of the Senate (the 
Luxembourg), to be placed 
on the ceiling of one of the 
halls there, and this was 
done in the following year. 
The twelve pictures were 
framed in the roof of the 
east gallery of the palace, 
which now forms part of the 
Library of the Senate, and 
are there still. 

They are so badly lighted 
that it is difficult to see what 
they represent, or to estimate 
their artistic value. They are 
quadrangular pieces, each 
measuring about 2 metres by 
1.50 m., and each containing 
either one figure or a group 
of two or three figures, in a painted frame. In the catalogue of the Museum of the Luxem- 
bourg, compiled by Mr. Ph. de Chenevieres, they are described thus. — 

I. September (Libra). A woman crowned with fruit holds in one hand a horn of plenty 
full of grapes, signifying the vintage; in the other she holds a pair of scales 

II October (the Scorpion). A Bacchic festival. A young satyr carries on his shoulder 
old Silenus, who is drunk, and holds a bunch of grapes in his hand. Both are crowned 
with vine leaves and followed by a Bacchante playing a tambourine. The Bacchic festival 
indicates that in this month the vintagers amuse themselves, and rest from their work to 
enjoy the fruit of the vintage. In the frame we notice the scorpion. 

(1) According to Mensaert (Le peintre amateur et curieax Rni«i.i« not , ■,«« ,, 
when the aforementioned book appeared. ,t was theref™^^ 

SCIPIO AND ALUCIUS Drawing (Boymans Museum, Rotterdam). 



III. November (the Archer). The centaur Nessus abducting Deianira, and crossing the 
river Evenus; he is armed with a bow and arrow. 

IV. December (the Goat). The nymph Adriadne milks the goat Amalthea, to give food 
to the little Jupiter. Beside her we notice the child with a bowl in his hand. 

V. January (Aquarius). A youth in the midst of the clouds showers streams of water 
upon the earth. 

VI. February (Pisces). Venus and Cupid, armed with his bow, sail across the waters, 
boisterous owing to the wind. They try hard to keep about them the thin draperies in 
which they are clad. 

VII. March (Aries). The month 
in which the trees bud. Mars in 
full armour holds a sword in one 
hand, and with the other waves 
the war torch as he descends from 
the rocks. A shepherd playing on 
a lyre accompanies him and is fol- 
lowed by a ram. 

VIII. April (Taurus). Jupiter 
in the shape of a bull, a wreath of 
flowers round his head, abducting 
the nymph Europa. 

IX. May (Gemini). Two chil- 
dren drive a chariot on which Venus 
is standing. Her veil is lifted by 
the Zephyrs. Cupid, holding an 
arrow, leans against his mother. 
One of the children scatters flowers 
upon the earth. 

X. June (Cancer). Phaethon, 
whom Apollo had entrusted with 
his chariot, approached too near to 
the earth and therely caused fright- 
ful destruction. To end it, Jupiter 
killed him with a flash of lightning 
and cast him into the Eridanus. 
We see him falling down. 

XI. July (the Lion). Hercules, having slain the Nemean lion, has wrapped himself in 
his skin and leans on his club; in one hand he holds the apples he has won from the 
garden of the Hesperides. Beside him is a youth carrying a sheaf of corn. 

XII. August (Virgo). Ceres, crowned with ears of corn, holds in one hand a sheaf, 
in the other a sickle. She sits on a chariot drawn by serpents. The young Triptolemus, 
inventor of the plough, is next to her, and carries a torch with which he lights her way, 
in her search for her daughter Proserpina, abducted by Pluto (1). 

The second series of ceiling-pictures were in the drawing-room, to the right of the inner 


(1) A. HUSTIN, Les Jordaens du Sinat (Extrait de I' Art. January 1904). 



courtyard. They remained there till 1880, when the owner of the house, Mr. Charles van 
der Linden, had them taken down. Five of these pictures were in the exhibition of old 
pictures, during the Rubens' festivities of 1877. These five the owner had placed on the 
ceilings of his own house; the three others he kept without making use of them. 

The eight pictures represent subjects from the fable of Amor and Psyche, for which 
Jordaens seems to have had a decided partiality. There are three large oblong pieces 
among them, about 2.50 m. broad by 2 m. high, and five smaller ones measuring about 
2 m. in height and 1.25 m. in width. They represent: 

I. The Love of Amor and Psyche. The amorous couple are in a chamber with 
a dome-shaped ceiling. Amor holds a wine-cup in his hand and rests one elbow on 
Psyche's knee. 

II. Psyche's curiosity. Amor, a little child, lies sleeping in a bed. Psyche, undraped, 
holds in one hand a pair of scissors, and in the other a lamp, from which the light falls 
on Amor. Above them hangs a piece of red drapery. 

III. Amor's flight. Psyche is still in bed ; when Amor escapes through the window, she 

attempts to hold him 
back, but in vain. 

IV. Psyche is car- 
ried up to Olympus. 

V. Olympus. In 
the centre are seated, 
in a circle of glory, 
Jupiter, Juno, Venus 
and next to them Ga- 
nymede and Cupid, 
Round about them 
along the four sides the 
gods and goddesses: 
Apollo, Hercules, etc. 

VI. An offering to 
Apollo. In front of the statue of the God with the lyre are several priests, one of whom 
is carrying an incense-boat. There are also the heads of an ox and a ram. This piece 
is dated 1652. 

VII. Six little angels floating in the air, carrying a festoon of fruit. 

VIII. Four little angels carrying a festoon of flowers. 

Nos. II, III, IV, VII, VIII are the small and Nos. I. V, VI, the large pieces. 

The whole is far from being a masterpiece. The painting is in a brown, ruddy tone, 
out of which colour and light emerge fragmentarily, without real strength or brilliancy. The 
foreshortening is not successful, and, generally, shows the figures telescoping into one 
another, huddled together in ungraceful groups; masses of flesh with unsightly projec- 
tions and tortured shapes. In addition there are some grossly realistic accessories which 
remind one of a caricature rather than of a serious treatment of the charming Greek fable.... 
The Olympus and the Offering to Apollo have neither clarity nor elegance in the attitude 
and foreshortening of the personages represented. Offensive details and awkward com- 
position betray Jordaens' lack of a sense of delicacy and elegance, natural or acquired. 
He shows himself in this work, as in many others which we shall not discuss, the Flemish 

Ceiling in the house of Mr. Ch. van der Linden, Antwerp. 



commoner, frank in his realism, and coarse in his humour, which borders on caricature 
when interpreting everyday facts. 

These two series of ceiling-pictures were not the only decorations which Jordaens 
painted for his house. It is said that when Mr. Solvyns bought the property, eight days 
were occupied in the sale of the pictures which the house contained. Among those which 
were sent for sale to the Chamber of the Kolveniers there were, in addition to the twelve 
ceiling-pictures of the Zodiac, which we have mentioned, the twelve Apostles and the chaste 
Susanna (1). To which of the 
many Susannas that Jordaens 
painted this refers cannot be 
decided; very likely it was a 
piece for an overmantel or a 
panel of one of the rooms. No 
doubt the twelve Apostles also 
decorated one of the walls. 

Of these last we come 
across a copy in the Museum 
at Lille in the church of St. 
Maurice. The twelve Apostles 
have been painted in groups 
of three, on four panels. The 
work, however, is of little value 
and is painted in a dark-brown 
tone. In addition we find in many 
places Heads of the Apostles: 
a St. Paul and a St. Matthew, 
in the castle at Berlin ; another 
Apostle in the Museum of the 
Academy at Vienna; a fourth in the Museum at Brussels; a fifth in the Harcq collection in 
that city; a mourning St. Peter, in the possession of Mr. Hannet at Brussels; a second 
mourning Peter at Mr. Gevers — Fuchs' at Antwerp. A St. Peter and St. Paul appeared at 
the Ravaisson sale (Paris, 1903); and in a sale of pictures from the suppressed convents 
(Brussels, 1785) another, which had been the property of the convent Leliendael at Mechlin ; 
a St. James, a St. Matthew and a St. Peter were at the Ridder Georges de Wargny d'Auden- 
hove sale (Brussels, 1897), an Apostle at the Beurnonville sale (Paris, 1884); etc. Most of 
these pictures belong to an earlier period, — that in which Jordaens painted the Four 
Evangelists now in the Louvre. 

Ceiling in the house of Mr. Ch. van der Linden, Antwerp. 

(1) P. G£nard, Notice sur Jacques Jordaens, pp. 17, 34. 


16 4 2—1652. 

Altar-pieces and Religious Pictures - Pictures sold to Martinus van 

Lanoenhoven and to the Queen of Sweden — „The King 

Drinks" — Mythological Pictures — Portraits. 


<he Visit of Mary to Elisabeth. — 
Jordaens was now established in his 
new home; his name was made, 
and commissions flowed in upon him. 
He was the first painter in the country, 
and his talent was still ripening. After 
1642 he abandoned the nebulousness 
which had characterised his style in the 
five or six years previous. He recovered 
his earlier firmness, but without the 
harshness that had accompanied it; his 
light became fuller and warmer, his colour 
more vivid and rich; his brush-work 
broader and more supple. Here begin the 
years of his highest prosperity, greatest 
strength, and full maturity. 

Rubens had died in 1640, and after 
that year it became the custom of the 
directors of Church-furnishings, in the 
larger as well as the smaller communities, 
who wanted altar-pieces from the hands 
of the best painters, to turn to Jordaens 
for them. In 1641, those of Rupelmonde, 
near Antwerp, did so, commissioning from 
him a picture representing The Visit of 
Mary to Elisabeth, for the altar of the 
Church of Our Lady in their commune. 
On the 30 th of May, 1641, the burgomaster 
commissioned the painter to execute the 
work, and the churchwardens paid the burgomaster 12 guilders and 1 penny as remuneration 
for his expenses incurred on this occasion (1). On the 14 th of October the picture was 

(1) Item reimbursed to the Burgomaster Martens, the sum of twelve guilders and one stuyver for the same amount 
advanced by him in treating with Sr. Jordaens painter at Antwerp and arranging about the painting or scene on the altar of 
Our Lady on the XXXth May 1641 (Rupelmonde. Church accounts from 1639—1641. Mentioned by FRANS DE POTTER in his 
History of Rupelmonde, p. 161-162). 

(Church of Notre Dame, Rupelmonde). 


the picture was finished and delivered, and 350 guilders paid to Jordaens for it; he received 
nine guilders in addition for the „azure" used in the picture. The receipt, written in the 
painter's own hand, is still in the archives of the church. We reproduce it here, and 
quote its contents, which are follows. 

..Received by me the undersigned, from the Honourable Sr. Frederick Verstraeten, clerk 
of the town of Rypelmonde, the sum of three hundred and fifteen guilders. Item for the 
azure 9 guilders, and that for the picture for the altar of Our Lady. In witness thereof 
has written this, under date this 14 th of October 1642. 

359 guilders. Jacques Jordaens. 

The picture was carried off by the commissaries of the French Republic, and in 1805 
given to the Museum at Lyons, which still possesses it. A copy, which stood on the altar 
of the Sunday-school attached to the .church, was restored in 1880 and placed in the 
church itself. It passes now for the original picture. 

$* ■ .y^c^x^rJt y& r>**^ - QH? 1 ^ ^^ ****** fXr ^> 

Jordaens places the scene in front of the house of Elisabeth, an imposing building in 
white stone with a flight of steps leading to the entrance. Elisabeth has come forward to 
the top of the flight to greet the Virgin, who has mounted one or two steps. She is followed 
by Joseph, carrying a traveller's pack, a stick, and a pewter drinking vessel. Elisabeth's 
husband, a venerable, gray old man, takes him by the hand. Elisabeth receives her cousin 
very warmly: she lays his arms on those of Our Lady as if to help her up the stairs. 
To the right, at the side of the staircase, and fastened to the pillar, is the ass, eating grass. 
Elisabeth wears a white kerchief over her head and shoulders and a black gown; Mary a 
straw hat, a dark dress, and over it red and blue drapery; Joachim a dark garment and a 
gold-coloured mantle; Joseph is bareheaded, and wears a green blouse which hangs down 
to his knees. 

It is a bright picture of many colours, happy in its general tone. The people are 
true to nature, with the simple, quiet expression of burgher folk who are glad to see 
each other again. Elisabeth and Joachim are evidently a well-to-do couple; Joseph and 
Mary are as clearly peasants. In The Visit of Mary to Elisabeth Jordaens followed 




Rubens, not as his predecessor had painted . the subject on the right shutter of The 
Taking down of the Cross in the church of Notre Dame at Antwerp, but as he had had 
it engraved by Pieter de Jode. He did the same later in the case of The Dedication in 
the Temple, executed by Rubens on the right shutter of the same picture, in his painting 

which is now in the posses- 
sion of the Dresden Museum. 

The Adoration of the 
Kings. Diksmude. — This 
picture, dated 1644, is on 
the High Altar in the Cathe- 
dral at Diksmude. The altar 
was erected in 1643 — 1644 
by Jacques de Cocx, stone 
cutter, of Ghent, for 2,850 
pounds parisis or guilders; 
Jordaens was paid for his 
work the sum of 1800 guil- 
ders. (1) 

In this picture also Jor- 
daens remained faithful to 
Rubens' rendering, for this 
Adoration of the Kings is 
painted after one which the 
great master executed in 1625 
for the church of St. Michael's 
Abbey. The Virgin with the 
Child sits to the right; 
a king is kneeling before 
her, and beside him stands 
another; the negro fills the 
centre of the picture. In the 
top right hand corner appear 
the escort, with horses and 
camels; down below, to the 
right, lies the ox. Like 
Rubens, Jordaens here wished 
to create a scene upon which 
the eye could feast: beautiful 
garments, worn by royal per- 
sons, and decorative figures 

Drawing, (Museum Plantin-Moretus, Antwerp). 

(1) This altar has been made by Master lacaues de Copy etnn» ™«., „* ^v. 
(Diksmude Church Resolution-book 1645) ' ""^ at Ghetlt ' and has cost 2S5 ° PCound) p(arisis) 

™ p^r^his %^7^i^:vv e delivery of the picture in the High — ™ - 

vanD^d^em^Cte^^^ *. Vear ,« (Oa.ette 


in a rich environment. The mother and her child, the kings and their pages, the foreign 
soldiers and their horses and camels, and the ox and the ass with which he was careful 
to furnish the stable, afforded him, as it had his predecessor, rich material for a brilliant 
painting. But he conceived his splendid colour-scheme in a different way from Rubens. 
The latter had made the kneeling king in white robes the centre of his rich colour poem ; 
Jordaens desired and found something more out of the common. He placed in the centre 
of the picture a negro king, and gave him a green robe, in the same way as Rubens did ; 
but instead of the bright green, he chose a dark bottle-green, and just as one would in 
painting glass, he caused bright metallic reflections to play and undulate on the material, 
so that where the light strikes it, it reflects almost silver white, and where it is in shadow 
it becomes so dark that one hardly distinguishes any colour. Round this very singular, 
sumptuous, powerful splash of colour he arranges more ordinary rich tones, forming a 
harmony of clear distinct notes. The kneeling king has a white silk cloak, with gold 
embroidery, and an ermine collar, on which lie a gold chain and a red tassel; the one 
standing erect wears a scarlet cloak over a white linen under-garment; the Virgin a gray- 
blue drapery over a red garment, and white linent Above these glitter and shine the 
glowing faces of the men in the suite and the lookers-on, with their red caps and blue waist- 
coats, and in among them a red parrot, a white dappled horse, a white and gray ass's 
head, the ash-coloured heads of the camels, and the noble ox, more splendid even than 
the masterly bit in Ruben's picture; the ever-ready, ever-welcome auxiliary which is always 
at Jordaens' service when he requires showy supernumeraries. The picture is a festival 
of colour, and none the less so because its light is shed broadcast over the large surface 
of the canvas, and makes it radiant with bright, silvery sunshine. 

Jordaens thought less of the distinction and elegance of his personages. His Virgin, 
it is true, is one of the sweetest figures that he ever painted, and the kneeling king has 
an imposing presence; but the one standing has the appearance of being gruff and pays 
homage with evident aversion, and awkwardly: he looks like a burly sea-captain made to 
swing an incense boat. The negro king, in bending forward in a sidling attitude to look 
at Mary, loses, in his astonishment, all royal dignity. 

The retinue and the lookers-on are people of the masses, — grinning, laughing, 
mocking, trumpeting, and amusing themselves each in his own way while the festive 
spectacle proceeds which is displayed before their eyes. 

But this rough yet genial jollity does not detract from the gaiety or the sunny glory 
of the whole: and the picture remains one of the wonders of Jordaens' brush, a gigantic 
mosaic of precious stones, in which everything glitters with vivid, bright hues, or reflects 
the soft play of light. It stands as one of its greatest triumphs of Flemish colouring. 

On the foot of the vase, which stands before the kneeling king, we read the in 
scription Jac. Jord 1644. In 1736 the picture was cleaned by Hendrik Pieters; in 1794 it 
was carried off to Paris; on the 30 th March, 1816, it was replaced on the altar at Diksmude ; 
and in 1884 was restored by Mr. Maillard of Antwerp. 

Jordaens painted and drew the Adoration of the Kings more than once. At the Nicolaas 
Nieuhof sale (Amsterdam, 1777) appeared an Adoration in which the composition corre- 
sponds in a striking manner with that of the Diksmude picture. 

At the sale of his pictures left at his death (the Hague, 1734) was one of the same 
subject, (9 feet, 4 inches high, 6 feet 7 inches wide), which fetched 150 guilders. It is 
probably the picture which is now in the Museum at Rotterdam. In the same Museum we 



find the Christ Bearing the Cross, forming a pendent to the Adoration of the Kings, which 
was also sold from the estate of Jordaens. Both belonged to the collection of King 
William II, and were put up for sale in 1850 and 1851. At the Viruly van Vuren and Dalem 
sale (Amsterdam, 1880) they appeared once more; in this year they were presented to the 
Museum at Rotterdam by Mr. C. E. Viruly. They are two roughly executed pictures, not 
by Jordaens' hand but from his studio; The Bearing of the Cross, especially, is dark, 
possessing neither brilliancy nor colour, with an accumulation of figures; the Adoration of the 
Kings has richly coloured passages, strongly marked against the burnt tone of the background. 
Both pictures seem to have been painted by Jordaens' pupils under his influence during 
his later years. 

The Plantin-Moretus museum possesses a drawing of the Adoration of the Kings 

PAUL AND BARNABAS AT LYSTRA (Museum of the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna). 

which bears a considerable likeness to the picture at Diksmude. The general disposition of 
the scene is the same; but the attitude of some of the personages is different- for 
example, the Virgin encircles the Child with her left arm, not her right, the kneeling king 
holds the gold vessel in one hand, and the camels are differently placed; but it was 
evidently Jordaens' intention to follow the general lines of the picture. It is signed 1653 
4 Aprilis J. Jrds. s ' 

thP m UL AN ° f BA r A r/ T LYSTRA - - The date ° f the Paul and Barnabas at Lystra in 
h Museum of the Academy of Fine Arts at Vienna is 1645. In the background? to the 
left, we not.ce a temple with the statue of Jupiter in front of it. On the step of the statue r 



Paul and Barnabas whom the priests and the people invoke and pay homage to as gods. 
A priest swings a censer before them; two acolytes beside him carry candlesticks. In the 
foreground to the left two servants of the temple are leading two bulls; there are also 
a man pouring wine from a jug into a costly vessel, two children who carry crowns, a 
man with a vase on his head and a woman with cymbals, a boy playing the pipe, and 
a mother with her child. To the right are a woman - and a child, each offering a 
crown ; a lame man holding up his crutches towards St. Paul ; and a few men and women, 
several of whom have stationed themselves on the pedestal of a column, and, like others 
looking from the temple while leaning over the balustrade, watch the scene before them. 

PAUL AND BARNABAS AT LYSTRA. Drawing (M. Max Rooses, Antwerp). 

St. Paul is astonished and annoyed; he, who came to preach against idolatry, is now himself 
worshipped in an idolatrous way. With one hand he grips his robe close to his breast, and 
the other he stretches out with a repudiating gesture. With an expression of horror he 
turns his face from the deluded crowd. Barnabas throws up both his hands, astonished 
and affrighted at what he sees. 

It is a well-composed scene, carefully drawn and painted; the colour is abundant 
and rich, without excess; the effect of the light is cooler towards the right and warmer 
towards the left, with melting tints on the body of the woman carrying the cymbals. The 
expressions and gestures of St. Paul and Barnabas are unusually striking; passionate in the 
case of the first, more sober in that of the latter. The feeling of adoration and of trust in the 


superhuman powers of the proclaimed of the new doctrine is expressed with great variety 
in the attitude and gestures of the multitude. The picture is signed : /. for fecit 1645. 

It appeared at an anonymous sale at Amsterdam on the 30 th of August, 1640, and at 
that of Catharina Backx, widow of Allard de la Court (Leiden, 1766). 

Jordaens must have executed a second picture treating the same subject ; this second 
one was of smaller dimensions, and an upright, while that at Vienna was an oblong. It 
appeared at the Pieter Leenders de Neufville sale (Amsterdam, 1765) and the Nicolas 
Nieuhof sale (Amsterdam, 1777). 

At the Hermitage at St. Petersburg there is a St. Paul at Lystra, catalogued under 
Jordaens' name, which however is wrongly attributed to him. 

The author possesses a drawing (73 cm. high by 98 cm. wide) in red- and black- 
chalk, heightened with a little blue-green and white watercolour paint, in which the 
same subject is treated by Jordaens, but in a very different way. Most of the accessories 
have been retained, but the groups and some of the personages have been arranged 
differently. It is the largest drawing that Jordaens or any other Flemish painter ever made. 
In the Albertina at Vienna there is a drawing which is a copy of the group of five 
persons to the right in this picture. 

Saint Ivo — Brussels. The picture of Saint Ivo, receiving the poor pleaders, which 
is to be found in the Brussels Museum, is dated the same year, 1645. The holy lawyer 
stands in the centre of his office. He is enveloped in a red, velvet toga edged with ermine ; 
hair and beard are long and gray. He raises the first finger of his right hand, as he speaks 
to the poor who have come to beg for his assistance. These are standing to the right, near 
the entrance to the room; they are a mother, kneeling, and holding a child who strokes 
a dog which is jumping up against the woman; then a peasant in a bluish-green blouse, 
his cap in his hands which he extends in supplication ; a peasant woman wearing a straw 
hat, and next to her two children. To the left three clerks are seated at a table which is 
covered which a red cloth. On some shelves over their heads are books and registers, 
a bag with money, and office utensils. A dog is coming down the steps leading to the 
lower part of the room. The scene takes place in a large room in the style of the 
time, with a window in the centre of the background and an open door to the right. 
A flood of light streams into the room past the window, and falls warm and bright on the 
persons to the right; gradually it decreases, but remains soft and transparent over all the 
picture. The scene has been kept subdued, broken by the vivid passage of light- to the 
right. The colours are rich ; red is the predominant tone, and subordinate to it browny-yellow 
and bluish-green; it was the artist's intention to reproduce the play of full sunlight over 
sombre shadow. Form and tone are solid. The whole makes a kindly, homely scene which 
passes in a burgher's house where clerks are busy with their office-work, and poor people 
have come to throw themselves at the feet of a grand gentleman. Ivo is a venerable figure, 
yet, stately and noble as he may look, is still a man of business and a burgher, and conveys 
to us no idea of a saint. The grouping in this piece of religious genre, which Jordaens 
treated with care and liking, is particularly fortunate. The canvas is signed: J. Jord. fecit 1645. 

It appeared at the Bruynincx sale (Antwerp, 1835) and was attributed to Gerard Legrelle. 
In 1898 Sedelmeyer sold it to the Museum at Brussels. Jordaens made use of this com- 
position for one of the tapestries in the series of „Proverbs", belonging to Prince Scharzenberg, 
for which he received the commission on the 22 nd of September, 1644, from the Brussels 


tapestry weavers, Frans van Cotthem, Jan Cordys, and Boudewijn van Beveren. The tapestry, 
representing the history of Saint Ivo, bears the inscription: Ingens est usura malum, mala 
pestis in urbe („Usury is a great evil, a bad plague in the town"). 

The Antwerp Museum possesses a painting, purchased within the last few years 
in England, treating the same subject and executed about the same time. Most likely it 
served as an altar piece; it is much larger than the preceding one, and is not an oval? 
like it, but an upright. Here also the saintly lawyer stands in the centre of the scene, in 
the same attitude, and robed as before. In front of him kneels a woman with a child on 
her arm; to the right stand an old man, an old peasant woman, and a few children asking 
for his assistance; to the left a young man handing him a document and an old one 
looking on. In the background are a barred window between two pilasters and an open door; 
below, to the right, a dog whining and a smaller one jumping up at the kneeling 
woman. A warm light falls on the, saint and on the figures to the left; the two persons at 
the back stand in the dusk. The whole is, like the other picture, in a warm tone, tempered 
by abundant shadows. The canvas has been slightly darkened by time, so that the light 
has turned brownish, and no more gives its full bright effect. Here, also, the saint is rendered 
an imposing figure in his red drapery with his white hair framing his austere face. 

A picture treating the same subject is in the Standehaus at Breslau; another appeared 
at the Cuypers de Rymenam sale (Brussels, 1813). The Catalogue of Prince de Ligne (1794) 
mentions a drawing, washed in sepia, where St. Ivo is to be seen seated at a table, and 
surrounded by several people, begging for his assistance.. At the J. J. de Raedt sale 
(Mechlin, 1839) appeared a St. Ivo of which the catalogue gives the following peculiar 
description : A charity-dispensation bureau with eleven figures. Poor people enter, among them 
a beautiful woman, who throws herself on her knees, while the clerks plead for her. The 
clerks pleading for her are van Dyck (standing), , Velvet' Breugel, Heyman, and Dullaert." 
The picture was 1.52 M. high and 2,06 M. wide, — almost twice as large as that in Brussels. 

A picture, undoubtedly dating from the same time, which Jordaens also used as a 
model for one of the cartoons in the tapestry series „The Proverbs", commissioned on 
the 22 nd September, 1644, is The Negro bringing his master's horse, in the Museum at 
Cassel. The scene is placed in the grounds in front of the steps leading to a castle, 
the entrance to which is through a colonnade. Near this building stands the proprietor, 
a great gentleman, dressed in a yellow jacket, trunk-hose, high riding-boots with spurs, a 
lined black cloak, and a black hat with feathers. Beside him stand a young woman 
dressed in black, white and yellow, a hunting dog, and a servant pouring water into a 
horse-trough. In the centre of the picture we notice in the principal group a negro in 
a loose, gold-yellow blouse, a white cap, and white stockings; he holds by the bridle a 
white dappled horse, with a red saddle. The horse paws the air. To the right stands 
Mercury, draped in a blue garment which covers only half of his body, a blue winged hat 
on his head, and his caduceus in his hand. What the god of commerce and thieves does 
here, in the midst of this burgher scene, is not quite clear; he is an emblem either of the 
calling of the respectable landlord, or else of the less reputable occupation of the horse- 
dealer. It is a well-ordered scene, full of bright light and merry bright tones. The prancing 
horse is a beauty, with fine head, springy action, and glossy skin. The proud master, who 
is looking on in such a dignified way, the young woman who looks so charming, and the 
tenderly painted Mercury, are all figures full of animation, standing out excellently against 
the luminous, cloudless sky. 



In 1653, Jordaens again used this theme of the horse being brought to its master, in 
one of the cartoons that he painted for Carlo Vinck, which served as a model for a set 
of tapestries which are at present in the Imperial palace in Vienna. In it we see Mercury 
bringing a horse to Louis XIII, king of France. 

A religious picture belonging to the same period is the Dead Christ, from the collection 
of Consul Weber at Hamburg. Christ has been taken down from the cross and lies huddled 
in the foreground, the upper part of the body lifted and held up by Mary Magdalen. On 
his pale flesh [fall bluey gray shadows; the head fades away into half shadow. Mary 

SAINT IVO (Museum, Brussels). 

Magdalen kneels beside him weeping, clad in white deep in the shadow, which falls over 
a red skirt. A young woman arranges the shroud near Christ's feet. The Virgin sits weeping 
and lamenting behind the dead body; she is wrapped in a dark blue-coloured dress, over 
which she wears a bright, azure-blue cloak. One hand is stretched forth, the other she 
holds to her breast. There is great eloquence in the way in which her deep emotion is 
expressed. St. John, dressed in red, stands with folded hands. Nicodemus rests his arm 
upon the ladder, his hand supporting his head; Joseph of Arimathea looks on and an old 
woman holding a basin stands behind. The tone of the whole is clear and tender, without 
being soft. Not only in sentiment, but also in the painting, this picture approaches Van 


Dyck's style, — more markedly so than any other of Jordaens' works. It came from the 
collection of the Duke of Marlborough. 

Pictures sold to Martinus van Lanqenhoven. Jordaens' manner of working. — 
During the years 1646—1648, very important commissions were given to Jordaens. In 1646 
he sold five pictures at one time to Martinus van Langenhoven. The fact is known to us 
through an indenture perserved in the town-archives at Antwerp. (1) 

From this deed we gather that on the 25 th of August, 1648, the painter appeared before 
the Notary van Cantelbeck and declared that the five pictures, which Martinus van Langen- 
hoven had bought from him about two years previously, had been painted, repainted, and 
altered by his own hand, so that, although he had treated the same subjects before, he 
regarded them nevertheless as original. According to the wording of the notarial deed, which, 
however, owing to its long-winded style is not very clear, he in this way affirmed the 
genuineness of the pictures which he began, finished and delivered about 1646, namely: 
As the old cock crows, Candaules, Argus, and Vulcan. Here, then, we have the names 
of four of the five pictures sold, as well as a statement by Jordaens regarding his different 
methods of work. There were pictures which he finished without any assistance whatsoever. 
There were others, copies, that he caused to be made, in which he corrected and completed 
what did not please him in the originals, and so touched and retouched and repainted 
them, that he deemed them to all intents and purposes his own work. And, indeed, we 
find versions of his most favourite subjects, of which more than one copy exists showing 
alterations of greater or less importance. It is also true that some subjects were repeated 
by him without the assistance of a collaborator. But it is equally certain that some pictures 
which are given his name, and had their origin in his studio, were painted by pupils, and 
repeat more or less closely one of the master's canvases, without however having been 
retouched by him. In other pictures he assisted more or less, but not so as to entitle us 
to say that he converted them into works of his own. A similar usage existed in other 
Antwerp studios in his day; in that of Rubens for example. That painters, who looked for 
profit from such practices, should sometimes find buyers who doubted the complete 
genuineness and authenticity of works produced in this way, and refused to accept them 
as good wares, can easily be understood. Other purchasers accepted the collaboration of 
assistants, the price being arranged accordingly. This is shown by the deed of notary 
subscribed to by Jordaens and Philip Silvercron in 1648, about which we shall speak 
shortly. Such a practice had also the effect of doing harm to the good name of the artist 
by allowing pictures to pass as his work which were unworthy of him. One is accustomed 
to find, in Museums, works by Jordaens which, though not of first-rate quality, have 
nevertheless been painted by his hand; but when we see the innumerable pictures in 

(1) 25 August 1648. — Appeared in person Sr. Jacques Jordaens, art-painter here and known to me, notary, and he, 
deponent has in witness hereof, said, declared and affirmed that it is true that the five paintings which Sr. Martinus van Langen- 
hoven bought' from him, deponent, two years since, have been painted, repainted and altered altogether by his own hand in such 
a way that notwithstanding the same subject has been painted before by him, deponent, from which conception they derive their 
origin through which he, deponent, being moved to do so, had the same copied, and to improve and amplify that which displeased 
him deponent in the preceding ones, has changed all of them with his own hand, painted and repainted them in such a way 
that he, deponent, considers them as original pictures, as good as his other ordinary works: to wit the picture As the old cock 
crows and Candaula the Argus and the Vulcan, which deponent has begun from the, without malice. Thus declared at 
the house of me, notary, in the presence of Guilliam van Craesbeck, master of his Majesty's mint, and Gasper van Cantelbeck 
merchant, inhabitants of this town, as witnesses. 


Communicated by Mr. Jos. van den Branden, archivist of the town of Antwerp. 



private collections attributed to him, we feel disturbed by the* quantity of works of small 
value, somewhat in his style and treating his subjects, in which we find some of the 
qualities which distinguish him, which bear his name, yet are, in the main, not his work, 
but that of his pupils, or of his assistants, imitators, and copyists. Whoever these men 
were, we do not lose much by not knowing their names, for most of their pictures are 
without the slightest artistic value. No master was so difficult to follow as Jordaens. 

Pictures ordered by Silvercron for Christina, Queen of Sweden. — On the 
21 st of April, 1648, Johan-Philips Silvercron, living at the Hague, ordered from Jordaens, 
in his own name, as well as in the name of Hendrik Hondius, thirty-five pictures the 
subjects of which were to be arranged later on. They had to be 3 ells and one and one 
eighth of an ell wide and 4| ells high. They were intended to serve as ceiling pieces 
and so had to be painted in foreshortening. For every picture, 80 pounds Flemish was 
to be paid (that is 480 guilders); this being 16,800 guilders (or about 100,000 francs, 
Flemish) for the complete works; they had to be finished not later than May 1,1649, and 
the artist undertook that the pictures should be „well and ingeniously painted, partly by 
himself, and partly by others, as it should suit Jordaens. And that which was painted by 
others he was bound to repaint in such a way that it should pass as his, signor Jordaens', 
own work, upon which he was to put his name and signature" (1). 

We do not know the subject treated in those 35 pictures. It can hardly be doubted 
that they formed a connected series, and were executed for some distinguished person. If 
we consider the works of importance which Jordaens can possibly have painted about 
that time, and if, also, we take into account the agents through whom the commission was 
given, we must conclude, it seems to me, that they were executed for Christina, Queen 
of Sweden. The capricious Queen, who abdicated her throne in 1654 at the age of twenty- 
nine, had, Sandrart her contemporary tells us, a spacious hall painted by Jordaens and 
the artist received great honour on account of it. Sandrart does not say what these works 
represented, nor of how many canvases they consisted; and we do not know what has 
become of them. 

The names of the agents corfirm our surmise that this work was executed for 
Queen Chistina. In fact, the Silvercron who negociated with Jordaens was none other than 
Johan-Philips de Bommaerts, Swedish correspondent, afterwards commissary for Sweden in 
the Netherlands, who is mentioned in 1651—1652 as living at the Hague. He was a 
stepson of Peter Spierinx Silvercron, Seigneur of Norsholm, who from 1633 to 1667 was first 
Councillor of the Swedish legation at the Hague, and afterwards Swedish Resident. (2) 
He was a lover of art and sent several pictures by Gerard Dou to the Queen for her 
collection. (3) 

In 1648 Johan-Philips Silvercron was only 18 years of age, so we may take it that he 
took his step-father's place. Hendrik Hondius was a Dutch engraver, who engraved portraits 
of several famous Swedes of his time. He was evidently employed as tutor to young 
Johan-Philips. Here, then, we have two men standing in the closest relations to the court 
of Christina of Sweden; and we may suppose that they came to Jordaens acting upon the 
instructions of that queen. This suggestion can the more readily be accepted, not only 

(1) F. JOS. VAN DEN BRANDEN, Op. cit. p. 828. 

V oor FmZ^-^S^TS^F^ '" ZWSde " «" N °°™*<» « »•»>»»» naar Ar M a, be ,an gm 
(3) Sandrart, Der Teutschen Academic p. 321. 



from the fact that Christina, according to Sandrart, had a hall painted by Jordaens, but 
also because we know from trustworthy documents that she knew Jordaens, and corresponded 
with him. As early as 1645, when she was only 19 years old, the Swede, Joris Waldou, 
an old pupil of Sandrart, was apprenticed to Jordaens at her request, through the inter- 
vention of Harald Appelbom. The letter in which she recommends her protege still exists, 
and we give a literal translation of it below. (1) 

What has become of the 35 pictures we do not know. The most competent connois- 
seur of works of art in Sweden, Mr. Olof Granberg, assures us that they never arrived 
there, and that Christina, when she left her country in 1654, did not possess a single 
picture by Jordaens. 

On Jordaens' portrait, published by Jan Meyssens in 1649, we read that Jordaens „a 
faict les belles choses racourtantes pour le Roy de Suede". By these foreshortened pictures 
must evidently be understood ceiling pictures; 
and instead of „Queen" of Sweden, „King" has 
been written by mistake. 

Sandrart and Houbraken assure us that 
Jordaens painted for the King of Sweden, Carl 
Gustave (1654 — 1666), twelve pictures repre- 
senting Christ's sufferings; but this obviously 
was after 1649. We have no more information 
as to what became of these pictures than we 
have of the fate of the others. 

We have mentioned already that Jordaens 
painted for the Queen of Sweden a „Story of 
Psyche" as a ceiling, which was not delivered. 
In the catalogue of the pictures left by him at 
his death we find it described thus: „A large 
square piece, with four oblique pieces, serving 
as a ceiling-piece for a large chamber, repre- 
senting the History of Psyche, painted by Jor- 
daens for Queen Christine of Sweden ; altogether 

THE DEAD CHRIST (Consul Weber, Hamburg 

(1) Christina, Queen of Sweden by the Grace of God, Our grace and pleasure, trusting in God Almighty. We desire that 
you, Harald Appelbom, should be informed that some time ago we recommended to the Resident Spiring, the son of our head 
cook Georg Waldou, in order that he might study the art of painting abroad in Holland. We hear that he is making good progress. 
We shall be delighted if he continues in this path, so that he may learn the said art thoroughly, and be of some service to us 
afterwards by means of it. Resident Spiring is coming to hand in his report about the said Waldou. Seeing that he has no 
opportunity of studying in Amsterdam (where he is living at present,) and being too young to be sent to Italy or any other 
foreign country, Spiring considers it advisable that he should be sent to Antwerp, where there are excellent painters, for example 
Jordan. Since, however, Spiring stays at the Hague, and might perhaps not find a good opportunity to interest himself in Waldou's 
studies, and seeing that you are living in Amsterdam, and near Waldou and the Resident Michel Le Blon, with whom Spiring 
already has been in frequent correspondence on the subject, you are better able to see to it. That is why we charge and order 
you, to come to an understanding with the aforesaid Le Blon, and to see that the said Waldou goes for about two or three years 
as an apprentice to the aforesaid Jordan, to practice the art of painting and to be well instructed in all in which he still falls 
short concerning the principles of art, and to get a thorough training in great and small, and average history pictures, landscapes, 
and all other necessary things. But seeing that art is also very well learned by good and real genuine pictures, an arrangement 
has to be made with Jordan for how much he will undertake to instruct him in the art of painting thoroughly. You will also 
make arrangements about all he may require for living, — for his lodgings and all the rest, as well as his studies, and what he 
may require, to live with Jordan at Antwerp. We have written to Spiring concerning this, so that nothing should be wanting 
either to you or to Waldou. See to it, also, that the aforesaid Waldou travels in perfect safety, impressing him to be on his guard 
against the popish religion, as well as other evils which might be pernicious to him. The works which he makes under guidance 
of his master can be sent successively here. 

We have charged you with this, and recommend you to the mercy of God Almighty. CHRISTINA. 

Stockholm, 19"> of August, 1645. 

(Communicated by Mr. Olof Granberg.)" 


24 feet in length and 22 feet wide". The ceiling fetched 150 guilders. Again we do not 
know what has become of this work. 

As the old Cock crows, the young ones learn. Munich. — We have better infor- 
mation about the five pictures bought by Martinus van Langenhoven in 1646, or rather, 
about three of them. In the Forties, Jordaens frequently painted his favourite subject, 
As the old Cock crows, the young ones learn. In addition to that mentioned in the deed of 
sale with Martinus van Langenhoven, we hear of one which was sold. in 1645 to a certain 
Jeronimus de Lange. On the 13 th of December of that year the Burgomaster and Aldermen 
dealt with a letter of complaint in which Jordaens informed them that Jeronimus de Lange 
had bought from him „a certain painting of the subject ,As the old Cock crows, the young 
ones learn', for the sum of five hundred guilders, on behalf of, as he said, J. Baert, living 
in Haarlem". On the 28 th or 29 th of June, 1645, the picture was finished, and de Lange 
himself had come to Antwerp and carried it off. In December, it was still in his house; 
but, though Jordaens had inquired of him several times as to the payment, de Lange had 
always failed to settle the account, professing that Baert refused to accept the picture. 
Jordaens remarks that he has nothing to do with the reason given, and asks that the 
Magistrate shall do justice by him (1). 

One of the copies of As the old Cock crows is dated 1646, and, therefore, would seem 
to be the picture of Martinus van Langenhoven. It belongs to the Pinakotheek at Munich, 
and is clearly distinguished from all the other renderings of the subject. At first view it 
reminds one of an Epiphany, and, indeed, if the grandfather had a crown instead of his 
velvet cap on his head and if there were not a little boy singing beside him, the picture 
would correspond exactly with the familiar representations of The King drinks. For there 
in the foreground at the near side of the table sits the young soldier, raising his wine-glass 
and turning towards the old master of the house; the latter, also, has a wine-jug instead 
of a page of music in his hand; both certainly are singing, but all the same drinking 
seems to be their chief occupation. At tha other side of the table stands a man with 
uplifted jug, shouting with all his might; a charming young woman, also with a wine-glass 
in her hand, reminds us of the Queen of the festival. To the left a man chucks under the 
chin a chubby maiden, who only feebly resists him. All the characters give one more an 
idea of the jollity of Epiphany night than of the quiet, homely pleasures of a musical 
family. Evidently Jordaens wished to combine the two subjects of drinking and singing, 
and render them at the same time. It has become a scene of „Long live Happiness!" 
He never represented one jollier or brighter; quite as boisterous as an Epiphany feast, 
it is without the repulsive details which we sometimes find in his representations of it. 
A golden light pours over all the scene, with coppery light-effects 4o the left, and a darker 
tone to the right. The light is not a fierce glow; it is tender and velvety; the shadows 
are transparent. The work is one of Jordaens' great, masterly pictures. 

With a few modifications, we find the same scene, and nearly all the personages, in 
a drawing in the possession of the British Museum (See the reproduction on p. 81). 

King Candaules. — The „Candaules" delivered in 1646 to Martinus van Langenhoven, 
is the picture now in the Stockholm Museum. It treats the first part of the tragi-comic 

(1) Archives of the town of Antwerp. Communicated by F. Jos. van den Branden. Archivist. 


story played in the country of Lydie in olden times. The king of that country, Candaules, 
had a wife, whose uncommon beauty he used to praise excessively. One of his courtiers, 
Gyges by name, had shown himself rather incredulous when listening to all this praise, and 
the king, wishing to prove himself in the right, proposed that Gyges should judge for 
himself with his own eyes. He hid his favourite, therefore, in his wife's bedroom at the 
hour that she retired, and in this way gave him the opportunity of seeing the Queen 
when unrobed. She, hearing what had .happened, was so indignant at the indiscretion of 
her husband that she went to look for Gyges, and gave him the choice between killing 
Candaules and marrying her or being killed himself. Gyges did not hesitate: he killed the 
king, married the widow, and ascended the throne. 

Such is the story. It suggested to Jordaens one important instant only, — that of the 
indiscreet act. Purposely he has laid stress on Candaules' inconsiderateness, and has gone 
as far as he possibly could in doing so without becoming distinctly repulsive; one sees 
well enough, however, that he found a roguish pleasure in venturing to the very edge of 
the abyss. The Queen has dropped her last garments; she has her linen over her arm, her 
nightcap on her head, a string of pearls round her neck, no more. She stands there in 
dazzling nudity; placing one foot on a low stool, so as to mount into her bed, a bed with 
dark red curtains and golden posts, she turns her head a little, not to the side on which 
the men are standing, where she might have discovered them, but towards us spectators, 
so that we can see her pretty young face. To the right are the two gentlemen : Gyges, the 
indiscreet, astounded by the undreamed-of beauty of what he sees, forgets all caution, 
and thrusts his head desirously through the curtain behind which he has hidden himself; 
and Candaules, the royal bungler, stretches his crowned head forward over his minister's 

Jordaens on this occasion found an opportunity of painting a woman who realized his 
ideal : a sweet, kind little face, a body soft as down, a chubby back, not too broad, tenderly 
undulating from the arms down to the hips, and below that widening amply, with that 
slightly mottled flesh which mothers in the Flemish country, speaking of their children, call 
„sausage meat"; legs chubbily rounded, and joining themselves firmly to the twin bones 
above. This without doubt is the woman of Jordaens' dreams, in her full beauty and charm, 
and nowhere, we may say, does he show his preference more distinctly than in this picture. 
But he chose this model, not merely in order to put upon canvas the figure of a woman 
after his own heart, but also to revel in the lustre which shines from voluptuous flesh 
and fair skin. Such splendour of light, such magnificence of tints he presents nowhere else 
for our wonderment. Fearlesly and boldly he showed the beauty of which Candaules was 
so proud, and for which he, Jordaens himself, also wished to engage our admiration. The 
back forms an enormous and overpoweringly luminous mass, in unison with the white linen 
on the arm and by the side, yet relieved by its whiter shade. Warm transparent shadows 
nestling in the folds of the flesh and of the linen, and in the retreating foreshortened planes, 
heighten the effect of whiteness, giving it still greater intensity and life. The charming 
woman occupies all the scene: her brilliancy puts everything else in the shade. The two 
men in hiding, and quite in the background, are treated in such a dark tone that they seem 
almost blotted out, and lose all their importance in consequence : they act as an off-set merely. 
It seems certain that the picture was painted in 1646, and was sold in that year to Martinus 
van Langenhoven. Of its farther adventures, we know only that it was given to the Museum 
at Stockholm, in 1872, by Count A. Bielke, in whose family it had been for a long time. 



Jordaens painted this subject once only. True, we find in the Pinakotheek at Munich 
a „View in an Art room" (Karel-Emanuel-Bizet, No. 934) dated 1666, in which he painted 
a group consisting of Mercury, two Muses and three Cupids, looking at a canvas on which 
he has represented the history of Candaules; but the grouping of the small figures in this 
miniature painting differs entirely from that in the Stockholm canvas, and there is no reason 
to conclude from it that there exists another of similar composition on a larger scale. 

The Dream. — A picture which in certain passages shows great similarity with the 
history of Candaules is The Dream, or the Apparition by Night. A man lies asleep in bed, 
and to him in his dream appears a female figure whom we see standing on a cloud to the 

right. She is quite 
naked, and like 
the wife of Can- 
daules is seen in 
back view; in front 
of her she holds a 
white cloth, which 
she lifts up with 
one hand, while 
the other keeps it 
against her body. 
The sleeper in his 
excitement has 
upset the pedestal 
table near his bed, 
has fallen to the 
floor. To the left 
a man and a wo- 
man are looking 
on at the scene 
with astonishment. 
The first carries 

u - u 1 . . . a burning candle 

which casts upon his head and that of the woman a warm light, and causes the shadow 
of his hand to fall on the panel of the open door. The Schwerin Museum possesses a 
version this subject, the nude woman in which might succesfully challenge the wife 
of Candaules by the splendour of the painting. 

A second version of less importance appeared at the Thore (Burger) sale (Paris 1892) 
and in that of van Hall (Antwerp, 1836). In 1905 it belonged to Mr Klienberg of Paris 
and was exhibited by him in Antwerp. ^nenoerg or Pans, 

Argus and Mercury. - The third picture which Martinus van Langenhoven bought 
was an Argus Jordaens painted more than one subject from the histor of IoTwS 
and we canno say with certainty which of them is in question here Very ikely however' 
it was one of his most important renderings of the legend. Every on k ow^ 't s t or' 

THE DREAM (M. Weinberger, Paris). 



Urged by jealousy, Juno, Jupiter's wife, changed his mistress, Io, into a cow, and 
appointed Argus, the many-eyed, to watch her. At Jupiter's command, Mercury sends Argus 
to sleep by the music of his flute, stones him to death, and carries off Io. Jordaens follows 
another reading of the legend, causing Argus to be killed with a sword. 

The most important version seems to be that which Jordaens had engraved by Schelte 
a Bolswert. Grazing in a luxurious landscape, on the banks of a river, are four cows. 
Argus sits on a slight elevation, very near the white cow into which Io has been turned. 
Beside him is his dog, and at his feet Mercury, who, laying aside the flute with which he 
has made Argus fall asleep, draws the sword with which he is going to kill him. 

ARGUS AND MERCURY (Madame Chs. Wouters, Antwerp). 

The painted picture, which represents the same scene, but in a slightly altered landscape, 
is in the Museum at Lyons. From a comparison of it with the engraving, we find that the 
painting has been cut down considerably at the top, as well as at both sides, so that the 
greater part of the landscape, and the hind quarters of the cow, to the right, have disap- 
peared. The painting is in a brown tone; the brushwork is masterfull, but rather rough; 
the animals are good, but without great distinction. Mercury stands out well against the dark 
glow. Formerly the picture belonged to the de Cevry collection, which passed into the 
hands of Debon, from whom it was bought for the Museum at Lyons. 

Another picture with the same subject is in the possession of Sir Archibald Campbell 


at Garscube. (1) Waagen describes it as less brilliant in colour than the picture (The 
Prodigal Son?) at Dresden, yet good and original. 

Jordaens did not paint only this scene of Argus's history, but represented all the other 
acts of the drama as well. The first of these we find rendered by him in a small picture, 
dated 1640, which was for sale in 1905 at a Brussels art-dealer's. Argus and Io appear in 
a landscape, two nymphs and a river-god completing the scene. The picture has as a 
pendant a Mercury, playing Argus to sleep with his flute.. Both works are carefully executed 
and charming, though a little dark. 

Another scene preceding the engraved one is represented in a picture of small 
dimensions belonging to Mr. Paul Meyerheim, at Berlin; it discovers Mercury arriving 
among the shepherds. The slender figure of the god is unusually elegant. The next 
scene is shown in a small picture belonging to M. Delbeke of Antwerp; here Mercury 
has just arrived, and finds Argus in the midst of his herd. Another part of the legend, 
again, is represented in a picture which was sold at the Menke sale (Antwerp, 1904), 
and bears the inscription J. Jord. fecit 1647. We see Mercury playing the flute close by 
Argus, who is falling asleep. Behind him, a little higher up, stand Io and three cows. To 
the left are trees on a river bank, and in the foreground four sheep, a dog, and a goat.The 
picture is warm-brown in tone, and has little artistic value. 

Next we have Mercury, sharpening his sword on a rock. This action is reproduced 
by Jordaens in a picture of greater importance in the possession of Mevrouw Ch s - Wauters 
at Antwerp; it bears every sign of having been painted in Jordaens' earlier period. 

Another incident in the story of Argus and Mercury is represented in a picture of 
less value iq the Hermitage at St. Petersburg. Mercury's sword is uplifted, ready to 
cleave the head of the sleeping Argus. The scene is placed in a landscape, in which we 
see Io and other cows. 

Jordaens chose the same subject for an etching, which is dated 1652. Argus is asleep, 
with his head on a piece of rock. Mercury, kneeling with one leg on the stone, has raised 
his sword to kill the sleeper. Argus's stick lies on the ground, and the dog barks at his 
master's murderer. At the other side we catch sight of the head of the cow, Io. 

A picture representing the same scene belongs to Mr. G. Hulin at Ghent; in it, however, 
we have not one cow, but six ; two to the left and four to the right. The painting is tender, 
the tone clear and warm, the colouring magnificent. The picture came from the collection 
of the Earl of Shrewsbury at Alton Towers. 

Several other works appearing at sales in the eighteenth century represent this particular 
scene, — Mercury preparing to cut off Argus's head. 

In 1902 a small picture of little value was offered to the Antwerp Museum, — Argus 
slain. To the right, and on an elevation to the left, are seen cows; in the foreground lies 
Argus's dead body, the head severed from the trunk. Juno puts the eyes of the victim 
on the tail of the peacock. It was sold in Leipsic on the 21 st of November, 1905, at 
Rudolf Lepke's. 

At the Johan van der Marck sale (Amsterdam, 1773) was a picture described a follows: 
Juno is represented standing, leaning against a white cow; Argus on a hillock is resting on 
his stick, and beside him are four cows and a barking dog; in the foreground lies a spotted 
cow. All this is set in a landscape. In the clouds is seen Juno's chariot drawn by two 

(1) Waagen, Art Treasures in Great-Britain, III. 292. 


Among the contents of Jordaens' estate at his death there was a picture indicated in the 
catalogue merely as „Argus". 

It was no doubt the opportunity of bringing upon the scene the beautiful Io, changed 
into a cow, and also the whole herd watched by Argus, that tempted the master to depict 
the same fable so frequently, and to elaborate all its details. Men and gods he could find 
always and everywhere, but scenes in which animals play the principal role are scarce, 
and once he found one he made good use of it. 

Vulcan. — Of the fourth picture sold by Jordaens to Martinus van Langenhoven, 
called A Vulcan, we know little. Is it possible that it treated the same subject as the 
Arms of Achilles, appearing at the sale of Jordaens' estate (the Hague, 1734), or as that 
in the sketch for Thetis receives the Arms of Achilles from the Nourri sale (Paris, 1785)? 
We can only ask the question. 

Conversion of St. Paul. — We possess positive proof that this picture, which 
seems to have gone a-missing, was painted in the Forties for the altar of St. Paul in the 
church of the abbey of Tongerloo. In October, 1647, Jordaens received 400 Rhenish guilders 
upon its delivery. (1) 

At the sale of Jordaens' effects the same subject appeared, only in a smaller version. 

Hercules. — A few dated pictures also belong to this period. First of all, there is 
the Hercules and the Nymphs, filling the Horn of Plenty, belonging to the Museum at 
Copenhagen, and signed J. Jor. fee. 1649. Hercules, leaning on his club, is represented 
standing beside a bull (the river Acheloiis). He has broken off one of the animal's horns, and 
three nymphs are busily employed in filling the horn with fruit and flowers. A nymph and 
three satyrs are looking on ; two old satyrs and a young one are picking fruit from a tree. 
In the back-ground is a landscape. To the left are three ducks in a pond, and to the right 
a group of fruit and vegetables. It is a large and decorative picture, very soft and velvety 
in light and colour. The group of nude nymphs, — voluptuous in form, as always, — is 
very enchanting. The bull is a beautiful animal; the flowers and fruit are by the hand of 
another painter. As early as 1653 the picture belonged to the King of Denmark, and in 
March of that year a black frame was painted for it. (2) 

Antiope. — The second dated picture of this period is The Sleeping Antiope in the 
Museum at Grenoble. The nymph lies asleep under a canopy stretched between trees on 
the bank of a river. Beside her lies her quiver, and behind her stands Eros holding a 
torch. To the right Jupiter, in the shape of a satyr, is stooping over her, and watching 
her attentively. There are also two satyrs behind a hillock spying at the nude sleeper. The 
picture is dated J. Jord. fecit 1650. Notwithstanding this signature, the Catalogue throws 
doubt on the genuineness of the work; but wrongly so. The picture certainly is a little 
soft in the painting, and lacks the master's usual brilliance of colour; but it is genuine 
nevertheless. It is probably the same work as appeared at the Mensart sale. (Amsterdam, 
1824), and was catalogued as bearing the date 1660. 

(1) F. Waltman van Spillbeeck. The former abbey church of Tongerloo and its art treasures (Flemish school, 1883, p. 183). 

(2) Communicated by Mr. Karl Madsen, Conservator of the Royal Gallery of Paintings and Architectural Works at Copenhagen. 




The King drinks. — During the Forties, Jordaens resumed his favourite subject, The 
King drinks, and treated it several times. One of the best versions of this period is in 
the Museum at Brussels (N°. 242 of the Catalogue). The picture is much larger than the 
other of the subject in the same Museum. The king sits enthroned in the centre of 
the table facing the spectator, a pasteboard crown on his head, a Venetian glass in his 
uplifted hand; rejoicing in the fat of the land, his eyes half-closed, ogling and slabbering 
to the full satisfaction of his entire being. The scene about him is rather riotous. To the 
right are two women : one, with a golden fork in her hand, half-stupid with wine, her hair 
out of curl, looks on with a vacant stare; the other, almost as far advanced, has in one 
hand a large wine-glass, and with the other holds a child on her lap. Next to her stand 
two children, one blowing a flute, the other leaning on a chair. Behind the women are a 

ARGUS AND MERCURY (M. Georges Hulin, Ghent). 

comical figure lifting his red fool's cap, a bagpipe-player, a singer, his head thrown back- 
wards in song, and an old and a young woman. To the left, beside the king, are a girl 
with roguish laughing features, embraced by an enterprising rascal, and a man whose pipe 
has upset him, so that his wife has to hold his head while he is sick. Behind the king 
is an excited singer with a fool's cap on his head; holding up both hands, one grasping 
a beaker, the other his cap. At the side are about half a dozen persons, some drinking, 
some making fun. In the background are an open window and a painted landscape in a 
richly carved frame. A parrot sits on the open window-shutter; a girl in a chair plays 
with a little dog; there are also a wine-cooler, a basket with table utensils on which a 
cat is resting, and a dog partially seen. On the table are cakes, wine-glasses, a roasted 
fowl on a dish, and a gold sugar-basin. 

In itself the scene is not attractive; it depicts drunkenness in all its stages and conse- 
quences. Almost everybody is fuddled; the king's dignity has vanished in a fit of laughter, 



the eyelids of the pretty women at his side are getting heavy, their mouths remain open; 
the men either bawl and howl or behave unbecomingly; everything swings and whirls 
confusedly together, excited, unrestrained, without care, and without fear. 

Light and colour elevate the scene, however, causing us to forget its offensiveness. To 
the right everything is bright; the woman with the child wears a white cap, a white 
kerchief, a white apron; the child a white shirt. All this white is broken by blue-gray 
shadows, which have a tempering effect. The whiteness of the serviette on the king's breast, 
and of the linen worn by the persons to the left, is quieted down in the same way, and 
tempered by heavier shadows. But this cool, clear tone is warmed and enriched by the red 

HERCULES AND ARCHELOUS (Museum, Copenhagen). 

passages on the clothes, the caps, and the table-cover. The group to the left is subdued 
but no less rich in colour. Ten figures are packed together in it, active, and lively in 
gesture ; dull-red and blue colours predominate, shining with a clear, twilight glow, cooled 
by the shadows and reflections, and standing out in harmonious tranquillity against the 
dim, umwavering light from the window. The background is not less magnificent in colour ; 
the wall is covered with a picture in a mellow, dark tone; the fool, the bagpipe-player, 
and the singer, in a demure key, are standing against this quiet ground, broken by sober 
spaces of blue, yellow and red, hastily touched in with a sure hand, guided by a sensitive 
eye. The painting bears evidence of Jordaens' full maturity : his hazy golden tone of earlier 


date has become cooler, the colours are crumby, the painting granular, and the style points 
to the picture being executed about 1650. It was bought in 1897 from Mr. Bourgeois, 
art-dealer at Paris and Cologne, and appeared at the Pommersfeld sales (Wurzburg, 1857 
and Paris 1867). 

A second slightly modified version is in the collection of the Duke of Devonshire at 
Chatsworth. The composition is almost the same; only, there are thirteen figures instead 
of twenty-three. Four figures are left out on the extreme right, — a man, a woman, and two 
children ; four on the extreme left ; and a child next to the king and another in the foreground. 
There is only one dog, and it is differently placed. In the background is neither window 
nor picture. The basket with table utensils in the foreground is missing, and the figures 
are seen, not quite in full length, but nearly so. It is a magnificent picture, carefully-painted 
in a light tone with thin transparent shadows. The action is agreeable; the wine is 
beginning to mount to the heads of the company, causing them to be rowdy. The picture 
seems to me to date from a few years earlier than the preceding. 

The King drinks. Brunswick. — The version of The King drinks in the Museum at. 
Brunswick resembles the other two pictures in several points. The king is the same; so 
are the two women to the left, — the one with the fork in her hand and the other with 
the child on her lap. The fool tries to embrace a young girl, who wards him off; a mirror 
against the back wall reflects this couple. On the open window-shutter sits a parrot; 
at the table is the child with the curly head; in front of the table, a second. Besides these 
there are eight other persons at the farther end of table. The picture is not by Jordaens' 
hand, but was executed in his studio; a sallow brown tone is predominant; the incisiveness 
of the master is lacking everywhere; his figures are there, but not his painting. 

We ourselves once found a better rendering of the same composition at an art-dealer's ; 
but the picture had been narrowed, and the fool trying to kiss the young woman and the 
mirror reflecting the group had been left out. 

Still another version appeared at the van der Schrieck sale (Louvain, 1861). The king 
lifts the glass to his mouth. The queen offers him a cake. A drinker behind him lifts his 
glass, and shouts: „The King drinks!" Another to the extreme left puts down his pipe so 
as to drink from the jug which he holds in his hand. In the foreground we see the head 
of a dog. Afterwards the same picture appeared at a collector's sale at Brussels, in a year 
not mentioned in the Catalogue. 

The King drinks. Vienna. — The most important of all the versions of this subject 
is the picture in the Imperial Museum at Vienna. It was taken from Flanders by the Arch- 
duke Leopold-Wilhelm in 1656 with his collection, and together with it was bequeathed to the 
Imperial court. In the catalogue of the collection, compiled in 1659, the work is described 
as „a large piece in oilpaint on canvas, on which a king's festival is represented. Original 
piece of Jordaens, painter at Antwerp". It was therefore painted not later than 1656, and 
(judging from the style) a few years before that date. It bears an inscription on a cartouche 
at the top : Nil similius insano quam ebrius („Nothing resembles a mad man so much as a 
tipsy man"). The painter indicates thus plainly his intention of representing a drinking-bout 
with all the offensive things seen on such an occasion. Notwithstanding this declaration, it 
is clear that it was also the painter's intention to represent the Epiphany faithfully according 
to ancient custom. What he did nowhere else, he does here: to each person he gives 


one of the r61es which are generally taken up at an Epiphany meal, and inscribes on little 
scrolls of paper, lying on the ground or fastened on the people's clothes, the title of the 
part each of them plays. 

At the head of the table, to the right, sits the King with the pasteboard crown on his 
head, drivelling at his wine-glass, and holding the wine-jug in his hand. Beside him, at the 
farther end of the table, is seated the Queen enthroned, a charming woman with a fork 
in her hand; opposite her is the Steward, a young, strongly-built trooper, who raises his 
glass with violent gesture and loudly exclaims „The King drinks!" — the signal for all to 
drain their glasses. Next to him are a second pretty woman and an old one. At the head 
of the table, to the left, a young fellow fills his rummer; a second smokes a pipe; a third 
is attempting to kiss his neighbour. At the farther end of the table are the Fool, holding 
up his glass, and shouting with all his might; the Singer, a tipsy young carle; an old 
woman, looking kindly at the King; the Carver, holding a slice of meat above his mouth; 
the Messenger, who has stuck his pipe through the band of his cap ; and behind the King's 
chair the Cook, a jolly character, well-clad with fat. In the foreground are the Medico, 
Who is sick, a dog, a cat, two costly metal vessels, and a child drinking. In the background 
we catch sight of the border of a tapestry; to the left is a window, and on the wall a 
mirror, in which two of the guests are reflected. 

This mirror and the window have appeared in pictures described already. The trooper 
in the foreground reminds us of a similar figure in one of the two versions in the Brussels 
Museum, and in the picture As the old Cock crows in Munich. The guest attempting to 
embrace his neighbour, the fool behind the King lifting his glass on high, and the sick 
man, we have also found elsewhere. But the other figures are introduced for the first time, 
and the general grouping is more fortunate than before. The queen sits here, as in other 
pictures, very stately, and motionless, while the King quietly enjoys his fine wine ; but the 
others are all astir: one and the same impulse causes them to fling up their arms and 
open their mouths, the necessity to give expression in an excited way to their rollicking fun. 

How magnificent is the clear brilliance of colour upon the whole revelling group! A 
glittering, radiant light vibrates on the faces of the feasters, on their shoulders and arms, 
on their white linen and brightly-coloured clothes ; producing where it strikes passages that 
sparkle against the brown background. The latter is luminous with a warmth that seems 
buried in it, and emerges here and there in little touches on a dress, on a glass, on a 
basin, on the dog and the cat. Even the brown seems to be imbued with the lustre that 
glows beneath it. The shadows have sharp angles that make one think of mountain-tops 
behind which the sun is setting, or of lamp-shades covered with brown gauze. Where 
the light falls, it does not merely brighten: it fuses flesh and fabrics; the chubby softness 
of some of the cheeks and the brilliance of some of the garments, have a dazzling effect. 
All this, even more than the excitement of the figures, communicates to the scene a sense 
of merriment, and enhances the bright, pleasant appearance of the carousal. 

When Jordaens had repeatedly represented the Epiphany feast, the notion came to him of 
painting a merry company without the man with the paper crown. He did so in a picture 
which belongs to the Duke of Abercorn. In it he has chosen as personages several of 
those who generally served at a Beanfeast, added a few to it, and in this way composed 
a party of merry men and women. The first are soldiers; the second barmaids, or camp- 
followers. They sit feasting under the foliage of a vine, trained over trellis-work; three 
young women reminding us of the merry companions of the drinking King, and as many 



soldiers- the trooper with his beaker in the air; a second drinking calmly; another stand, ng 
and shouting loudly; and a fourth, with more of the appearance of a jonker who al bw 
himself a great deal of liberty with one of the ladies. To the right ,s a bagpipe-play r ; to 
thTleft L servant, who with plate, can, and glass tumbles across a chair; and finally the 
landlady, chalking up the reckoning. In the foreground are some ducks a dog and a pig. 
It is an uncommonly merry picture, owing to the mood of he people ^ and ite 
happy scheme of colour and light; not a very edifying scene, indeed but a thoroughly 
charming and meritorious work. A full, warm light falls on two of the girls- who are 
seated there in white and pink dresses, and on the man in olive-green ves and yellow 
trousers, raising his cup; to left and right, the light becomes softer and dimly warm, but 

THE KING DRINKS (The Duke of Devonshire). 

it is dominant everywhere; the shadows are few and thin. All are alive and about, 
enjoying the moment pleasantly and to the full; the personages at the table shouting, 
singing and laughing; the animals below it: the ducks quacking, the dog jumping up, the 
pig that comes walking along, as if it understood that here, where life is led so merrily, 
he is in his proper place. 

In the Delacre collection at Ghent is a drawing, a sketch for the same subject (See 
picture on page 56). 

The picture was painted about 1644, for in this year, or in the subsequent one, Jordaens 
used it as a design for one of the tapestries in the „Proverbs" series, where it bears the title 
Male partum, male dilabitur („Badly got, badly spent")- 



Rustic courtship. — More than once in speaking of the versions v of The King drinks 
and Diogenes searching for a man which have been described already, we have mentioned 
an amorous couple, where an enterprising fellow takes a girl by the chin, and tries to kiss 
her. Jordaens thought the group so really delightful, that he wished to treat it separately; 
and this he did in a picture belonging to Mr. Emile Goldschmidt at Frankfort. A merry 
fellow, whom Jordaens endowed with his own features, dressed in a blue blouse and a 
dark cap through which he has slipped his pipe, takes hold of a fat, fresh wench with 
one hand by the chin and with the other round her shoulder. She wears a white chemise, 
with light blue straps across it, and holds in her arms, over which the sleeves are rolled 
back, a basket containing apples and plums. She does not object to kissing. Her chin is 
clasped between the fingers of the rascal; her eyes are half-closed, her mouth is open. 

THE KING DRINKS (Museum, Cassel). 

She is all laughter, just as is the face of her companion with his broad visage, wide-open 
mouth, and small roguish eyes. The painting is as pleasing as the action: the colours are 
clear, the light is warm, the execution lovingly cared for. One cannot imagine a more 
pleasant, agreeable group. The woman is the same as in the Fruit-seller in the Museum 
at Glasgow. With it and the Male and female Fool of Mr. Porges at Paris, this picture 
is undoubtedly the most complete and happy expression of Jordaens' love of life; a 
picture embodying Flemish roguishness, a thoroughly healthy representation of courtship 
among the people. 

Mythology. — Jordaens' fame reached its zenith after Rubens' death, and among 
other proofs of the approbation which his works received we may mention that even 



then he was flattered by having copyists, and that their copies, acknowledged as such, were 
exposed for sale at the art-dealers'. Thus we find in the inventory of the effects of the 
Antwerp picture-dealer, Herman de Neyt, who died on September 8, 1642 „a canvas after 
Jordaens, being a Bacus". In the inventory of the painter and art-dealer Jeremias Wildens 
Janszoon, deceased, December 30, 1653, occur a Bath of Calisto and an Acteon after Jordaens. 
The original Acteon appeared later at the Abbe Guillaume Gevigny sale (Paris, 1779), — 
Diana in her bath and two nymphs are looking at Acteon, who tries to surprise her; there is 

a rocky landscape in the back- 
ground. The original version of 
Calisto and Diana, which must date 
from the Thirties, appeared at a 
sale at Amsterdam on June 11, 1797, 
and now belongs to the Museum 
of Oldenburg. It is comparatively 
a small picture (81 cm. h. by 120 
cm. w.), brilliant in colour, radiant 
with delicate flesh. The scene is 
placed in a hilly landscape, with 
a brook rushing down from rocks 
between the trees. One of the 
nymphs is putting her feet into the 
water, a second is emerging from 
it; several others are preparing to 
enter it. On the bank are two 
nymphs uncovering Calisto to prove 
her pregnancy. The guilty one 
resists with all her might, and calls 
upon Diana for help or mercy. 
The severe, chaste goddess on 
discovering this lapse in one of 
her followers raises her hand with 
an astonished and disapproving 
gesture. It is an exhibition of 
dimpled, voluptuous women in a 
charming light and delightful sur- 
roundings; and might lead us to 
think of one of those painters of 
nymphs who were to be found in 
Jordaens' time, — a Hendrik or a 
Jan van Balen, for example, - were it not for the inordinate size of all the inhabitants 
of the pagan Heaven, and the impudent rudeness with which the friends of Calisto discover 
her guilt. 

In this inventory of Jeremias Wildens also we find mention made of a Judgment of 
Midas; and pictures with the title „King Midas", or „the Judgment of Midas" or „Midas 
among the Goddesses of Music" or „Apollo and Marsyas" occur in many other sales and 
collections. There was a Judgment of Midas among Jordaens' effects (2 ft 4 in h., 3 ft 10 

RUSTIC COURTSHIP (M. Emile B. Ooldschmidt, Frankfort). 


in w.); we come across it again at the Robert Neufville sale (London, 1736) and in the 
Hendrik van Limburgh sale (the Hague, 1759). 

In addition to the picture in the Madrid Museum, already discussed on p. 114, we know 
of two others treating this subject. The first was bought at the sale of the Huybrechts collec-* 
tion at Antwerp for the Museum of Ghent. The two rivals have taken their places at the 
feet of Bacchus. Marsyas is to the right, crouching down as he blows his flute with all his 
might. Apollo on the left, lute in hand, awaits his turn. Behind him are three Muses. To the 
extreme right Midas, in his regal cloak, is present at the competition. The painter had made 
the two sides of the picture a sharp contrast in colour and light. The right side is bathed 
in a warm, brown tone, without solidity in the lights or brilliance in the colours. The 
group to the left, Apollo and Midas, on the contrary, are radiant with light and brilliant in 
tone; on the fair skin lie bluey-gray, transparent shadows, which lend a mellowness 
to the figures, and take away a look of porcelain which the high gloss would otherwise 
impart to them. On that side the execution is extremely careful, and, the lines are sharply 
drawn. The picture seems to have been painted in the beginning of the period which we 
are now discussing. 

The Rijks-Museum at Amsterdam possesses a small scene representing the Punishment 
of Marsyas. Marsyas, in appearance a fat, brown satyr, sits on the ground, surrounded 
by a bevy of nymphs. One of them binds his arms behind his back; a second keeps his 
head still, while a third cuts his long ear with a pair of scissors. Several others are 
onlookers, like Apollo, who stands beside him. The nymphs are nude; two of them are 
seated on a red cloth; Apollo appears in gold-yellow drapery. The figures are sharply 
coloured and porcelain-like, after the style of van Balen; in his style also is the land- 
scape, — the pool of water, the little brook running down the hill, and the blue sky. The 
picture, by its appearance, and especially by the exaggerated heaviness of the figures, 
recalls to mind the „Procession of Bacchus" in the Brussels Museum, and must date from 
about 1650. It was probably the same work that appeared at the van Swieten sale (the 
Hague, 1731), and at the Six sale (Amsterdam, 1734). 

Atalanta and Hippomenes. — At this time Jordaens represented once or twice the 
contest between Atalanta and Hippomenes. On the first occasion he painted the king's 
daughter and the amorous prince racing between two barriers which separate them 
from the curious public. To the right are a man with a white turban, seated on a white 
horse, and another with a black cap on his head, on a brown horse. Over one of the barriers 
are leaning a fat man with a bald head, a man with a red cap, and a third putting 
his fingers to his nose ; lower down we notice two children and a dog. To the left, against 
the enclosure, are seen two trumpeters, three spectators, and two children. The racers are 
running straight towards us. Atalanta is completely nude, save for a yellow scarf round 
her waist; she stoops to pick up the apple. Hippomenes, also quite naked, holds an 
apple in each hand. The picture is painted in light gray tones with transparent shadows; 
the flesh on the man's body is dull, the muscle strongly marked; that of the woman is 
tender; the figures to left and right also are in warm soft tones, in the style of his work 
about 1641, though the picture bears the date 1646. It appeared at the Latinie sale 
(Antwerp, 1905). 

Another version of the same subject is in the author's possession. The figures are 
almost the same; except that the racers are seen running alongside one barrier only; the 




colours are more solid, and sharper; and the action of the principal figures is not so well 
rendered. The picture was bought at the Beysterbos sale (Amsterdam, 1899). 

It was either the first or the second of these pictures that appeared at the van Gennep 
sale (Antwerp, 1778), and at the Sels sale (Antwerp, 1822). 

Family Portrait. Cassel. — We do not know with certainty of any portraits painted 
by Jordaens during this period. We believe, however, that the family portrait in the Cassel 
Museum belongs to it, — to about 1650. It is one of the most remarkable pieces of its 
kind that we know. A whole family, consisting of nine persons, is represented here, — 
father, mother and seven children. The painter has not allowed them to pose idly, one next 
the other; most of them are occupied with one another, and not with the spectator. In the 
background to the left stand the father and the mother: he a strapping old man, she a 

DIANA AND CALISTO (Museum, Oldenburg). 

healthy woman of fifty. Passing from left to right, we come to the eldest son in violet- 
coloured clothes and black cloak, playing the mandoline; the youngest son, of whom only 
the head is visible; the second sister, dressed in red, holding a nosegay in her hand, and, 
like the youngest brother, looking up at father and mother; the third sister, in a red 
bodice with blue sleeves, smilingly offers a basket of flowers to the eldest one; the 
second son lays his hand on the shoulder of the latter, and looks towards the frame; 
the eldest daughter wears a gold-yellow dress, with pale, blue-green skirt and white 
kerchief, an amber necklace round her throat, gold earrings with pearls in her ears, and 
a wreath of flowers in her hair; some of the flowers have fallen already into her lap from 
the basket which her sister offers her; finally, to the right is the second youngest son, 
standing behind his eldest sister and touching her shoulder with his hand. To judge by 
the sweet tenderness with which the eldest daughter of the house is surrounded, and by 



the flowers offered to her, one would say that the family are holding some festivity in her 
honour, — on the anniversary of her christening, or on her betrothal perhaps. 

It certainly is the finest family group that Jordaens ever painted, and one of his master- 
pieces. The magnificent colour alone would entitle it to this verdict. The yellow dress of the 
eldest sister, her white linen, the red chair on which she sits, the flowers in her lap, and 
the play of broken light on all these, are very charming. The red dress of two other 
sisters, the red cushion on which the eldest son sits, the red collar of the father's cloak, the 
creamy kerchiefs of the younger sisters, form a superb and delightful harmony. Not less 
vivid are the tones of the flesh : the bare arms, neck and face of the eldest sister, the sunny 


head of the second, with the warm shadows on cheek and neck, the tenderly tinted face of 
the youngest, which lies completely in the transparent glow, the light fair head of the youngest 
son, are all different from one another, and all equally beautiful. The father has a fine, intelligent 
head. The mother has been rendered with a few strokes, — almost sketched, indeed ; she is 
all alive, with brave eyes, and a loving, somewhat anxious, face. Most of the children 
bear her features, — heavy nose, small eyes. The eldest daughter looks good-natured, a little 
simple and shy, touched perhaps by the tokens of affection offered to her; the second one 
has a massive head and is rather coarse in features, though saved from ugliness by the sunny 
brilliance which radiates from her fair flesh, her loose-hanging locks, and her linen kerchief ; 
the youngest daughter most resembles the mother, — her face is one sparkle of colour and 


brightness. The boys are more decided in expression: the eldest calm and serious; the 
second looking at the spectator with an inquiring gaze; the third keener of spirit; the 
youngest a naive, healthy schoolboy. 

The group is compact, but it has movement and brightness, and is as full as possible 
of natural action. The painting is both solid and broad, the brush-work loose but well 
thought out, — a dab, a smear, and the effect was got! The play of direct and reflected 
light is full of life, — a continual breaking and mirroring, profuse, vivid, and splendidly 
glowing. The modelling is got by gradations of blue; the light is abundant, but every- 
where transparent and mellow. 

The Woman with the Locket. — A portrait in the same manner as the family at 
Cassel is that of a woman in the Museum of the Academy of Fine Arts at Vienna. The 
sitter has broadly waving locks through which play golden tones; she wears white pearls in 
her hair and ears and a white muslin kerchief over the shoulders. On her breast is a rose. 
She looks towards the left, turning her head to do so; and holds a locket, — a man's 
portrait mounted with precious stones — in her hand. The painting is very loose and 
broad, the colour light and transparent. 


16 52. 

The Orange Hall. 


»he most important of Jordaens' works in 
this period, and, indeed, the most re- 
markable he ever produced, were the two 
pictures (and the larger of them especially) 
which he painted for the Orange Hall. This 
was the name given to the central and prin- 
cipal hall in the palace that Amalia van Sclms, 
widow of Prince Frederick Henry of Orange, 
built for herself in the Haagsche Bosch, and 
generally known as The House in the Wood. 
Amalia van Solms was married to the 
Stadtholder on the 4 th of April, 1625. She was 
greatly attached to her husband, whom she 
both loved and highly admired. She followed 
with warm interest his career as a states- 
man and a military commander, and often, by 
advising him, shared deeply in the events of 
his glorious tenure of the office. Frederick 
Henry was an ardent lover of art. He collected 
many works by the best painters of his day. 
It was no less his delight to possess a mag- 
nificent palace within the Hague, as well as 
others in its neighbourhood. Of the latter, two — at Rijswijck and at Honselaarsdijk — 
were built by him, and a third was the old castle of Buren, which he restored ; in addition 
he, and still more his wife, was much occupied during the last years of his life with the idea 
of laying out a country-seat in the Wood at the Hague, entirely in accordance with Amalia's 
taste, and destined to become her personal property. 

In earlier centuries the Haagsche Bosch belonged to the Counts. The portion of it 
lying in the immediate vicinity of the town, and bordering on the Court of the Counts, 
served as a pleasure-ground for the prince's household; the part farther removed to the 
east was not laid out; and peat was dug from it for the use of the court. In 1 576, however, 
the Wood was granted by the Prince of Orange and the States General to the town of the 
Hague Jot al sulcken gebruyck ende service als van verder hercomen heeft gestaen" („to all 
such ends and purposes as have existed heretofore"). A part „of the back of the Haagsche 

Drawing (Louvre, Paris). 



Wood" was handed over to Amalia van Solms on the 17* of May, 1645, by the Audit 
Office and the Countship of Holland under whose management the Wood came as a 
domain. It was given her .for her recreation, exercise, and training, to change the same 
either into a park or into a building as she should find suitable for her pleasure . This gift 
was bestowed upon her by the intervention of Frederick Henry himself, and the plans for 
the garden and the building were submitted to the prince. A beginning was made 
immediately with the filling in of the marshy ground, and by the 20* of July, 1645, the 
plan for the Orange Hall was completed by the architect Pieter Pool, with the assistance 
of Jacob van Campen, the renowned master in the art. The prince having approved of it, 
the first stone was laid on the 2 nd of September following by the Queen of Bohemia, who 
had temporarily taken up her residence at the Hague. The building as originally planned 
was composed of a large central hall, round which, on each floor, were six rooms and a 
few small cabinets. In the eighteenth century it underwent very considerable changes. To 
the right and left, wings were added, and the facade and outer staircase were entirely 
altered. The principal part of the building also, the Orange Hall proper, was considerably 
modified in shape and construction. Evidently, the original idea was to make it serve as 
an art-room and reception hall, - for which purpose it was, when compared with the 
remainder of the building, much too lage. But before it was completed, Frederick Henry 
dUdr^farch 14, 1647. 

His sorrowing widow immediately conceived the idea of turning this great hall in her 
pleasure-palace into a splendid monument of art dedicated to the memory of her famous 
consort. Accordingly she had the design altered. The hall, originally planned with a 
flat roof, was crowned by a high dome, and to Jacob van Campen was entrusted the 
disposal of the space thus acquired for her purpose. With Amalia van Solms and Con- 
stantine Huygens, (the faithful adviser and secretary of the deceased prince, who continued 
to give his services to the widow), the renowned architect decided upon a scheme for the 
decoration of the hall from top to bottom with pictures designed in honour of Frederick 
Henry. Together they chose the subjects which were to be represented on the walls, and 
the artists to whom the commissions were to be given. 

The hall is in the shape of a Greek cross with short arms, of which the four angles 
are broken cross-ways; thus leaving sixteen spaces for paintings, — four large ones at the 
four extremities of the arms, and twelve small ones. Of the four large spaces, one is filled 
with a single large canvas. Directly opposite this principal panel stood originally the 
mantelpiece, for which has now been substituted a door, on each side of which is a picture. 
The large wall to the right of the entrance is pierced by three spacious windows; that on 
the left is broken by a door and two pictures. The entire ceiling of the dome is occupied 
by paintings; and on the foot of the lantern which crowns it we see a portrait of Amalia 
with the inscription: Fred. Hemic. Princ. Araus. ipsum sese unicum ipso dignum luctus et 
atnoris aeterni mon. Amalia de Solms vidua inconsolabilis marito incomparabili. P. („Amalia 
van Solms, his inconsolable widow, has erected this memorial of her everlasting sorrow 
and love for her incomparable husband, himself his only parallel, Frederick Henry, Prince 
of Orange"). 

In the hall thus erected in his honour and for the immortalisation of his heroic actions, 
the celebrated prince is seen surrounded by the members of his family, and representations of 
the chief events which lent splendour to his term of the Stadtholdership. It was not the 
intention of the designers to give a purely historical outline of events ; they wished to gather 



up their meanmg and declare it by allegorical representations such as, according to the 
taste of the time, were thought to contribute a greater lustre and a nobler character to the 
decorations. The models they had in view were the world-renowned works of Rubens 
executed by him for Mary of Medicis' palace at Paris and Charles the First of England's 
Banqueting Hall at Whitehall; not to mention others of the same kind, such as the large 
hall of the Doge's Palace at Venice. The majestic works at Paris and London which they 
set before them as examples had been executed by an Antwerp painter; and Amalia van 

THE TRIUMPH OF FREDERICK HENRY (Sketch, Museum, Antwerp). 

Solms and her advisers also turned to the same town, or at any rate the same school. 
The Flemish painters of that day were not unknown to her, Huygens and van Campen, 
or unesteemed by them. Frederick Henry himself was an admirer of Rubens, and had 
purchased several of his paintings through Huygens, who had corresponded with the great 
master. Van Dijck had painted the son of the Stadtholder and Amalia as a child, and 
again on his betrothal to the Princess Mary Stuart; and Frederick Henry possessed several 
of his pictures also. In 1644 Thomas Willeborts had been enticed to Holland by 


the Stadtholder, and from then until 1647 painted many pictures for him. Amalia van 
Solms who had made the acquaintance of Mary of Medicis in Holland, may have heard 
from her of the beauty of the halls in her palace. Van Campen, at the moment busy with 
his plans for the Amsterdam Townhall, was soon to commission the Antwerp sculptor, 
Artus Quellin, to do the magnificent sculptured work that abundantly decorates that building 

inside and out. 

The true and greatest, representatives of Dutch art, the painters of the Corporation 
pieces, Rembrandt, Hals, van der Heist, Bol, and many more, were passed over; and 
the scenes for the Hall were commissioned, not from the talented ..history" painters of the 
South only, but also from others there who practised quite a different genre. Jordaens, the 
greatest of them, was invited, and with him van Thulden, Oaspar de Crayer, and Thomas 
Willeborts. But besides these well-known ..history" painters, others received commissions: 
for example, Gonzales Coques, the painter of small family portraits, and the Jesuit, Daniel 
Segers, the flower-painter, of whose work Frederick Henry had accepted a few examples 
offered to him by the inmates of the artist's cloister. The Dutchmen who were asked to 
assist in the decoration were the Haarlem artist Pieter Soutman, Geraard Honthorst (some- 
times called the Orange court-painter), Cesar van Everdingen, Peter De Grebber, Jan Lievens, 
Salomon De Bray, all of them painters in the decorative style of the Flemings; and the 
still-life painters, Cornelis Brize, Couwenberg, Albert de Valck, and Pieter Claess, to whom 
the accessories were entrusted. 

Constantyn Huygens took it upon him to commission the painters; on the 16 th August, 
1649, he wrote to Amalia van Solms, that, being in Antwerp a few days previously, he had 
seen there the sketches made by Gonzales Coques and Thomas Willeborts Bosschaert, for 
the memorial hall, and that these sketches were to be sent shortly to the Hague, for 
inspection by the Princess. (1) On the 19 th of October, 1649, Jordaens wrote a letter to 
him concerning the work for the Hall; though we are aware of its existence, however, we 
do not know its contents. (2) On April 23, 1651, he sent him a second, containing expla- 
nations about two sketches which he had finished; (3) and on November 8, 1651, a third 
concerning certain small details. (4) In 1652 Jordaens had completed his work, of which 
he sent a description to the Princess Amalia. (5) His large picture. „The Triumph of 
Frederick Henry", is signed J JORD f 1652. Van Thulden had finished his commission 
even earlier: his „Fauna and Flora of Brazil" bears the date 1651. Soutman must have 
begun before the others, and ended sooner than they, for his „Bearers of the Spoils in the 
Triumphal Procession" is signed „Soutman, 1649". In three years, therefore, the great work 
of decorating the Hall was accomplished. Constantine Huygens had chosen the episodes 
and devised the allegories represented in the pictures; and he also allotted the scenes to 
the different painters. Let us follow them in order, and see by whom they were executed. 

(1) A Anvers je vis, il y a 5 ou 6 jours les 6chantillons ou modules de Willeboert et Gotifales des pieces, qui leur ont est6 
ordonnSes et je fay estat de les trouver a la Haye pour les monstrer a V. A. et en scavoir Ses sentimens, sans quoy je n'ay 
rien vouler prendre a ma charge. Crayer, le grand peintre de Bruxelles, s'est excuse par letter de faire sa piece, sous des 
prgtextes controuvis. Je croy, que la veritable raison est, que le sujet est trop Huguenot et Orangeois, pour estre execute dans 
Bruxelles Ce serait l'exp6dition de S. A. avec le prince Maurice vers la bataille de Flanders. II faudra, que quelqu' aultre y 
mette la main. A Anvers les peintres estiment que pour estre matiere de chevaux, personne n'y est plus propre que Willeboert 
en ayant donnS de grandes espreuves. V. A. en disposera, selon sa bonne volontS. (Constantyn Huygens to Amalia van Solms, 
widow of prince Frederik-Hendrik. Letter dated from Middelburg 16th August 1649. P. Scheltema, Oud en Nieuw uit de Vader- 
landsche Geschiedenis en Letterkunde. Amsterdam, G. Portielje, 1847, 2nd volume, p. 242.) 

(2) This letter appeared at the N. ]. Naylor sale (London, 1885). 

(3) Cited by Schinckel, Oeschied- en Letterkundige Bydragen. p. 29. 

(4) In the British Museum. Cited in Oud-Holtand, IX. 195. 

(5) (VAN Sijpesteijn), De Stichting der Oranjezaal. 's Gravenhage, van Stockum, 1876. Biz. 68. 


The series of pictured scenes begins at the present entrance opposite the principal 
canvas, „The Triumph of Frederick Henry." Above the door which has taken the place of 
the old fire-place, and therefore where the former mantel was, we have the „Birth of Frederick 
Henry" by Cesar van Everdingen ; surmounted by a festoon, painted by Salomon De Bray, 
in which children unfold a scroll whereon we read: Fr. HEND. NASSOVIUS Auriacus Nat. 
Delf. IV cat. febr. CID.ID.LXXXIV. To the right and left of the mantelpiece are allegorical 
groups personifying the gifts of the Prince, by Theodoor van Thulden, Jan Lievens, and 
Cesar van Everdingen. Farther on, we have „The young Prince instructed by Minerva and 
Mercury", the work of van Thulden; and „The Prince in his youth having the command 
of the sea conferred on him by Neptune". Above the present exit, formerly the only door 
in the hall, the States of Holland, Zeeland, and West-Friesland are represented by van 
Thulden offering Frederick Henry the Stadtholdership. Following that comes the Prince 
with his five-year-old son, afterwards William II, to whom these Provinces and Overyssel 
grant hereditary succession to the office, and the command on land and sea; this also is 
van Thulden's; as appears to be also the „Heroic Deeds of the Prince", allegorically re- 
presented. Amalia van Solms and her three daughters were painted by Gerard Honthorst. 
This brings us to Jordaens' large canvas, the „Triumph" of the Prince, which, as has been 
said, is directly opposite the entrance. Continuing, we meet successively: Charles I of 
England, father in-law of William II, who, sacrificing himself for his country's sake, is about 
to cast himself into a sea of fire, — by van Thulden ; Time mowing down Slander and 
Vice (Jordaens); William II and his young wife (Honthorst). Above the windows are the 
„Marriage of Frederick and Amalia", also by Honthorst; portraits of Louisa, their eldest 
daughter, and her husband Frederick William of Brandenburg, by the same; and „Prince 
Maurice", brother of Frederick Henry, as a military commander, by van Thulden. 

On the ceiling De Grebber has represented „Rain and Dew", „Hercules and Apollo", 
„Venus and Juno", the „Plastic Arts" and Architecture". On the front of the broken angles 
are four kings-at-arms, and above them the coats-of-arms of the Orange-Nassau and Solms- 
Braunfels families. 

On the sides of the broken angles begins the series of pictures of the „Triumph" 
proper. First, a festive march of boys and girls by Salomon de Bray; then pikemen, 
carrying banners, by Soutman; „Spoils of War from Brazil", by De Grebber; Animals of 
Brazil, by van Thulden; Fruit, Shells and Flowers of Brazil, by de Grebber; „Trophy- 
bearers" by Salomon de Bray; „Conquered Arms", by De Grebber; „ Prisoners of War", by 
van Thulden. These eight canvases are appendages to the large „Triumph of Frederick 
Henry", and heighten the sumptuous impression which it creates. On the ceiling above 
Jordaens' picture we find a „Triumph of the Christian, and his Reward Hereafter." At the 
foot of the lantern which crowns the dome is the portrait of Amalia, referred to before. 

Jordaens was the only Flemish painter, and, indeed, the only artist residing in the 
Flemish provinces, who took part in the work; but all the others were related to the 
Flemings in their art. Van Thulden, on whom the largest part of the decorations devolved 
had painted for many years in Rubens' studio, and may be considered his most faithful 
follower; Soutman, too, had worked with Rubens, and had made engravings after his work 
and under his guidance; Peter-Frans De Grebber was the one among the Northern painters 
who had followed Rubens most closely, and his father was a trusted negotiator between 
the great master and the purchasers of his works in Holland. 

Among the Antwerp painters to whom Huygens turned for assistance, we mentioned 



Caspar De Crayer, Daniel Seghers, Thomas Willeborts and Gonzales Coques. None of 
these however, produced any work for the Orange Hall. De Crayer (so Huygens informed 
Amalia) had refused his invitation at once, giving spurious excuses: his real reason no 
doubt was, as Huygens suspected, his aversion from executing in Brussels, where he did 
a great deal of work for the Catholic Churches, a commission in honour of the great 
Protestant hero and his victories over the Spanish Netherlands. It would have been still 
more difficult to understand had Father Seghers undertaken such work. On the other hand 
we are rather surprised that neither Thomas Willeborts Bosschaert nor Gonzales Coques 
finished the sketches which they had shown Huygens in 1649; for both were highly esteemed 
at the Court of Holland, and worked for it repeatedly before 1648, - Willeborts to its 
entire satisfaction, Coques, on the other hand, not always with the same favourable results. 

Van den Branden relates in detail a comical experience of Coques in connection with 
one of Frederick Henry's commissions. (1) 

The Prince had given him an order for ten large pictures representing the story of 
Psyche. Coques did not feel, or at any rate would not admit, that such a subject did not 
accord with his style, and was beyond his powers; instead, he sought out a fellow-artist, 
Abraham van Diepenbeeck, and asked him to compose the sketches for the commissioned 
pictures. Van Diepenbeeck agreed, and when the first sketch was ready Coques carried it 
to the Hague, where it was approved. After that, his assistant made the other nine, which 
were also sent to Holland; but when Huygens, the learned connoisseur, saw the sketches 
he recognised in them direct copies of Raphael's frescoes of the same subject. He produced 
the engravings after the Italian master, and Coques stood convicted. Notwithstanding this 
fraud, involuntary as it was, Coques was paid, on the 28 th of July, 1648, 200 guilders, 
whereas he had promised van Diepenbeeck 180 guilders only for the sketches. Of this 
sum he had advanced him already 160 guilders. Van Diepenbeeck, not satisfied with this, 
claimed the full amount as arranged, and summoned Coques before a judge. The case 
caused a good deal of talk, and ended in 1654 with a judgment of the Deans of St. Luke, 
who were of opinion that van Diepenbeeck had been sufficiently well paid for his copies. 

It remains unexplained why Bosschaert's and Coques' sketches were not executed; 
but certainly the Hall lost nothing by their absence. Coques was not the artist for great 
„history" works, and the trouble over his „History of Psyche" proves that he was quite 
aware of his inability. Though Thomas Willeborts Bosschaert enjoyed the favour of the 
Stadtholder, we know that his talent was of an inferior order, and may be sure that his 
work would have fallen short of that of the painters who decorated the House in the Wood. 

Here, however, we are principally concerned with the two pictures executed for it by 
Jordaens; and in the first place with the large canvas to which all the other in the 
Hall are subordinate. 

It is certain that van Campen not only suggested the subject, but also laid down the 
lines of the composition. This invention of the great architect was not original; more than 
once Frederick Henry's praise had been proclaimed by means of representations of triump- 
hal cars. At the conquest of Wesel, August 19, 1629 and of Bois-le-Duc on September 17 
following, several such had been engraved and published. (2). 

In all these we see the Prince in a richly ornamented Roman chariot, driven and 
surrounded by allegorical figures, among whom now and then historical persons appear, 

(1) History of the Antwerp School of Painting. P. 969. 

(2) See Fred. Muller, Nederlandsche historie platen, Nos. 1647. 1648, 1649, 1650, 1651, 1652. 



while the conquered towns are seen in the background. The chariot is drawn by four 
or six horses; in the air hover heralds of Fame sounding trumpets; Victory brings palms 
and crowns. It is very probable that these prints inspired van Campen, and that it 
was after them that he worked out his scheme. He drew or painted a sketch for the 

THE TRIUMPH OF FREDERICK HENRY (Sketch, Museum, Brussels). 

large canvas, and Huygens sent it to Jordaens with a few remarks of his own. 

Jordaens did not readily fall in with van Campen's proposals. On the 23 d of April, 
1651 we find him writing a long letter to Huygens, in which he tells him that he does 
not care to be tied too tight to another's leading strings, as he should be were he to be 
bound strictly by van Campen's sketch. (1). 

1) Letter quoted in A. D. Schinkel, Geschied- en Letterkundige bijdragen, Van Cleef Brothers, the Hague, 1850 p. 29. 


He was willing, he said, to follow its general lines; but he must be allowed to 
add to, and to alter, a few of the details, as indeed he had done in some four or 
five sketches, which he intended to submit shortly to Her Highness and to Huygens. 
In his letter he enumerated these alterations. He could not agree, for example, that 
Death, who already appeared in the smaller picture painted by him for the Hall, should 
once more be introduced; he also left that figure out in several of the sketches which 
he submitted to the Hague. The Princess and her advisers, however, insisted upon 
its introduction, and Jordaens ultimately gave way, and represented Death battling with 
Fame. In van Campen's sketch, Frederick Henry, seated in the car, was seen to the 
waist only; whereas Jordaens placed him higher, so that the whole of him should be 
visible. The painter also wished to place beside him, on one hand, Neptune, the god 
of the Sea, and on the other, Mars, the god of War; but neither in any of the sketches 
which we know, nor in the ultimate painting, did he elaborate this idea; though, in one 
sketch, he shows the triumphal car being driven by Neptune. Seeing he wrote to Huygens, 
that in two sketches he had placed two gods beside Frederick Henry, we are led to 
suppose that these pieces have gone astray. In van Campen's design, Time was represented 
in the air, bringing forth children: Jordaens disapproved of this idea, on the grounds that 
he had already introduced the same personage in the smaller picture which he had painted 
for the series. True, we find Time introduced into three of his sketches; but in the 
finished picture he has been left out. Huygens, again, had recommended that all four white 
horses should lift one of their 'fore feet; Jordaens followed this suggestion, but proposed 
that the horses should be led by Hercules and Minerva, as he represents them in one 
of his sketches. His proposal was evidently modified, for in the picture it is Mercury and 
Minerva who undertake this task. He proposed further that the maidens who represented 
the royal connections of William II should be placed behind the prince; this also was 
rejected, but allegorical female figures were placed on the opposite side. He suggested, 
too, that the Maagd van Nederland should applaud the Triumph, while the Southern 
Provinces looked on indifferently, and without rejoicing; none of these figures, however, 
appears either in his sketches or in his painting. Other insignificant alterations of van 
Campen's plan which he proposed were approved of. 

Of the four or five sketches which in April, 1651, Jordaens intimated his intention of 
submitting to the Hague, three only are known to us: one in the Antwerp Museum, a 
second in that of Brussels, and the third in the Museum at Warsaw. In the first, the 
triumphal car is shown almost wholly in side-view; in the second it is driven nearly 
straight at the spectator ; while in the third, as in the finished picture, it approaches at a 
slight incination to the left. The prince appears in the first sketch seated inside the 
chariot, attended by Victory hovering above him and Neptune on the car in front; the steeds 
are led by Health (Hygieia) and Wisdom (Minerva). In the Brussels piece, the prince is 
standing behind the front screen of the chariot, so that he is seen half-length only. Victory 
crowns him ; Mercury and Time are mounted on two of the four horses in front of the 
chariot, beside which walk Hercules and Minerva. The personages are the same in the 
third sketch, except that Hygieia has been substituted for Hercules. Here Frederick Henry 
sits upon a high, open chariot, as if on a throne, and is seen at full-length. It is in this 
way that he is represented in the completed painting; and there Mercury and Minerva 
lead the horses, one of which is ridden by a youth who carries a Horn of Plenty In all 
four versions we find, to the right, Prince William, with several soldiers, and, to the left 



allegorical female figures; in all of them, too, are lions walking in front of the horses, 
while the statues of William and Maurice of Orange are shown against the columns which 
form the background. These statues, in the first sketch, are placed to the left, against the 
columns, next to the passage under the triumphal arch; in the other pieces they are dis- 
posed in the background, one on either side. In the matter of the sky, a great difference 


is noticeable between the sketches themselves, as well as between them and the painting. 
In the Antwerp sketch there appear in the sky Fame with a trumpet and a Genius bearing 
a palm and a Horn of Plenty; these figures are differently placed in the second and third 
sketches; and in the picture itself, Fame struggles with Death, and Peace approaches with 
palms. But enough of these comparisons. Probably no two of the dozen figures in each 


representation are alike, and the same may be said of the numerous accessories; and we 
cannot possibly mention them all. 

It is noteworthy however, that the composition of the first sketch is by far the least 
successful; it is too simple and insipid, and lacks pomp and movement; the triumphal 
arch is unhappily placed, and the prince above Neptune even more so. Their symmetry, 
simplicity of effect, and monumental entourage render the second and third sketches most 
striking. Rubens himself could not have composed the scene more tastefully. To the powers 
that were at the Hague, however, this sobriety and almost academic harmony did not com- 
mend itself, and it was even less to Jordaens' own taste. So we find them banished from 
the completed painting. Garlands of flowers and floating Amorini break the lines of the 
background buildings, glimpses of which only are visible; so that while in the lower part 
of the picture all the action is lively and festive, up above we have the allegorical figures, 
with all their accessories suggesting agitated movement as well. 

The painting is much more crowded than the sketches. At least twenty more figures 
appear in it. The foreground strikes such a note of bustle and gaiety, the whole canvas 
resounds with it. The children and women, the horses and lions in front, the eager onlookers 
who have climbed the pedestals of the two statues, the crowd of horsemen round the car, 
compose a spectacle more like a national feast than the majestic display found in the 
Brussels and the Warsaw sketches. This difference in the action is even more marked 
higher up on the canvas. There, the lines are broken; conventional forms of triumphant 
splendour have been discarded, and fierce fight, exuberant acclamation and hearty ovations 
fill the air. The background, too, has lost its sober, monumental aspect: we no longer 
find pilasters and balustrades and arches disposed in straight rows, but full of angles, 
and disappearing upwards in a broken line. The principal theme — the chariot and the 
crowd around it — has been matured with study and judgment, and, in respect of com- 
position and execution, is one of the finest fragments in the world's art. 

Jordaens himself interpreted this large picture in a communication, in French, which 
he sent to Amalia van Solms, entitled by him, „Explanation of the large triumphal picture 
of the very illustrious Prince Frederick Henry of Nassau, Prince of Orange, deceased, of 
virtuous memory, for Madame, Her Highness the Princess widow". 

„First (he says) comes the Prince. His Highness sits enthroned on a triumphal-car 
all of gold; behind him on the car stands a bronze statue after the antique, representing 
Victory stretching out a hand to place a crown of laurels on the head of His Highness, 
while in her other is a second crown, destined for His Highness Prince William, his son, 
deceased, who rides a little Spanish horse, gaily prancing round the car on which his 
father sits enthroned. 

„The four white horses, pulling the car, represent the innocence and purity of heart 
of the illustrious hero, who, at the sacrifice of his own interest and peace, took up the r61e 
of protector and father of his country. 

„Mercury, the god of intrigue, stratagems and cunning, — all qualities necessary in the 
complete nobleman and commander, — guides one of the horses; Pallas, the goddess of 
Wisdom and Prudence, leads the other, on the Prince's right hand. 

„Round Mercury's staff are twined two snakes, emblems of malignity and cunning. 

„The charioteer is a young man crowned with roses, holding in his arms a Horn of 
Plenty, bunches of grapes and ears of corn ; signifying that the armies under the victorious 
guidance of this prince were generally held in respect by their enemies, and through the 


blessing of Heaven seldom or never wanted for food or ammunition. His cloak of blue 
silk indicates that this prosperity came from above, and was therefore a gift of Providence 
and God's mercy. 

„The lions, walking in front of the car, represent the Warlike Spirit and Courage 
necessary in a commander. 

„The nymphs, scattering flowers and nosegays, and the little Amorini or children, 
dancing, and bearing an escutcheon, singing, and playing on cymbals (really flute and 
tambourine), express the delight of the Provinces. 

„His Highness, the young prince William, deceased, is accompanied by the god of Marriage, 
Hymen, — a youth, carrying in one hand a torch and in the other a standard with two hands 
intertwined — a personage having a reference to the prince's union by marriage with royalty. 

„The horsemen on either side of the car, with banners and streamers and trophies, 
represent the military forces appropriate to such a scene. 

„The populace have climbed upon the pedestals on which stand the statues of Prince 
William and Prince Maurice; they embrace the statues, rejoicing because the successors 
of these two leaders have given them Freedom and Peace. 

„Peace, descended from heaven, is accompanied by troops of Amorini or children, 
most of them carrying the utensils and instruments of Mathematics, Music and other useful 
sciences and arts. The white garment of the Virgin of Peace indicates that she has to be 
pure and stainless, sincere in aim, and without malice or deceit. She holds in each hand a 
palm-branch, a symbol for the posterity of the young prince and for all times. 

„The scroll carried by the children in the air proclaims the opinion that the last work 
of the Prince, — the establishment of Peace, — was more praiseworthy than those which 
preceded it, consisting as they did of wars and their accompanying sufferings. 

„The children high up at the roof, twining flowers and fruit and garlands, have been 
employed from the earliest times as emblems of joy, manifested at the triumphant entries 
of commanders. 

„Death and Fame are battling together; the former, according to his nature, seeks to 
destroy the prince and his good reputation ; the other, on the contrary, defends herself, and 
dedicates one of her trumpets to proclaim over all the world the glory and praise of the 
illustrious hero, and to immortalize his memory. 

„The two figures lying in the foreground are Hatred and Discord. We recognize Discord 
in the two snakes which devour each other; and Hatred is he who is eating his own 
heart. The noble prince has conquered both of them". 

From this description it is seen that the allegorical figures on the whole are rather 
far-fetched. Jordaens, after all, was the painter of the visible rather than of the invisible; 
his observation was greater than his imagination. The scroll of praise carried by the 
Amorini high up in the air reads: Ultimus ante omnes de parta pace triumphus. („The last 
victory — that which brought forth peace — , stands above all the others). The conclusion 
of the Peace of Munster, in 1648, to which it points is certain to have occupied all minds 
when the work was commissioned and executed. The princes of Orange in the seventeenth 
century, — Frederick Henry no less than his predecessor, Maurice, — were no partisans 
of peace, but the people (of whom Amalia here had made herself the mouth-piece, as 
without doubt she shared their feelings) looked upon Peace as the greatest benefit 
bestowed on them by the courage and skill of the deceased Stadtholder, and the crown 
of his glorious career. 


We have described this masterpiece and rehearsed its origin, but the soul of the picture, 
that which makes it live and shine, is the richness of its light and colour. Its brilliance 
dominates the whole hall. It is not limited to any portion of the large canvas, or brought 
to one central, powerful point by gradual increase or decrease; it is distributed over all 
the surface. The most significant group, the victorious prince and his immediate surround- 
ings, is likewise all-commanding by the magnificence of its colour. In front are four white, 
warmly-tinted horses, ' lively in action; the heads of the two central ones turned inwards, 
those of the two others outwards, the four legs lifted in a similar movement. They step almost 
straight towards the spectator, and their white mass forms, as it were, a solid pedestal of 
fleecy light from which the young charioteer, with his tender fair flesh and pale blue scarf, 
ascends in firmer, fresher tints ; his young figure rising, like some poetic song, from out all 
this stateliness. Next comes the golden chariot and the firm, richer tone of Frederick Henry, 
with his white, tight hose and red cloak. The group is comparatively calm, uniform in 
action, and harmonious in colour; it is an apotheosis with charming and homely accom- 
paniments. The Prince's is a faithful portrait unheightened by fancy: his figure is at once 
burgher-like and noble, and good-natured rather than majestic. 

The principal group is preceded by four women; one in a heavy, dark-red garment 
with paler reflections, and two in dim blue. On the opposite side of the scene, beside the 
car, rides young prince William on a small brown horse, two hunting dogs and four 
horsemen between him and the chariot. The groups of women and horsemen thus form 
on either side a firm, solid border round the foaming white detail of horses. Then, higher 
up, are the two gilt statues, with the group of curious onlookers who have climbed on 
the pedestals; two of the spectators wear the blue caps with which Jordaens is fond of 
adorning his peasants; two of them display powerful nude flesh. Still higher up shine the 
Virgin of Peace in her white garment and Fame, nude above the waist, with fair wings; 
and then come the bleached skeleton and the wreaths and flowers intermingled with angels, — 
together, a delightful colour symphony. 

In conception and composition the lower part is delightful, grand, completely intelligible, 
full of verve, and animated by genuine human life and the playful spirit of the artist. 

The upper part, on the other hand, is too diffuse and restless; the lines swing to the 
left and to the right, and bend and curve; Peace stands ready to fall, and Fame, even for 
Fame, is too noisy; while Death is an unwelcome guest, not only on account of his nature, 
but also by his attitude and the place he occupies. The allegorical figures over-crowd 
the sky, obstructing the view and the free play of air. They force themselves upon us 
annoyingly, competing with the principal group, and detracting from it. All this figurative 
stuff is too erudite and intricate; one is at a loss to understand what it is doing there, 
and would gladly welcome its removal. These ambiguous images, doubtless, were imposed 
upon Jordaens; and when he had accepted the inventions of his advisers, he did not know 
what to do with them. The subject, overweighted in this way, was too much .for him. His 
mind was not sufficiently playful or inventive to veil their superfluity, or so to dispose 
it that it lost itself in the whole. Yet this failure does not prevent the gigantic canvas, 
with its happy people, cheering women, prancing horses, streaming banners, and its per- 
vading tone of festivity and sunshine, from being a delightful, triumphant work, than which 
it is impossible to imagine one more brilliant. 

The second picture painted by Jordaens for the Orange Hall represents „Time mowing 
down Slander and Vice", and „Death strangling Envy". The subject which he had to treat was 



set him by van Campen in a paper imperfectly preserved thus: „Time with a young child 
on his shoulders, stepping across . . . overthrown . . . showing how he reproduces everything 
anew. On the ground Death strangling Envy". 

Jordaens executed his instruc- 
tions faithfully. In the upper part 
we see Time,, scythe in hand, 
with two little love-gods on his 
wings; with furious gesture he 
sweeps his scythe through Slander 
and Vice, lying at his feet. In 
the lower portion, Death strangles 
Envy. Time is a magnificent, 
gigantesque figure, one of the 
finest Jordaens ever painted. With 
his warmly tinted skin, undulating 
in heavy folds with brown sha- 
dows, he reminds us by his bril- 
liancy of Rubens' „Hercules waving 
his club" in Whitehall. The blue 
scarf wound round his loins shows 
sharply against the warm flesh. 
The monsters in the lower part 
of the picture are modelled with 
knotted muscles in a blazing glare 
of light. One of them holds a 
green wreath, another a burning 
torch; on the ground lies a bou- 
quet, and at the side the gilt 
capital of a column. At the top 
of the picture appears an arc of 
tinted light, like a faint rainbow. 
There is certainly sufficient variety 
and playful fantasy in this warm 
mass of humanity. 

In contrast with the brown 
painting of Jordaens' small picture 
and the warm glow of his large 
one, all the other works in the 
hall lack colour or force; beside 
their strength and action the rest 
are impotent and empty. Van 
Thulden's, the best of them, is a 
weak Rubens in form and a 

watered one in colour; dressed up and powdered, it tends towards the insipid beauty of 
a wax figure. Honthorst, who deserves mention after van Thulden, is in his large picture, 
The marriage of the Prince", fine in composition but dull in colour. In his ..Landing of 
" ■ - ■■■ 22 

(The House in the Wood, The Hague). 



Prince William and his Consort" he is bright, but porcelain-like in tone and far-fetched in 
conception. De Grebber is comparatively heavy; hard and flat in his painting. Salomon 
de Bray is even more flat and dull, with figures blurred in features and without movement. 
As pale as the others is Soutman, in whom we still recognize a relationship with the school 
of Rubens though inferior in strength and faded in colour. Jordaens dominates all. When we 
enter the hall, it seems as if the sun, rising from out his gigantic picture, evokes for 
our delight, as by a wondrous alchemy, beauties created in a world finer and brighter than 
our own. When the door is closed behind us we carry away a vision that is indelibly 
impressed upon our memory. 

The painter used none of the elements of his masterpiece in any of his other pictures, 
either earlier or later. The only figure in it which we find repeated elsewhere is the goodly 

VIGNETTE WITH AN OLD WOMAN — Drawing (Albertina, Vienna). 

young charioteer. Though not in the same role, he reappears in the same shape in a 
young Bacchus, painted about the same time, which belongs to the writer. Jordaens painted 
this God of wine repeatedly; but nowhere else has he represented him so seductively. 
Bacchus is seen from the waist up, with breast and left arm bare. His right shoulder and 
arm are draped with red; his face is beardless; on his long, wavy locks rests a crown of 
vine leaves. From the youthful god against the dark background radiate light and laughter, 
and wine has made him merry. Jordaens was here impressed by the beneficent effect of 
the potent draught, which makes men and gods forget all sorrow and transports them to 
a dreamland of delight. On the young, healthy, rosy face, a tender emotion, — the feeling 
of contentment with himself and all the world, — is reproduced in the most alluring way. 
The creator of so many strongly characteristic faces, on which hateful or abstruse thoughts 
are to be read, wished for once to interpret the feeling of jovial ease and content, and 


did so in a really masterly way. The flesh is firm, with bluish reflections in the shadows; 
the features are firmly drawn, yet without the slightest hardness. On neck and breast are 
a few wrinkles, clearly visible but not exaggerated. The picture came from the Foulon sale 
(Antwerp, 1900). The model is evidently the youth who posed for the charioteer in the 
Triumph of Frederick Henry; he has the same curly head and full cheeks, and the same 
rich and tender flesh on arms and breast. 

This was not the only Bacchus which Jordaens painted. Similar pictures appear at 
different sales: now it is a young Bacchus, seen in half-length, his head crowned with 
vine leaves, at the Richardt sale (Rotterdam, 1882); again, a Bacchus with a panther-hide 
and dish (Hubert Duster sale, Cologne, 1886); a corpulent Bacchus crowned with vine leaves, 
holding a beaker in his right hand (Schwarzschild sale, Cologne, 1882); or a Bacchus 
crowned with vine leaves, covered with a panther-skin, and holding a golden cup in the 
left hand, while with the right hand he accepts a rummer offered him by a satyr, (Joh. Jac. 
Claessen sale, Cologne, 1887); and many others. 

Francois Lucus engraved a Bacchus with drapery over the shoulder and a vine tendril 
round the waist. He is drunk, and holds out a beaker to a satyr, seated beside him and 
drinking from it. On one side stands a table with oysters, lobsters, wine and glasses. On 
the farther side of the table is a venerable man, extending his hands, shocked at the sight 
of the drunken god. Against the satyr lies a tigress nursing three cubs. From below the 
chair on which Bacchus sits appears the head of a satyr. 

A Bacchus with Ceres and Cupid, followed by a goat, and marching to the notes of a 
flute, appeared at the A. H. sale and the Houyet sale (Brussels 1864 and 1887); a Bacchus, 
Ceres and Venus at the J. de Nooy sale (Haarlem, 1811). * 


Jordaens' Etchings — Engravings after his Pictures — Tapestries after his 
Cartoons — His Drawings — His Sketches. 

Etchings. The Flight into 
Egypt. — In 1652 Jordaens 
was taken with a desire to etch. 
He made seven plates, all bearing 
this date. We shall describe them, 
at the same time examining the 
relation that exists between them 
and his known pictures. 

The first is The Flight into 
Egypt. The Virgin is seated on 
an ass; her Child on her arm 
leans its little head against her 
breast. Round her head is wound 
a cloth hanging loose on one 
side, while her straw hat hangs 
down her back. St. Joseph leads 
the ass by a rope. He carries 
over his shoulder a kind of saw, 
shaped like a scythe bent the 
wrong way; and from it hangs 
a basket of carpenter's tools. The 
group approaches straight towards 
the spectator. On the road-side 
we notice to the right three palm 
trees and to the left other plants. 
The etching is gray in tone, and must have bitten badly. Jordaens has strengthened it in 
several places with the graver, — in the hair and feet of Mary, the head, hands and legs, 
and the drapery of Joseph, on the ass's back, and various other passages. 

The composition differs entirely from the paintings of the same subject that are known 
to us, as described earlier (see p. 106). 

Drawing (Mr. Fairfax Murray, London). 

Christ expelling the Merchants from the Temple. — A second etching treating 
New Testament story represents Christ expelling the merchants from the Temple. This is 
a subject painted by Jordaens in one of his masterpieces, now in the Louvre, and as that 
picture is his principal version of it, we must describe it here. 



The scene is the forecourt of the Temple, a majestic marble building with golden 
ornaments, columns, arcades, and niches. To the right we have a view of a sunny sky 
with silvery clouds. Jesus, offended by the sight of the traders and usurers, lifts his arm 
to drive them out. They are overcome with fear. In the centre of the picture is a money- 
changer, screaming with fright and falling backwards over his chair, bringing down his 
table with him; another lies sprawling on his back. A fat, fair peasant-woman, with a 
straw hat on her head and a child in her arm, bends laughingly forward, intent on seeing 
all that is going on. Not less curious are an old woman with spectacles on her nose, 
employed in lifting a cock out of a coop, and a third peasant-woman clasping a brass milk- 


can in her arms. A peasant with a satyr-like expression, holding an ass by the head, 
stands open-mouthed; another, bare-backed, crouches upon the ground. At the extreme left 
is a negro with a donkey; on the right-hand side a woman with a basket of fruit on her 
head makes off laughing. Three men beside her look on curious and astonished, while a 
boy stoops down to close a coop. Among these figures appear oxen, sheep, dogs, and 
pigeons In the upper left-hand corner of the picture are two priests, spectators of the scene; 
and other two are standing nearer the centre, in a balcony from which hangs a red piece 
of tapestry; a man more to the right has climbed upon the pedestal of a column, to get a 

better view. 

It is a scene of unprecedented commotion: bustle without confusion; the most diver- 
sified gestures and contradictory sensations, - fright and fear in those who are overthrown, 
alarm in those who are threatened; women amused, men curious or annoyed. Christ is 


especially remarkable : his face is grave and sad, without hatred or deep emotion ; he per- 
forms a high mission, calmly, like a judge who punishes sacrilege. But to represent a page 
of Biblical history in an edifying way, and to impress the spectators with the high signifi- 
cance of the purifying of the religious sense here accomplished by the Saviour, was not 
Jordaens' intention. In this episode he found a subject after his heart, — a scene from the 
life of the people, with men and women of all conditions, and particularly of the lower 
classes, giving vent to their feelings without restraint, with shouting and laughing, quarreling, 
and roaring, to their hearts' content; while among them, as supernumeraries, appear animals, 
furnishing the scene with their beautiful bright fur and feather; and behind all, grand 
and magnificent buildings which lend something of their monumental character to the 
whole scene, and raise a common brawl to the importance of an historic episode. The 
„t)iogenes in the market-place of Athens" had already furnished him with similar material, — 
the life of the people, of more importance than the Greek philosopher. 

Scriptural scenes were often treated in this popular way, but the conception had never 
before been clad in so brilliant a form. In an extravagant fashion the painter throws a 
warm, soft light over everything, causing men, animals, and buildings to radiate with a 
rich glow, and to live in a laughing tumult. Vivid colours contribute their jubilant notes: 
the red drapery of Christ; the white chemise and yellow skirt of the woman with the basket 
of fruit on her head; the men to the right in gray, white, and yellow draperies, and the 
nude flesh to the left. Thin flowing shadows glide everywhere; they hover caressingly 
round the bodies, and bring variety into the brightness, hiding nothing, but showing up 
everything. The Christ in heavy cool-gray shadow and slate-blue garment, and the stumbling 
man in darker tones, make a line of separation between the two large luminous groups 
which fill the canvas on either side. It may be remarked here that Jordaens was fond of 
placing these cool blue-gray or dark-green figures in the centre of his large canvases, such 
as we find in the Negro King in the Adoration of the Wise Men at Diksmude, and in 
The Twelve-year-old Christ among the Scribes in the Museum at Mentz. 

It seems to me, judging from the softness of the painting, that the picture must date 
from before 1652 and has to be ranked among the works of the Forties. There is still a 
certain affectation in the lighting, as seen especially in the gloomy shadow which falls on 
Christ, the peasant woman with the brass milk-can, and the screaming child. But besides 
these unnatural figures, how many more natural ones there are ! The merry peasant woman 
with the basket of fruit on her head, for example; the grey old man to the right in his 
bright yellow drapery, looking on curiously; the old woman with the fowls, the priests 
higher up; they are all masterpieces. It strikes one that the man in the centre falling 
backwards corresponds almost exactly with the Calvin in The Last Judgment which hangs 
close by in the same hall. 

Jordaens simplified the scene greatly in his etching. The main idea and most of the groups 
remain the same, but there is scarcely a personage unchanged. Christ acts in a much more 
effectual way than in the painting: he bends forward to strike, and it is his hand which 
upsets the table of the money-changer. One salesman is seen anxiously catching hold of his 
basket of ducks; some others are busied with their sheep and goats; to the right are 
two priests; to the left two men belonging to the populace; in the background a peasant 
leans against one of his horned cattle; a man has climbed upon the pedestal of a column 
to get a better view; the woman with the basket of fruit moves off on the left- two does 
bark at Christ. ' & 

PIETA. 175 

The Brunswick Museum possesses a drawing in which Jordaens has hastily sketched 
„Jesus expelling the merchants from the temple". The action is the same, but again all 
the personages have been altered. Christ is armed with a whip, before which several 
traders take flight with uplifted arms. In the upper part men are looking on from a 
window and from the pedestals of the columns; down below stand a man leaning on his 
stick, and the woman with the basket of fruit, who here, however, carries a child as well. 

We know of another drawing, through the lithograph of Villain. Again the composition 
is quite different. Here, also, Christ upsets the table of the moneychanger; two ducks take 
to flight, and farther off a peasant woman puts up her arms to catch a third as it flies 
away; a dog barks at Christ. In the foreground are goats, sheep, and horned cattle. 

We also find mention made of a drawing in black chalk on a yellow ground, heightened 
with white, lithographed by Mauzaisse; this, however, we have not had the good fortune 
to see. (1) 

Pieta. — A third subject from Biblical history treated by Jordaens in his etchings of 
1652 is The Dead Christ. The picture is in the church of the Begijnhof at Antwerp, for 
which it was painted. 

Christ lies stretched along the ground, his head and shoulders resting in his mother's 
lap, one arm thrown across her knee. Mary is seated, weeping,, and lifting a kerchief 
towards her face. Behind her, to the left, is a woman clasping her hands together with a 
despairing gesture. Magdalen kneels on the right and points to the wound in one of 
Christ's hands. Behind her is an old woman holding a copper basin and making ready 
to wash the dead body; and behind her, again, are three men, John, Joseph of Arimathea, 
and Nicodemus, standing beside the cross. John, with a sad gesture, lifts his hand towards 
his chin; one of the two others leans with his arm on a rung of the ladder placed 
against the upright of the cross. The body of Christ is emaciated; a pale light falls on 
it, slate-blue shadows lie on the curves of the breast, and darker tints on the lower parts 
of the legs. The shadows on the figures of the women, also, are blue-gray, except those 
on the one carrying the basin, which are copper-brown. On the men, also, fall dark-gray 
or coppery shadows. The light-effect is ashy-pale; the whole is a scene of sorrow and 
mute mourning. The picture was certainly not painted before 1652. It reminds us more 
of the works of Jordaens' later period, and we must assume that he painted everything 
here in a sad, dark tone," the better to interpret the mood of the scene. The picture lias 
suffered by repainting, and never was a work of great value. 

The only difference between the picture and the etching lies in a few small details. 
On the canvas appear neither the arm of the cross nor the angels, hovering mournfully 
in the air, as in the etching, where the man leaning against the cross is seen better. In it 
Magdalen points towards the foot, not the hand, of Christ; the gesture of the weeping 
woman to the left is different, and the arrangement of the details on the ground is altered. 
But as a whole the scene is the same, and it would seem that the etching was made 
after or at the same time as the picture. 

A pen-drawing by Jordaens, washed in ink and corresponding with his etching of the 
Dead Christ, was sold at the Van de Zande sale (Paris, 1855). 

Four of Jordaens' etchings of 1652 deal with subjects taken from Mythology. First, 

(1) WlEGEL, Die Werken der Maler in ihren Handzeichnungen, No. 3927. 



Jupiter fed with the milk of the goat Amalthea, which we mentioned on p. 86; then 
Mercury preparing to cut off Argus' head, discussed on p. 143; further, Jupiter and Io, and 
Cacus abducting the cows of Hercules. In the last but one we see Jupiter seated in the 
centre of the scene amid a landscape, his eagle beside him; he pulls the drapery away 
from the faintly resisting Io. On a cloud, higher up, is seated Juno, with her peacock, 
regarding with great indignation her erring husband. The last work represents Cacus, who 
has caught a cow by its tail, trying to force it backwards ; the animal refuses to obey, and 
has thrown itself on the ground. A couple of cows and a boy are standing to the right; 
six figures looking on from a height, a woman with a little child on her arm, and a little 
dog, are standing behind Cacus. These two are the best among Jordaens' etchings, and 

JUPITER AND IO (After an Etching by Jordaens). 

of neither of them has any painted version come down to us. A drawing of the second 
subject appeared at the Wouters sale (Brussels, 1797), and Jordaens made use of the 
composition in a design for one of the „Proverbs" series of tapestries bearing the title 
Ex puteo vaccam cauda trahit ecce magister. („The master pulls the cow by its tail out 
of the pit"). It is very probable that Jordaens treated this subject in a picture which 
remains unknown to us. 

Two other etchings, both undated, are attributed to Jordaens, - a Saturn devouring his 
children and a Sleeping Bacchus. A drawing of the first appeared at the Wouters sale. 

Engravings after works by Jordaens. - Most of the great engravers of Rubens' 



school made plates after works by Jordaens, and among these we find more than one master- 
piece. Some of them throw important lights upon the painter's history. 

The engraving of The Peasant and the Satyr bears the name of Lucas Vosterman and 
his customary monogram (see p. 18); it is not certain, however, whether it was the work 
of the father or of the son. The time of its origin, and Sandrart's statement that the plate 
was cut by Lucas Vosterman (without intentionally mentioning the son), leads us to con- 
clude that it was by the elder and more famous of the two; its rather coarse style reminds 
us, on the other hand, more of the younger, though this is scarcely a sufficiently weighty 
argument for attributing the work to him. 

Schelte a Bolswert made several plates after Jordaens: ,4s the Old Cock crows, already 
mentioned on p. 75, which was engraved after the painting in Antwerp Museum ; Mercury 

It XerJtn 

CACUS STEALING HERCULES' OXEN (After an Etching by Jordaens). 

drawing his sword to kill Argus, referred to on p. 143, engraved after the picture in the 
Museum of Lyons; Jupiter and the goat Amalthea, after the Louvre picture (p. 86); and 
Christ on the Cross, discussed by us on p. 14, which reproduces, in a greatly modified 
form, the painting in the Tierninck School at Antwerp. It has to be remarked, that none 
of the other engravings is an absolutely faithful reproduction of a painting, a fact which 
makes us suspect that Jordaens superintended Bolswert's work, and retouched the original 

for the engraver. 

Other subjects engraved by the same hand are Silenus with a horn-blower and A Nymph 
and Pan with goats and sheep. In the first, Silenus stands in the centre holding in front 
of him a basket with vine tendrils; a nymph crowned with cornflowers and ears of corn 
lays her arm on his shoulder; on the other side stands a man, blowing a horn. Sometimes 

J 23 

i 7 8 


the picture is called Pan and Ceres. Pictures with a similar subject appeared at the Pom- 
mersfeld sales (Wurzburg, 1857 and Paris 1867), and the Randon de Boisset sale (Paris 1797). 
In the exhibition of Jordaens' works in 1905 there was a picture representing the same 
group, belonging to Mrs. Paul Parmentier van Knocke; a somewhat hot painting, dating 
from about 1640, the horn-blower powerful, Silenus woolly. The Print Room at Berlin pos- 
sesses a drawing after it with the inscription „Flora, Silenus and Zephyrus, 1639." The first 
two names fit two of the figures; but to indentify the man blowing the horn Vith „Zephyrus" 
seems rather rash. Yet, in view of the date of the inscription, we may take it that Jordaens 
himself gave the group the title which it bears in the drawing. In the Stockholm exhibition, 
1893, there appeared a similar work belonging to the Countess de la Gardie at Helsingborg. 
Besides the three personages, we see in it an old woman warming her hands over a 
chafing-dish which she holds in front of her, and a young boy offering fruit to Silenus. 
The picture came from the Crozat and Poullain collections, at Paris, and that of Count 
G. A. Sparre in Sweden. At the Jan Adriaan Snyers sale (Antwerp, .1818), another example 

appeared; and Mr. William 
Grieve, Eastland, Scot- 
land, also possesses one. 
Pan with goats and 
sheep was engraved by 
Schelte a Bolswert after 
a picture which is at pre- 
sent in the Rijks Museum 
at Amsterdam. A young 
satyr is seated on the 
ground, playing a flute 
which he holds with both 
hands. His laughing face 
is turned towards the 
spectator; his head is 
crowned with vine ten- 
drils. In front of him 
stands a goat, and two 
sheep and a ram are 
lying a little distance off. 
A landscape forms the 
background. In the engraving we notice, besides the two sheep and the ram, a second 
goat. The painting is coarse. Heavy dark-gray shadows lie on the back and arms of 
the satyr. His face is jolly, but not fine in expression; the animals are feebly painted 
and really are not worthy of the master. There is something in the composition which 
reminds one of The Upbringing of Jupiter in the Louvre, but the Amsterdam picture is so 
inferior to the other in execution, that it is doubtful whether Bolswert really took it as 
the model for his engraving. 

Schelte a Bolswert died in 1659, so that the works engraved by him must date from 
before that year. 

Pontius engraved The Flight into Egypt, which we mentioned on page 106- it repro- 
duces the principal group of the picture in the possession of Mrs. Bosschaert-Dubois at 

PAN WITH SHEEP AND A GOAT (Rijks Museum, Amsterdam). 


Antwerp. He also engraved the subject The King drinks, which we discussed on page 73. 
Pontius died in 1658. 

Marinus, who died as early as 1639, engraved The Martyrdom of St. Apollonia, in the 
Augustine Church at Antwerp, described on page 39, which was painted in 1628; and 
The Adoration of the Shepherds, discussed on page 17, after a painting which is unknown 
to us. He also executed a Christ before Caiaphas. The Saviour is being led before the 
High Priest by a band of soldiers and servants. One of these (naked, save for a waist-cloth) 
has seized Christ's hair with one hand, and with the other grasps the cord that binds the 
Saviour; a soldier in armour pushes his fist threateningly into his face. He is surrounded 
by the populace, some of whom are shouting and throwing up their hands. Caiaphas has 
risen from his seat, rending his garments, and crying, „He has blasphemed God". At the 
High Priest's feet is a dog, and in the background a sumptuous ecclesiastical building. 

There is an engraving 
by Jacob Neefs of Christ 
before Pilate which greatly 
resembles this Christ before 
Caiaphas of Marinus. In it 
the Saviour is being brought 
before the Roman Governor 
by the same two men as 
lead him before the High 
Priest in the other. The naked 
one holds him by his hair 
and the cord, and the soldier 
also grasps the cord, but 
does not theaten him. There 
are two soldiers behind Christ, 
and on the other side stand 
the Pharisees, his accusers. 
Pilate, in the background, has 
risen from his seat. The 
original paintings from which both engravings were made are unknown. 

At the Pierre Wouters sale (Brussels, 1797) appeared a drawing which was described 
as „Jesus Christ before Pirate, an oval, composed of 19 figures, with black, red, and white 
chalk, and washed". The drawing differs from Neefs' engraving, which is an upright. A 
drawing at the Gildemeester sale (Amsterdam, 1800) represented Christ, handcuffed, standing 
between two soldiers before Caiaphas, and being mocked by the Jewish scribes. It is executed 
with the pen, and washed with ink, and coloured. The composition differs considerably 
from that of the engraving. At the Habich sale (Cassel, 1892) appeared a drawing, dated 
1652, representing The Mocking of Christ. Our Lord sits naked in the midst of his perse- 
cutors. One soldier pulls tight the cords with which he is bound, while another looks on 
with a mocking expression. 

Jacob Neefs also engraved a Peasant and Satyr which differs considerably from. any 
of the painted examples; we have described this engraving on page 22. He engraved a 
Vanity also. A young woman with loose-hanging locks holds a comb in her hand, and looks 
in a mirror held in front of her by a jester; while an old man shows her a skull which he 

iVANITY. Drawing (Mr. Fairfax Murray, London). 



has in his hand. There is in existence an old print of this engraving with the inscription 
„Nosce te ipsum", and a Latin verse of four lines. At the James Hazard sale (Brussels, 1789) 
appeared a drawing which corresponds to this engraving; it belongs now to Mr. Fairfax 
Murray, London. Another version of the same subject, similarly treated, was seen at the 
Loquet sale (Amsterdam, 1783). In the Catalogue of the Chapuis sale (Brussels, 1865) 
mention is made of „A young woman holding a skull." 

Finally, Neefs engraved a Love Scene. A shepherdess, elegantly dressed in city fashion, 
is seated against a rock covered with trees and calabash plants; she wears a straw hat, 
and carries in her hand a shepherd's crook. About her are grouped four sheep. Corydon 
kneels before her with his hand on his heart, declaring his love; he also carries a crook. 
She turns her head away from her suitor, and with a gesture of refusal rejects his love. The 
painting from which the engraving was made is unknown to us. The work is unlike a 
Jordaens; and this is true also of the drawing representing the same subject in the Albertina. 
Jordaens treated this theme of a shepherd and shepherdess several times. The Print- 
room at Berlin possesses a 
drawing in colours, in which 
a shepherd leans on a goat 
while a shepherdess pours 
out milk for him. On an 
elevation in the background 
we notice sheep and a goat. 
At the Miss Regaus sale 
(Brussels, 1775), the Horion 
sale (Brussels, 1788), and 
the Gooris sale (Mechlin, 
1844), appeared paintings of 
the same subject. 

Peter de Jode, the youn- 
ger, engraved an Adoration 
of the Shepherds. To the 
right the Virgin kneels before 
the manger in which lies the 
child, whom she holds with both hands. Behind her stands St. Joseph, lifting his hat; 
beside him is the ass. In front of Mary an old woman is kneeling, and a shepherdess, 
carrying a basket of eggs, is offering her a duck. Behind her is a child with an egg in 
its hand. There are also a dog, an old shepherd carrying a lamb; and, more in the back- 
ground, a shepherdess with a milk-can on her head, an ox, and four shepherds looking on 
at the scene. Above float three angels carrying a scroll with an inscription. The Louvre 
possesses the drawing from which this engraving was made. It is executed in broad lines, 
and washed in with ink, heightened here and there with white and bistre. The work is 
very similar to that in the Antwerp Museum, in which, however, three of the shepherds 
are wanting. 

Peter de Jode, the younger, also engraved The Miracle of St. Martin discussed on 
page 41. There is a slight difference in the background between the painting and the 
engraving. He also did a Jester-couple. A man in priest's clothing holds in one hand an 
owl on a crutch to which he points with the other; a young woman, whose cap sits 

SHEPHERD AND SHEPHERDESS. Drawing (Print-room, Berlin). 


rather foolishly over her comical face, lays one arm on the shoulder of the father, and 
points at him with her finger. We look at them through a window. Below it we read the 
following rhyme: 

Al syn wy maar met ons twee, 
Doch ons geslacht is sterck, 
Sy draeghen niet ons kleedt, 
Maar sy doen oock het zelve werck. 

The meaning of these lines is that the world is full of owls and fools, who, though 
they look different from the personages in the group, are yet no wiser than they are. 

Alexander Voet also engraved the Jester Scene which we discussed on page 82. 

Nicolas Lauwers (1600—1652) engraved The History of Philemon and Baucis. Jupiter 
and Mercury are seated at a table, both nude except for a cloth about the waist. Philemon 
approaches with a basket of fruit; Baucis stands on the other side of the table, beside 
Mercury; in the foreground a goose runs away cackling. The work in its style reminds 
one greatly of Rubens. He, or rather one of his pupils, painted the same story after a 
different fashion in a work, now in the Imperial Museum at Vienna, which at one time was 
ascribed to Jordaens. There is in the Helsingfors Museum a painting byjordaens that cor- 
responds with Lauwer's engraving. 

A work representing the same subject appeared at the Jan Agges sale (Amsterdam. 1702) ; 
at two anonymous sales (Amsterdam, April 27, 1713 and April 2, 1751); and in the 
Count Andre de Stolberg sale (Soeder-Hanover, 1859). A sketch was sold at the Conrath 
von Siegburg sale (Brussels, 1901). The British Museum possesses a drawing after it, 
faintly coloured. 

Another version of the same subject was engraved by P. Gladitsch. Jupiter sits to the 
left, and Mercury behind the table. In the foreground we notice Baucis catching hold of 
the escaping goose. A lamp hangs from the ceiling. The picture after which the engraving 
was made is unknown to us. 

Tapestries : Proverbs, Horses, Rural Scenes. — We mentioned earlier in this work 
that at the beginning of his career Jordaens executed designs for tapestries in watercolours 
(see p. 9); and throughout it he repeatedly made such cartoons, either in watercolours 
or in oils. On September 22, 1644, he entered into an agreement with Frans van 
Cophem (or van Cotthem), Jan Cordys, and Boudewijn van Beveren to deliver designs for 
„a chamber- tapestry, figured-work, — namely, certain figurative Proverbs, such as he 
might consider suitable, for 8 guilders an ell". 

On July 30, 1652, Jordaens delivered to Signor Carlo Vinck a „ chamber-tapestry of 
large horses". The designs for these tapestries had already been sent to Hamburg on 
the 5 th of July, 1651 as samples, by the Antwerp tapestry merchant Frans Smit. They were 
described thus : „Item, two pieces of paper designs of Horses in Action, painted by Jordaens, 
the one of eight rolls and the other of nine rolls, at six hundred guilders each piece." On 
November 18, 1654, the Antwerp merchant, Jan de Backer, gave the Brussels tapestry 
weavers Hendrik Rydams and Everaard Leyniers a commission for „a chamber of fine tapestries, 
Brussels work, of seven pieces, six ells deep, of Large Horses, after the patterns painted 
by Jordaens, containing three hundred and sixty ells in all, of the same quality as a 

1 82 


chamber, made after the same pattern, delivered to Signor Carlo Vinck, July 30, 1652" 
There was to be no gold woven into this work; and the weavers were paid at the rate of 

16 guilders a square ell. (1) 

Frans van Cotthem, Jan Cordijs, and Boudewijn van Bevere were three Brussels 
tapestry weavers. The first named did not himself weave any of the pieces in question; 
the second, who signed himself Cardys, wove three, and the third the five others. In 1647 
the complete set was bought by the Arch-Duke Leopold-Wilhelm, Governor of the Spanish 
Netherlands from 1646 to 1656, for the sum of 4610 guilders, 12* stuivers. When he 
returned to Vienna, he took them with him, together with his valuable collection of pictures 
and other works of art. They are to-day in the possession of Prince Schwarzenberg, at his 

(Tapestry from the ..Proverbs" series, Prince Schwarzenberg, Frauenberg Castle). 

castle of Frauenberg in Bohemia; he lent them in 1905 to the Exhibition of the works of 
of Jordaens, held in Antwerp. The series bears the name „The Proverbs", although all 
the pieces do not, as a matter of fact, represent proverbs. For them, Jordaens made use 
of several compositions which he had already painted, altering them here and there. Among 
these were some representing proverbs; but others treated subjects of quite a different 
nature to which he applied popular aphorisms. The works are all 3.75 m. high, but differ 
in breadth. The largest measures 5.85 m. in breadth, the others 5.35 m., 4.56 m., 4.60 m., 
460 m., 4.45 m., 3.75 m. and 3.55 m. 

(1) F. JOS. van DEN Branden, Geschiedenis der Antwerpsche schilderschool. P. 826—827. The name of the first of the 
three Brussels weavers is written „van Cophem" by van den Branden ; in Alf Wauters : Les tapisseries Bruxelloises he is called 
„van Cotthem" The third one signs his tapestries of Proverbs, Cardys, and is called by Wauters: Cordys, Cordeys, Courdys, Coredys, 


The largest piece bears the title: Ingens est usura malum mala pestis in urbe 
(„Usury is a great evil, a bad plague in the town"). For it Jordaens used the picture of 
St. ho, now in the Museum at Brussels, which he had painted in 1645, as we have 
described on p. 134. No doubt the painting was made at the time when the tapestry was 
to be woven. 

The second of the „Proverbs" (taking them according to their size) bears the inscrip- 
tion: Ex puteo vaccam cauda trahit ecce magister („The master pulls the cow by its tail 
out of the well"). Jordaens had evidently made a painting of this subject also; but we do 
not know it. He reproduced it in the etching, of 1652, mentioned on p. 176, which bears 
the title: Hercules abducts the cows of Cacus. An old woman with a milk-can on the left 
and a cow to the right, which we find in the etching, are missing here. 

The third, an oblong, is called : Quod cantant veteres tentat resonare juventus („As the 
old cock crows, the young ones learn"). The picture of 1638, at present in the Antwerp 
Museum, served him as a model for this piece; the figures in it are full-length; the wine- 
cooler with bottles in the foreground is missing. 

One of the pieces (4.60 M. in breadth) bears the title: Natura paucis contenta („Nature 
is content with little"). Here Jordaens has made use of his picture The Peasant and the 
Satyr in the Museum at Brussels ; omitting, however, the satyr, for whom he has substituted 
two children, one eating grapes, the other placing a wreath of leaves round the neck of a 
goat. The figures are full-length. Mr. Fairfax Murray owns a drawing of the same subject, 
executed in the form of tapestry. (See page 20). 

The second piece of the same breadth bears the title: Oculus Domini pascit equum („The 
eye of the master makes the horse fat"). Jordaens chose his picture The Negro bringing 
his master's horse, now in the Cassel Museum, which we discussed op p. 135, to represent 
this proverb. 

For the subject for the next piece (4.45 m. in breadth): Male partum, male dilabitur 
(„Badly earned, badly spent"), Jordaens took some of the figures from The Merry Meal, 
belonging to the Duke of Abercorn, described on page 149. The majority of the figures 
in this tapestry differ considerably from those of the painting, and also from those of the 
drawing of the same subject (see page 56) belonging to Mr. Delacre at Ghent. 

The piece (3.75 m. broad) called: Qui amat periculum peribit in eo („He that loves 
danger shall perish by it") represents the same scene as the picture in the possession of 
Mr. van Steengracht at the Hague, and as the drawing, The Pitcher goes once too often to 
the well, now belonging to the Museum Plantin-Moretus, prepared for a tapestry, and dated 
1638. (See page 93). 

The last and smallest of all : Optime faces praelucent („To be good candles they must 
give a good light") represents a woman with an ordinaal in her hand; in front of her 
stands Cupid; to the right are too men, one of whom is carrying a candle; to the left a 
woman, also holding a candle, and a boy blowing the fire with a pair of bellows. On 
page 84 we mentioned a drawing belonging to Mr. Rodrigues, which treats the same subject 
in a different way, and bears the inscription : To be good candles they must give a good 
light. The meaning of this proverb, which has fallen into disuse, is not very clear, and 
we ourselves should be glad to have a candle that would throw a little light upon it. 
Very probably it means that it is no good having a candle it we hide its light. 

All these subjects are set between flowered columns at the side and festoons of flowers 
at the top; in the lower part is introduced some object applicable to the proverb illustrated: 

1 84 


thus, in the picture of the usurer, a basket with valuables; in the picture of the master 
pulling out the cow, two milk cans and a milk-pail; in As the old cock crows the young 
ones learn, a cooler with bottles ; in the picture Nature is content with little, a caduceus 
with fruit; in the next, objects from the stables, — a bridle, a curry-comb, a basket with 
oats and grass; in the piece, Badly earned, badly spent, a cooler with bottles; in the one 
following that, an owl and a shell; in the last, a lantern, a quiver and a shield. 

In 1666, on the occasion of his marriage with Margaretha-Theresia of Spain, Leopold I, 
Emperor of Austria, bought a series of eight pieces, entitled : „The Riding-School of Louis XIII 
of France". These were woven by Hendrik Rydams and Everaard Leyniers, both of Brussels, 
after designs by Jordaens. The Viennese merchant Bartholomeus Triangl supplied them for 

8237 guilders. One ell cost 22£ 
guilders; so that the whole work 
must have measured about 370 
square ells. No doubt this series 
was one of the samples of „large 
horses", ordered by Carlo Vinck 
in 1652, and by Jan de Backer in 
1654, or a third sample of the 
same series. All the tapestries of 
this set are 4.10 m. in height and 
3.82 to 6.65 m. in breadth. The 
subjects are : 

I. „Neptune creating the horse 
with his trident". To the left are 
river-gods on the shore of the sea ; 
to the right Venus and Amor in 
a chariot. 

II. King Henry IV of France 
and his wife Marie de Medicis to 
whom Cupids bring two horses. 

III. King Louis XIII, to the 
right, making his horse curvet. 

IV. A similar subject. 

V. King Louis XIII, whose 
horse turns to the left; behind 

him his equerry, and a little love-god. 

VI. The same scene; the horse turns towards the right. Behind the king, Mercury, 
bringing up a horse. 

VII. To the right the young prince mounts a horse; an equerry in Roman costume 
stands behind him. 

VIII. The same subject; the horse leaps towards the left. On that side is an equerry 
in Roman costume. 

Rydams wove Nos. II and V; Lyniers the other six. (1) 

We know of another series of eight tapestries, the designs for which were supplied 

c .„ (1) '™Tnu d u i " l / esitze des AllerhOchsten Kaiserhauses befindlichen Niederlander Tapeten und Gobelins von Dr Ernst 
Ritter von Birk (jahrbuch der Kuisthistorischen Sammlungen des Allerhochsten Kaiserhauses I 245). 


(Tapestry from the Proverbs series, Prince Schwarzenberg, 

Frauenberg Castle). 

{aff.Jfrdmt fkxie. 


by Jordaens. A sample of the fabrics is also in the Imperial palace at Vienna. (1) They 
are described as having been made after the designs of Jacob Jordaens and Jan Fyt; but 
we see no reason for adding the second name. Jordaens did not require assistance in the 
painting of animals. The tapestries in question bear the trade-mark of Brussels and the 
monograms of two weavers ; one of these monograms is composed of the letters B. V. Q. 0. N. R., 
the other of the letters H. N. R. The last perhaps stands for the name of Hendrik Rydams; 
but it is impossible to construct out of the former letters the name of any weaver known 
to us. It may possibly stand for: van den Brugge. 

The tapestries bear the title Scenes from Rural Life. They represent: 

I. A hunter, seated, surrounded by a pack of hounds; trees and water in the background. 

II. A hunter on horseback, a falcon on his fist, returning from the hunt. Behind him 
an old forester, surrounded by dogs, and carrying the dead game over his shoulder. 

III. The interior of a kitchen, with a supply of victuals. An old man brings a roe-buck 
to the cook. To the left a peacock looking at a dead swan. 

IV. Behind a balustrade covered with tapestry sits a gentleman playing the lute. Beside 
him a fair lady with a fan in her hand. 

V. The same gentleman and fair lady are seated in a summer-house ; behind her is an 
old woman. A young man-servant offers her a glass on a dish, and holds the tankard in 
his left hand. 

VI. A maid feeding fowls, a hunting-dog at her side. A beautiful peacock sits on a stick. 

VII. A poultry-yard. A girl chases away a peacock from the gate on which it is 
sitting. The fowls fly to the stables from two stooping falcons. 

VIII. A night-piece. Over a half-door we see a maid with a light in her hand. An 
old man with his arm round her. In the foreground a woman carrying a basket of fruit. 
On a low trestle lies a peacock and other birds. 

The pieces average 3.80 m. high and between 2.63 and 5.30 m. broad. 

Samples of Nos. II, III, IV, V, VI, were exhibited at Brussels in 1880 by Mr. Braquenie 
of Paris, and were afterwards sold and taken to America. 

The British Museum possesses a drawing in water-colour of No. II. The scene is 
framed, like tapestry work, between columns which carry an architrave from which game is 


Other drawings and paintings, without conforming entirely with the executed tapestries, 
evidently served as studies for them; or, at any rate, treated the same subjects. 

No I. represents the same scene as the picture in the Museum at Lille of a hunter and 
a dog, described on page 49. This picture was painted as early as 1625. 

The Louvre possesses a drawing (No. 20024) in brown on black, in which are seen a 
male and a female cook in a store-room. He carries a roe-buck, she a basket of fruit. To 
the right we notice a table, on which are lying birds of various sorts and sizes; under the 
table is a dog. The scene is bordered on the right and left by columns carrying festoons of 
fruit. It was evidently a study for a tapestry. Its similarity with No. Ill is striking. 

Mr. Delacre of Ghent possesses a drawing in which five persons are represented 
standing under an arch, behind a balustrade; an old man plays the flute, a woman a 
guitar a gentleman the violin, and two women are singing. From the balustrade is 
suspended "a piece of tapestry; in front of it a dog and a monkey are seated. (See 

(1) Idem, II. 205. 



page 113). The subject is the same as the one in No, IV of the tapestry work Rural Life, 
At the Geelhand de Labistrate sale (Antwerp, 1878) Mr. Rene della Faille bought a large 
painting, in which two sparrow-hawks are attacking fowls. The cock runs about in great terror. 
In the background a boy rushes forward to drive away the enemy. The boy has been painted 
by Jordaens, the fowls by Paul de Vos. The scene reminds us strongly of No. VII in Rural Life, 
There exist various versions of the subject of No. VIII. First, an excellent painting 
belonging to the Museum at Glasgow. There we notice to the left, through a window, a man 
standing within, taking a girl in his arms, and laughing fondly at her. The girl holds a lighted 
candle in one hand, and with the other gives a basket of fruit to a woman standing outside, 

HUNTER RETURNING FROM THE CHASE (Drawing for Tapestry, „Rural Life" series, Albertina, Vienna). 

who takes it and smiles towards the lookers-on; to the right, outside, sits a parrot on a stick. 
The female figure is among the finest pieces of work Jordaens ever executed: it realizes 
in a dignified way his ideal of womanhood. She is all strength and health; merriment 
shines on her face, and her eyes sparkle with roguishness. She has a fine head and firm 
limbs; with her white chemise, her blue petticoat, and especially with her bare arm, which 
runs like a stripe through the scene, she stands out in intense sunlight against the back- 
ground, which is thrown into a dull, warm glow by the candle-light. The fair skin warmed 
and mellowed by the air and the sun, is marvellous in its fine colouring and in rendering 
the life which pulsates beneath it. Her dress, with sharply broken folds and rich hues, glitters 
with sunmness, and is touched here and there by the ruddy light of the candle, while the 


shadows play sharply through the high tones. One cannot imagine a more powerful 
picture of animal spirits and vitality or a more harmonious combination of soft artificial 
illumination and the bright light of nature. At the exhibition of 1905, the picture was 
placed in the immediate neighbourhood of The Adoration of the Shepherds, belonging to 
Prince Lichnowsky, and Mr. Madsen's Meleager and Atalanta, and showed more clearly 
than ever before the advance which Jordaens had made between 1618 and 1650, about 
which time he painted his Fruit-vendor, as well as the way in which, while retaining all 
his strength, he had learned to refine and dissolve it into a velvety softness. The picture 
was at the Proli sale (Antwerp, 1785), and in the collections of Lucien Bonaparte and 
MacLellan. The woman is the same as in The Serenade, formerly in the Huybrechts col- 
lection, now the property of Mr. Leblon, and in Rustic Courtship, belonging to Mr. Emil 
Goldschmidt at Frankfort. 

The Print-room in the Berlin Museum possesses a coloured drawing in chalk, in which 
the same subject is reproduced, with the woman full-size. Mr. Rump of Copenhagen 
possesses a rendering of the same subject in water-colour. 

At the Habich sale (Cassel, 1899) there was a water-colour in which was seen a young 
woman carrying a basket of flowers; beside her lie dead poultry on a bench; in an open 
doorway in the background are two women. This drawing also reminds us strikingly of 
No. VIII of Rural Life, and is clearly a study for a tapestry design. 

The two pictures in the possession of Mr. Alfons Cels at Brussels were very probably 
designed for tapestries. In the Catalogue of the pictures left by Jordaens, one piece 
(No. 105) is called A Fool with a picture of an Old man and a Young woman. It represents 
a group of three persons, behind a balustrade. An old man in a red mantle and wearing 
glasses is reading something from a book; he looks love-lorn, and somewhatioolish. Before 
him stands a coquettish young woman, lifting a lock of her hair with one hand, and looking 
in front of her abstractedly. In front of her, again, stands a fool leaning on the balustrade, 
and holding his fool's baton in his hand. He makes fun of the old love-sick man. A cat 
wriggles between the bars of the balustrade, spitting angrily. In the back-ground we 
see a building with an open window. The composition is no doubt by Jordaens, but the 
figures do not belong to the models whom he generally painted. Colour and light are 
meant to be pleasing, but they are rather soft, and it is allowable to express a doubt 
whether the work is by Jordaens. 

A piece of a similar description appeared at various sales: the Mr. De Coninck— 
de Merckem sale (Ghent, 1856), the Werte sale (Paris, 1893), and the van Nancy sale 
(Brussels, 1899). 

The second piece, belonging to the same owner, represents (according to the Catalogue 
of Jordaens' estate) A Boy and Girl. It has the same dimensions as the former, and is un- 
doubtedly a pendant to it. A page, in a red vest, dark breeches, white stockings, and 
yellow shoes, leaves a house, the door of which is standing open. He holds a dog by the 
collar, and raises a hand to salute some one whom we do not see. To the left is a maid- 
servant carrying a basket with mussels lying on a cloth. The background is formed by 
an arch round which we discover green foliage; at the top is a piece of green curtain. 
The execution is similar to that of the former picture. 

The two subjects represented here might be called „The old Lover" and „The young 
Lover": the old man ridiculous and silly, the young one, full of life and charming. No 
doubt they formed part of a chamber decoration as the unusual proportions in height and 

1 88 


breadth prove. The Catalogue of Jordaens' estate mentions that they measure 6 feet in 
height and only 2 feet 10 inches in breadth (190 cm. by 87 cm.); and we conclude, therefore, 
that they were placed between the windows. In this Catalogue they bear the Nos. 102 and 
105; Nos. 103 and 104 are also very narrow compared with their height: they are 11 feet 
by 4 feet, 4 inches; the first represents „A small balcony with youthful company", the 
second „The same, with a Moor and the figure of a woman". The subjects, therefore, are 
of a character similar to those of the canvases belonging to Mr. Cels, and evidently they 
were intended also for tapestries. The four together form a series of love scenes. 

A similar subject is treated in a drawing belonging to Mr. Eugene Rodrigues, Paris. 
It is done in water-colours — yellow, black, green, blue and red, and represents a group 
of five persons: a young man playing the violoncello, a young woman with a guitar, 

a cupid holding a page of 
music, and another carrying 
a torch; and a man leaning 
his head on one hand and 
holding a wine-jug in the 
other, while a rummer stands 
before him. In the foreground 
are musical instruments. Up 
at the top is the inscription 
Amor, Musica. The scene is 
bordered to the right and left 
by a framework and caryatids ; 
at the top are two little angels 
fixing the canvas on which 
the subject has been painted. 
There is no doubt that this 
drawing was a d esign for tapes- 
try, it shows a relationship, 
not only with the two preced- 
ing pieces but also with Nos. 
Ill and VI of Rural Life. 
Jordaens made other series of tapestry designs. At a sale in London in 1773 two 
designs appeared „with merry subjects". The British Museum possesses a drawing in 
water-colour of a similar nature: „A merry company in a boat". In the extreme background 
stands Mercury; in the boat are three couples, one standing, one sitting, and one taking 
their seats. A boatman pushes off from the shore; near him is a lute-player; the scene is 
represented on a stage with the curtain drawn back. Without doubt it was meant to be 
woven in tapestry. (See page 73). 

The Print-room at St. Petersburg possesses the drawing of a~ tapestry cartoon, bearing 
the inscription : 

Den Meert seer lange begeert 
Hij steeckt met synen steert 
Boreas die blaest hy maeckt 
Flerecyn gicht en tertiaen 
doen vergaen. 

A MUSIC PARTY (Mons. Rodrigues, Paris). 


The Print-room at Berlin, again, possesses a drawing in red and black chalk, representing 
Abraham offering up Isaac. The group is set in a framework decorated with angels and 
women, and was evidently intended to serve as a design for tapestry work. 

It is very doubtful whether Jordaens made other patterns for real tapestries besides 
the three series which we possess in fabric. The other pieces just mentioned by us were most 
probably sketches for canvases painted in watercolours. We saw earlier that not one of 
these canvases in watercolour, painted by Jordaens, now exists; and it would have been 
difficult for us to form an idea of what they were like had not a set of them (used as 
wall-coverings and painted by some unknown hand) been preserved by a happy accident. 
This set is in the National Museum at Hanover, and represents a series of Biblical stories 
loosely brushed in on coarse canvas. 

In Jordaens' estate at his death were 30 patterns or designs for tapestries which were 
bought by Signor Michiel Wauters, a dealer in tapestries. Wauters died within a year 
after Jordaens' death, on August 26, 1679, and in the estate left by him the designs were 
described as follows: 

„The designs which the deceased aforesaid bought in the house of the late 
Signor Jourdaens, during his lifetime painter within this town of Antwerp, consisting of 
the following pieces: 

„Where the Prophet is attacked by lions. 

..Another ditto. 

..Finding of Achilles by the counsel of Ulysses. 

„One of the Anointments of the Prophet. 

..Achilles wounded in the heel. 

„The Death of Achilles. 

„The Anointment of Jeroboam. 

„The Banquet of the Gods. 

„The dead Prophet. 

„The offering. 

..Charon and Minerva. 

„The battle in which Neptune appears. 

„The night-battle. 

„The carnival. 


„An offering with music. 

„A battle in which Jeroboam appears. 

..Where the wife of Jeroboam comes to the prophet. 

..Green, Battus and Mercury, twice. 

.Jupiter and Callisto. 


.Jupiter and Io. 

„The milkmaid. 


„The red shepherd. 

..Salmacis and Hermaphroditus. 

„The shepherd and his dog. 



„Pan and Syrinx. 

„A piece of green, without figures." (1). 

It seems that among the thirty designs there are to be found different series or parts 
of series: thus six pieces belong to the history of Jeroboam, three to the history of Achilles, 
eleven to other Mythological subjects; five deal with subjects from every day life. Of the 
others the subject is not indicated distinctly enough to be able to class it with any par- 
ticular series. There are no pieces among them which correspond with any cartoons or 

pictures made by Jordaens 
known to us otherwise ; there 
seems to be little doubt, 
however, that all these tape- 
stries were painted by him. 
Very likely they are early 
efforts, on canvas in water- 

Among the designs which 
this Michiel Wauters posses- 
sed, other than those be- 
longing to the 30 pieces 
bought in Jordaens' house, 
we find one „horses, consis- 
ting of eight pieces". Among 
his tapestries there was „a 
chamber tapestry, horses, 
coarse, four ells and a half 
deep, consisting of the fol- 
lowing pieces, to wit, one 
piece eight ells long, item 
a piece seven ells long, item 
a piece six ells long; item a 
piece five ells long; and two 
pieces each four ells long". 
One might feel inclined to 
identify these as a copy of 
Jordaens' „ Riding school of 
Louis XIII", were it not that 
the number and the measure- 
ments do not correspond 
with the tapestries of the Imperial court at Vienna. 

Among the tapestries of Michiel Wauters we find mention made of The works of the 
Apostles in six pieces by an unknown artist. The numerous subjects taken from the His- 
tory ot the Apostles, which we find among Jordaens' drawings, incline us to believe that 
they belonged to a series of tapestries. We know of a „St. Paul and Ananias", and „A 

VERITAS^DEI. Drawing (British Museum, London). 

(1) F. JOS. VAN DEN BRANDEN, Verzameling van schilderijen te Antwerpen. Archives XXII, 32. 




K^ WW" ill Hrfl 

, ■ < ■ . ■ ; ' " " 




man possessed, ill treating the sons of Sepha", in the Museum at Rotterdam; an „Apostle 
denouncing a king", which was at the Prince de Ligne sale (1791); „St. Paul and Barnabas 
at Lystra" in the Museum of the Academy at Vienna. 

It is probable also that Jordaens painted a series of designs for tapestries representing 
scenes connected with the Victories of the Christian religion, after the manner of the 
Figures and Triumphs of the Holy Sacrament by Rubens. At the Pauwels sale (Brussels, 
1814) appeared The Triumph of Religion; in the Albertina is a drawing Veritas Dei: 
another Veritas Dei is in the British Museum; at the Mertens sale (Antwerp, 1849) was 
The Triumph of the Cross 
over the Seven Mortal sins. 
Of none of these can we 
say with certainty that it was 
used for a tapestry; it is 
possible that they only treated 
allegorical subjects. The most 
important piece of this kind 
is The Triumph of Christia- 
nity, or, rather, The Holy 
Sacrament worshipped by the 
Patriarchs and Saints, which 
belongs to the Museum at 

Dublin. It appeared at the 
Johan van der Linden van 

Slingelandt sale (Dordrecht, 

1785), the Mallinus sale 

(Louvain, 1824), and the 

Spruyt sale (Brussels, 1841). 

It represents a woman seated 

on a lion and carrying the 

Holy Sacrament in both 

hands. Above her hovers 

the Holy Ghost in the midst 

of angels. In front of her 

sits the infant Jesus, holding 

in one hand the cross, and 

in the other a. flaming heart. 

To the left we see the apostles 

Peter and Paul; to the right . 

Saints Sebastian, Catharine, and Rosalia. In the foreground are four patnarchs, one of 

them standing erect while the other three are kneeling. The picture has been painted 
n warm, vaporous tones, harmonious and decorative rather than strong; te grouping is 

beautiful and «, are the figures. Rubens' treatment of similar subjects has not been ol ow^ 

exactly but it cannot be denied that jordaens' picture recalls some of his figure in his 

Trtmphsof the Holy Sacrament and his Virgin with Saints, as he represented them ,n 

hie nirfnrp in the Church of St. Augustine at Antwerp. 

Mr FaLtaMu";; possesses I drawing o, the subject treated in the Dubiin picture. 

(Museum, Dublin). 

i 9 2 DRAWINGS. 

In it the woman is not seated on a lion; the group of angels is different; St. Peter and 
St. Paul are not standing beside each other; in the foreground sit two children in place of 
one. The patriarchs, however, are very much the same, and it is probable that the drawing 
is a study for the picture. 

All of Jordaens' designs for tapestries seem to have disappeared. We find one 
mentioned in the beginning of the XIX th century, a „design for a tapestry representing 
Astronomy", which appeared at the Frans Pauwels sale (Brussels, 1803); it measured 3.40 m. 
in height and 2.52 m. in breadth and according to the Catalogue was very finely executed. 

Drawings. — As a draughtsman Jordaens occupies a singular place among Flemish 
painters. None of them has drawn so much, if one may call all his works executed on 
paper drawings; none of them so little if we define as drawings only those works which 
are executed with the pen or with chalk. We have already written so much about his work 
in this department that it will be sufficient to indicate here its general characteristics. 

Most of them are in watercolours, and in various colours, a fact, as we observed 
before, which proves that the Registers' of the Guild of St. Luke rightly gave him the 
name of „Waterpainter". Others are more soberly coloured, a few in heavy monochrome; 
some are drawn with ink or sepia and washed in with a few colours; a great many 
also are executed in black or red chalk. 

The polychrome works in watercolour are treated with care and seem to have been 
executed without any other aim than to be preserved as independent works of art. 

Of those more soberly coloured, some evidently were not put to further use, while 
others served as studies for pictures; those which have been executed in ink or in chalk 
seem to be loosely sketched studies or impressions for pictures. 

Some of the drawings correspond to executed pictures, and may be considered studies 
for these. Thus a Dedication in the Temple in the Museum at Rotterdam gives the same 
representation of the subject as the picture at Dresden. The Adoration of the Shepherds, 
at Rotterdam also (see reproduction on page 17), corresponds to the engraving which 
Marinus made after a picture that remains unknown ; the drawing of the „Adoration of 
the Shepherds" in the Louvre we find reproduced in the picture in the Museum at 
Antwerp; the drawing of „Divine and Human Law", in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, is 
duplicated in the overmantel-piece in the Court of Justice at Hulst; the two portraits of a 
man and woman, the beautiful drawings in the Louvre, are evidently studies for the 
pictures, of which one, the man's portrait, was sold at the Huybrechts sale (Antwerp, 
1902), and the other is in the Museum at Brussels (see pp. 110—111). 

Separate figures, or groups, which served as studies for parts of pictures, we find 
very rarely. A Nymph, milking the goat Amalthea in the Louvre (see page 97) is a study 
for the Up-bringing of Jupiter; and a few other drawings of men or animals are the only 
known works of this kind. One of the finest is undoubtedly The Milkmaid in the Delacre 
collection at Ghent (see page 59). 

In his more finished drawings, be they richer or more sober in colour, Jordaens 
preferred to treat subjects which he had already executed as pictures, altering them more 
or less considerably. Such are St. Paul and Barnabas at Lystra in the author's possession 
(see page 133), and The Miracle of St. Martin belonging to the Museum Plantin-Moretus 
(see page 45), both greatly altered versions of the pictures in the Museum of the Academy 
at Vienna and in the Museum at Brussels; In the same way, the drawings of Susanna in 



the Louvre, The Miracle of St. Martin in the British Museum, The Laying in the Grave at 
Amsterdam, Christ expelling the merchants- from the Temple, at Brunswick, and The Adoration 
of the Kings in the Museum Plantin-Moretus at Antwerp (see page 130), differ from the 
corresponding pictures in the Museums of Brussels and Antwerp, in the Louvre, and in 
the Cathedral at Diksmude. 

Sometimes the drawings show sections of pictures. Thus we find the central group of 
a drawing „The Adoration of the Shepherds" in the British Museum (see page 8) in a 
picture of 1618 in the Museum at Stockholm; and the left-hand part of Diogenes in search 
of a man in the Museum at Dresden in a drawing belonging to Messrs. Le Roy at Brussels. 

We know of one drawing made by Jordaens for the engraver, namely The King drinks, 
a real gem which served as a model for Pontius (see page 72). 

His polychrome drawings strike us chiefly by their richness in tone. In their vivid 

THREE WOMEN AND A CHILD (Baron Brukenthal's Collection). 

colours, boldly yet harmoniously placed along side one another, they remind us of his 
brilliant paintings ; as, for example, a Satyr head in the Louvre ; a Boat conveying men and 
women (see page 73), St. Martin, and the Adoration of the Shepherds, in the British 
Museum; his Marriage at Cana and a Pastoral Scene in the Print-room at Berlin; the 
Dedication in the Temple in the Albertina. 

The soberly-tinted drawings are distinguished by their soft fine tones; the colours are 
diluted, but their softness and tender shades give them something unusually charming and 
exquisite ; of this character are St. Paul and Barnabas at Lystra, a Procession of horse 
and foot in the Louvre, the Mother, putting her children to sleep in the Albertina, The laying 
in the Grave in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam. 

Certain of Jordaens' drawings are important also because they acquaint us with sub- 
jects of which no painted renderings are to be found. Under the head of „Proverbs" and 
„Tapestries" we came across several such, and others are to be found under different rubrics. 




Sketches. — We remarked that Jordaens drew few studies for his pictures. We must 
add that he painted still fewer. Rubens, van Dijck, and other historical painters painted 
sketches for their principal works, but we find no such sketches by Jordaens, except 
the three for the „Triumph of Frederick Henry" which he sent to the Hague, with one or 
two others, to submit to Amalia van Solms. From this astonishing fact we conclude that 
Jordaens found it so easy to compose his works, and to repeat those already executed 
in an altered version, that he did not feel the need of making preliminary sketches. 

Painted studies for separate figures or groups in his large pictures are equally scarce. 
The Museum at Madrid and the Hermitage at St. Petersburg each possess one piece of 

this kind : the first called The three Musicians, — 
three children, two of whom are singing and the third 
accompanying them on the flute; the other, three 
heads of children. It is doubtful, however, whether 
these are by Jordaens; and in any case neither repre- 
sents figures used by the master in his paintings. 

But three heads, two of women and one of a 
man, belonging to the Museum at Antwerp are 
genuine and important studies; so are the two men's 
heads in the Museum at Ghent; the three women 
and a child in the collection of Baron Brukenthal at 
Hermannstadt; and the girl's head belonging to Mr. 
Mensing at Amsterdam. All of these are noteworthy 
for an extraordinary boldness and certainty of touch 
and in the laying on of the colours. They show more 
plainly than any picture how correctly Jordaens 
observed, how great a master of his brush he was, 
and how he forced it to reproduce instantaneously, 
without the slightest hesitation and with perfect 
minuteness, that which he saw before his eyes or in his imagination. 

At the exhibition of Jordaens' works held in Antwerp in 1905, mentioned so frequently 
by us, which in the case of many works of the master was a revelation, we found a con- 
siderable number of the most remarkable of his drawings, and almost all his known sketches. 
Through so many of his works of this kind being collected there, one was introduced to a 
phase of Jordaens' talent to which little or no attention had been paid before. 

JUSTITIA. Drawing (Print-room, •Rijksmuseum, 


1 6 5 3—1 665. 

Dated Pictures. - The Paintings in the Townhall of Amsterdam; in the Court of 

Justice at Hulst; and in the Guild of St. Luke, Antwerp. 

Other works of the Period. 


"AVING completed his 
great masterpiece of 
1652, Jordaens resumed 
his customary work. When 
he finished his commission 
for the House in the Wood 
he was fifty-nine years of age 
and still retained his full 
vigour. During the thirteen 
years covered by the present 
chapter his talent was undi- 
minished and he was able 
to produce masterpieces as 
often as he desired. Unfor- 
tunately the desire to do so 
was not always strong in 
him : the weakening of his 
work towards the end of the 
period, of which there are 

occasional signs, seems to be due to neglect on the part ot the eminent master rather 

than to declining powers. 


The Adoration of the Shepherds. — Three pictures from his hand bearing the date 
1653 are known to us. The first, the Adoration of the Shepherds in the Frankfort Museum, 
is a small canvas of slight importance. It is a far remove from the calm and homely ren- 
dering of the same scene which he executed in 1623. Instead of a compact group of 
people, alive in mind and soul, we have such a scene of commotion as one would expect 
to find in a public square rather than in the stable of Bethlehem. Mary, seated to the left, 
shows the babe on her lap to the shepherds. An old woman bends over the child, regard- 
ing him with astonishment and delight; an old man behind her lifts up his arms and 
presses forward to look; a second man, wrapped in a cloak, also bends to see the child; 
and four others, witnesses of the event, one of them carrying a bagpipe, and two a 


shepherd's staff, push forward at the entrance. Kneeling on the ground, with a child next 
to her is a woman handing a cup of milk to Mary; a boy beside her is taking a duck 
out of a coop to offer it to the Virgin. Joseph alone of all the personages in it contemplates 
the scene unmoved. The picture is signed /. Jor. fee. 1653. 

The painting has suffered terribly, and no longer conveys a clear impression of the 
original as it left Jordaens' hands. All that we can be certain of is that a brown tone 
prevailed in it. The pale-blue colour of Mary's cloak is striking. Clad in this light-coloured 
drapery, with her naked babe resting on a white cloth, she forms a brilliant centre, with 
which the blue apron of the old shepherdess and the red garment of the young one make 
a strong contrast. The other parts of the picture, - the nuns, the woodwork, and the 
ground — are light brown. 

A second Adoration of the Shepherds, which was brought from the Hospital for Incurables 

at Louvain to the Museum of Lyons where it 
now hangs, presents many points of similarity 
with the preceding picture. The Frankfort 
work is an oval,^while that at Lyons is an 
upright. Here the Virgin is seated in the centre 
and shows the shepherds the babe sitting on 
her lap. She wears the same pale-blue garment 
as in the other; and here also we find, with 
some slight alterations, the kneeling shepherdess 
with a child handing Mary a cup of milk, and 
the boy, who now, however, is taking a pigeon 
instead of a duck from the coop. Joseph looks 
calmly upon the scene ; an old woman stretches 
out her hands towards the child; one ancient 
shepherd with a bagpipe is on the left, while 
a second is seated beside him; still another, 
on the right, leans on his staff in an attitude 
reminiscent of the young man in the early 
Stockholm picture; behind him appear two 
youthful figures. On the ground are a lamb, 
with its fore-feet tied together, and a large 
dog; farther up, on the left, are the ox and 
the ass; and at the top there is a group of angel heads. 

The work is painted in brown, soft, nebulous colours, vague and indistinct except 
those on the Virgin, who in bright, vivid blue stands out strongly and effectively — a sweet 
figure — against the woolly forms of the others. Enthroned thus in the midst of all these 
personages with hands and looks going forth to her, she imports into the picture the 
character of a Glorification of the Virgin. Judging from its style and a comparison of some 
of the figures common to both, we may safely conclude that the Lyons picture dates from 
a few years earlier than the one at Frankfort. 

There is in the Antwerp Museum a third version of the subject; larger than, but 
painted in the same style as, the Lyons picture, and evidently contemporaneous with the 
one at Frankfort. Our Lady in it closely resembles the Virgin-mother in the latter. 

Here, also, a shepherdess kneels before Mary; with one hand she offers her a duck, 



while she lays the other on the coop that stands on the ground; she has with her a child 
who carries a moulting-cage over his shoulder; behind her we see the young shepherd 
eaning on his staff, an old shepherd, and a shepherdess carrying a milk-can on her head. 
Joseph stands to the left, and raises his cap. Little angels hover in the air. To the right 
is a large dog; to the left the ass; and in the background the ox. 

The scene is, with its charming rural feeling, much more peaceful than in the other two 
works. The painting is bright and happy in tone and surprisingly youthful; bathed in 

THE ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam). 

vernal air and morning light. The Virgin wears a blue cloak and a red garment, and the 
child Jesus lies naked in her lap on a white cloth; the young shepherdess kneeling in 
front of her is dressed in white linen, a red skirt, and a blue apron; the child wears a 
yellow dress; light, warmly-tinted little clouds hang in the air. The angels in the sky, and 
the people on the earth, the fresh foliage in the landscape, everything, in a word, seems 
to rejoice at the hearing of the glad tidings. The picture came from the chapel of what 
used to be the Bishop's palace at Antwerp. 

We have still to consider a fourth version, in the Museum at Grenoble. To the left 


sits Mary, with the child in her arms wrapped in swaddling clothes. Behind her stand 
St. Joseph and a young shepherd in a crouching attitude. To the right are several shepherds; 
one of them blows on the coals in the fire-basket, another carries a lighted lantern. Ducks 
have been laid at Mary's feet. Two angels hover in the sky. The picture is signed 
/. Jordaens fecit. In colour as well as in composition it reflects Rubens' style, and were it 
not for the signature one might hesitate to attribute it to Jordaens. At one time it belonged 
to the Church of the regaliere canonesses of St. Augustine at Courtray; taken to Paris 
during the French Revolution, it was presented by Napoleon I to the Museum at Grenoble. 

A fifth work, which seems to date from the same time as the picture at Frankfort, 
and is now in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam, is the most excellent of all these represen- 
tations of The Adoration of the Shepherds. The action is extremely peaceful. On both sides 
of Mary, who is seated in the centre nursing her babe, are groups of shepherds and 
shepherdesses, gazing with curiosity and awe at mother and child. To the right are four men 
and a child; to the left, three men, one of whom leans on a milk-can, and a woman with 
a child at her right hand and a hen-coop on her head. To the right again, a man stoops 
down to take hold of a lamb to present it to Mary. The whole picture is suffused with a 
warm glow, which grows tender and soft in the background. In the figures of the shepherds 
the brushwork is broad and vigorous.The Virgin is a very sweet little mother; the young 
shepherd leaning on his milk-can is magnificent in colour, with his red sleeping-jacket, 
yellow breeches, and bare legs. The whole picture exhibits the richest play of glowing 
colours and warm and always transparent shadows. 

The Catalogue of the sale of works left by Jordaens at his death mentions (No. 32) 
„The Stable of Bethlehem with several Figures". Other versions of the same subject 
appeared at other sales. Parthey mentions one, in Schloss Roland Fahne, signed /. /. F. 1649. 

Susanna. — The second of the pictures dated 1653 is in the Museum at Copenhagen 
and represents Susanna and the two rascally elders. This was a subject that Jordaens 
painted repeatedly and evidently with gusto; each time he contrives to give it a different 
character. In all of them he exhibits the lascivious passion aroused in the two obscene 
old men at the sight of such voluptuous beauty; strongly contrasting the lewd expression 
of their horrible faces with the charming outlines and the calmness or alarm of the 
bather. In the picture at Copenhagen, Jordaens conceives the scene in the least dramatic 
way; there is, indeed, a touch of farce about it. Susanna, a woman of great stature, 
is represented in a stooping attitude, one foot in the bath, the other, which she has 
been washing, on the edge of it. The two old men are standing behind her. One with 
a pointed nose and chin, his toothless mouth opened wide with a sensual leer, his small 
eyes twinkling - the type of an elderly satyr - has stepped across a low wall which 
separates the bathroom from the garden, and stretched out his hand to grasp the plump 
back which shines before him in all its broad fairness. The other, a corpulent bon vivant 
from whose jowl the fat hangs in folds upon his neck, also raises a hand and points at 
Susanna. Both are gleeful and eager over their good fortune. The luxurious beauty, however 
does not appear to fear very greatly the danger that threatens her ; she scarcely turns 
round to see who the intruders are, and when she discovers them no trace of terror but 
only a smile of half-feigned disapproval, shows upon her face. She seems to regard the 
situation as amusing rather than scandalous. Her little dog, however, barks his disapproval. 
It is a vivacious scene, a Biblical story character is tically illustrated by Jordaens The details 



add to its pleasantness: the water falls into the bath from a fountain in gold-coloured 
metal beautifully modelled; a large jug, even more exquisite, and a small toilet bottle stand 
on the other side; Susanna's jewels are lying on the floor; outside is seen the foliage of trees. 
The flesh of the old men is ruddy in tone, brown in the shadows, with touches of copper 
colour. Susanna stands in a brilliant flood of light, a delightful, alluring piece of female 
flesh and painting. The picture was in the royal palace at Copenhagen as early as 1600. 

The Susanna in the Brussels Museum represents the scene at a later stage of the story. The 
old men have crossed the low wall; one has pulled off and draws towards him the sheet 
in which the bather had been wrapped; the other has put his arms round her, and bends 
his ugly head greedily over her. She is seated, with legs crossed, on a small elevation, and 
protects her breasts with her hands. She is no longer represented as feeling secure, but 
looks up with an expression of fear and anxiety at the more daring of the two intruders, 
and shrinks from his touch. The little dog has rushed forward and fastened his teeth in 
the drapery which one of the 
rascals has pulled aside. 
There is no doubt that the 
picture dates from the same 
time as that in Copenhagen. 
Susanna is the same model ; 
the old rascals also, one 
bareheaded, the other with a 
velvet skull-cap, are alike in 
both canvases, save that here 
they have beards and in the 
other are clean-shaven; the 
little dog also is the same. 
The details are different: to 
the left are a fountain with a 
sculptured dolphin and child, 
a peacock on the pedestal of 
a column, a costly water-jug, 
and a dish on the floor. 

As far as the execution goes, this Brussels picture is even more magnificent than the 
other. It represents wich fearless actuality a coarsely wanton scene; the voluptuous Susanna 
arouses the gross sensuality of which the two old men are the embodiment. The one 
bending over her has a bald head and dirty gray beard, a gnarled and spotted skin, and 
keen, blazing eyes. The other, standing, looks less gross, but his thick lips and heavy 
over-hanging jaw betray, notwithstanding his stately, patriarchal bearing, an animal wantonness. 

The picture attracts us especially by the brilliance of its colour. The massive nude 
Susanna with her ruddy hair and red drapery, and the dark red spots in the clothing 
of the old men; their glowing visages; the white cloth which one of them pulls away; the 
magnificence of the peacock's tail, like a rustling stream of jewels falling between the 
marble Amor and the golden jug, all have a delightful effect. The painting is fat, especially 
in the heads of the elders, which are built up of heavy folds and bubbles of light and 
shadow. With its solid colouring, and the opposition of full light and heavy shadows, it is 
an excellent example of Jordaens' style of painting at this period. The phase of softness 



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m § "At. 

w -Wjfik 


SUSANNA AND THE TWO ELDERS (Museum, Copenhagen). 


and haziness is past; that of full strength and excessive brilliance has begun. A desire for 
truthfulness in the observation of character and emotion, realised in the powerful expres- 
sion of the heads, has informed the drawing. The picture appeared at the Mme. Gentil de 

SUSANNA (Mons. Franck-Chauveau, Paris). 

Chevagnie sale (Paris, 1854), the V. L. and Charles van den Berghe sale (Brussels, 1858), 
and the Gheldolf sale (Brussels, 1863). It was bought in 1895 by Mrs. Arthur Stevens. 

In 1902 we discovered at the art dealers De Kuyper, at Brussels, a second example from 
Jordaens' hand, absolutely similar in composition and of no less value, which at present 



belongs to Mr. Franck Chanveau of Paris. A faithful rendering of the same scene, it is 
not a copy, but a work of art from the brush of Jordaens. 

There is a third version of the subject, evidently belonging to an earlier date, in the 
Museum at Verona. The elders are less coarse in their gestures, and less repulsive in appear- 
ance; Susanna, young and attractive, resembles the Syrinx in the Brussels Museum which 
was painted about the same time ; the contours of her figure are less exuberant, the painting 
is firmer and harder, and everything in the picture suggests a work of about 1630. Susanna 
sits crouching on the edge of the bath, looking with concern at the elders; in front of her 
lies the costly water-jug in the basin, and her little dog stands by, barking angrily at the 
intruders. One of them, with thick hair and beard, bends towards Susanna, and lays a hand 
on her shoulder with an enticing gesture; the other, pulling her bath-sheet towards him, 
lifts his finger in a warning or threatening manner. There is far less passion, and less life 

and character in the figures, 

than in those of the later 
versions. The details are as 
costly; the fountain on which 
a parrot perches is decorated 
with a group of a dolphin 
and a child; on the pedestal 

of the column sits a peacock; 

on the edge of a balustrade WE& ,m^^^^^r\^ ^LJM 

stands a basket of fruit. The 

picture appeared at the de 

Proli sale (Antwerp, 1785), 

and at the Robit sale (Paris, 


The Mission of the 
Carmelites. — A third pic- 
ture of the year 1653 — at 
least Genard states that it 
was painted then, without 
giving the source of his 
information — is The Mission 

of the Carmelites of Syria to Europe. It was painted for the church of the shod Carmelites 
at Antwerp, and according to Descamps represents the inmates of that cloister receiving 
Bulls from the pope authorising them to found cloisters in Europe. We have failed to learn 
what has become of this work. 

SUSANNA (Museum, Verona)." 

St. Carolus Borromeus. — In 1655 Jordaens painted an altar-piece for the chapel 
of St. Carolus Borromeus in the St. James' Church at Antwerp. This chapel was founded 
by Jacobus Antonius Carenna, at one time almoner of the city; a Milanese by birth, he 
chose the Archbishop of Milan, who had been canonised in 1610, as patron of the chapel 
which he built. It was finished in 1656, and the founder and several of his kin were 
interred in it in the course of the seventeenth century. 

Jordaens' picture, which is signed /. Jordaens, represents St. Carolus Borromeus praying 




for the plague-stricken. The Saint, kneeling on an elevation, a few steps above the 
ground, invokes the intervention of St. Mary; she appears a little higher up, offering a 
palm-branch to her Son, who descends in heavenly glory, and beseeching him to listen to 
the prayers of the prelate. We notice beside Christ, on one side, two little angels, and on 
the other a tall one, holding a wreath of roses in one hand and a fiery sword in the other. 
On the floor lies a plague-stricken woman with a child at her breast; next to her is a 

woman tending her, and a dead 
lamb; in the centre, the corpse of 
a man. 

The work is admirably com- 
posed to fill the tall canvas; from 
foot to top, the figures run in a 
zig-zag line, a grouping the arti- 
ficiality of which the artist makes 
no effort to conceal. His chief aim, 
evidently, was to arrest attention 
by the boldness of his forms. The 
praying saint has hjs head thrown 
back and both arms stretched 
aslant; with this violent gesture 
and in vividly coloured garments 
he occupies the centre of the pic- 
ture and dominates the whole. The 
suffering woman and the dead man 
at the foot of the canvas are posed 
in an equally violent way; the 
upper part of her body is thrown 
backwards, while he is doubled 
up, his head and shoulders thrown 
forward. This unnatural arrangement 
is deliberately designed; and the 
artist shows himself no less deter- 
mined to impress us by his colouring. 
He makes vivid tones leap forth 
from a dark background; the red 
skirt, the red stole, and the white 
surplice of the cardinal, the large 
blue cloak of the Virgin in the 
centre, the blazing glory above 
, ., . . amidst which Christ shines in a 

dull shimmer, the cool pale clear tones of the sick woman and the dead man - these 
standing out against heavy shadows, and at the same time assimilating with them form 
a strongly contrasted yet intimately related whole. The dark tones, artificial but powerful 
colour-effects, daring gestures, and the plain, common-place face of the saint, proclaim 
jordaens search after the murky and still more realistic style which he adopted in the 
concluding stage of his career. We are to follow him as he pushes still farther in this 

ST. CAROLUS BORROMEUS (St Jacob Church, Antwerp). 


direction; degenerating to the coarser forms, darker tones, and simpler compositions of 
several works of lesser value which he alternated with the real masterpieces that down 
to his last years he continued to create. 

The Last Judgment. — The Last Judgment, which dates from 1658, was for several 
years banished from the galleries of the Louvre, to which it belongs, and relegated to the 
store-rooms. It was re-instated in 1900, when more space had been obtained through the 
institution of the new Rubens Gallery, and at the same time the other works of the master 
were hung in a much better light; a proof of the increased appreciation of Jordaens during 
recent years. In this Last Judgment, Christ sits enthroned on high ; above him is seen the 
Holy Ghost, with the cross and a brilliant glory; to the left, the Virgin with saints, to the 
right Moses and Aaron and some holy Fathers. Under Christ's feet springs a small arc 
which carries an angel with the scrolls of the Judgment, and two with double bassoons. 
Lightning flashes from the midst of this rainbow. To the left ascend the Blessed; men and 
women, nude figures, borne by angels; among them we discover a negro. To the right the 
Damned are struck down by lightning and dragged below by devils, dragons, and Death, 
or fall headlong by their own weight. Among them are the monstrous fat man and woman 
from Rubens' Fall of the Damned; here seen in profile. One only of those who have been 
struck down is clothed, — a man in a black coat, red trousers, and white stockings, 
holding books in his hand as he is hurled headlong down. In his features we recognise 
the arch-heretic Calvin. Farther down on the right we notice a dragon with seven heads 
in the fires of hell; to the left and in the centre are the dead who have risen from their 
graves. The inscription /. Jor. fee. 1658 (1) is to be read on a tombstone. 

Jordaens' picture obviously reminds one of the Fall of the Damned by his great 
predecessor, Rubens, but cannot compare with it as a work of art. A ruddy brown dyes 
the flesh and haunts the shadows : everything, indeed, is tender and transparent, but there 
is no co-ordination, and we only see so many patches of colour. 

Moreover, the work is mediocre in execution and lacks dramatic power. The Fall of 
the Damned looks like the emptying of a basin of human figures. It suggests the idea that 
the mass of figures had been measured out and separated into two groups : one on the 
left with doubled-up limbs especially conspicuous, and the other on the right with heavy 
bodies. The heavenly glory up on high has no more brilliance or radiance than the hell-fires 
below have glow or terror. Jordaens, as has been said before, is not a dramatic painter: 
his imagination could not soar to the conception of sublime scenes. 

A second version of this subject was at one time hanging in the Town-hall of Veurne, 
where Descamps saw it in 1763. He speaks of it as a considerable composition, displaying 
great ingenuity and variety, but faulty in drawing. „It is", he says, „not much more than a 
sketch: the figures are about a foot high". (2) This picture was carried off by the Commissaries 
of the French Republic, and presented by Napoleon to the Museum at Strasbourg. 

It was burnt during the siege of that town in the Franco-Prussian war in 1870. 
Evidently it was a work of large dimensions. In the list of pictures taken from Belgium 
to Paris the measurements are given 18 to 20 feet high and 15 to 16 feet broad (3). An 

(1) The catalogue of the Louvre wrongly gives the date as 1653. 

(2) Composition considerable, pleine de genie et tres variee, mais d'un dessin incorrect, ndglige pour la couleur et le fini; 
ce n'est guere qu'une esquisse, les figures ont a pes pres un pied de hauteur. (Descamps Voyage pUtoresque 1769, p. 311.). 

(3) A. PlOT. Rapport a Mr. le Ministre de flnterieur sur les tableaux enleves a la Belgique en 1794, p. 335. 


inventory drawn up on the arrival of the picture at Strasbourg, describes it as only 12 feet, 
3 inches high and 9 feet broad. (1). 

The Pictures in the Townhall at Amsterdam. — Jordaens was commissioned in 
1661 to paint several pictures for the Townhall, the present royal Palace, on The Dam, 
at Amsterdam, which at that date had only recently been completed. On January 13 
of that year the burgomasters of the city notified the treasurers that they had come to terms 
with Jan Lievens and Jacques Jordaens for a painting by each of them of Claudius Civilis 
for the ovals in the gallery, the price to be paid for each work to be twelve hundred 
guilders. On June 17 following, Jordaens had finished his picture and brought it himself to 
the town. The treasurer paid 106 guilders, 14 stuivers to Joannes Philips, landlord of 
the „Lysveltschen Bybel", for the expenses incurred by Jordaens and his sister during 
their stay there. 

It is evident that he received another commission, for on June 13, 1662, the treasurer 
handed to Andries de Graeff, an ex-burgomaster, a bond for 3000 guilders to be paid to 
Jacques. Jordaens for three pictures painted by him for the niches of the large gallery in 
the Townhall, two of them at the price of 1200 guilders each, and the third at that of 
600. Jordaens left the money lying at interest in the hands of the city-treasurer: the 
interest began to run as from November 1, 1661, from which we conclude that the work 
was finished at that date. On April 26, 1662, the treasurers handed to the burgomasters 
the gold medal struck to celebrate the peace with Spain, in order that it might be forwarded 
and presented by Mr. Andries de Graeff to Jordaens. (2) 

It would seem from the documents we have cited that Jordaens painted three pictures 
for the Amsterdam Townhall in 1661. Two of them formed part of the decoration of the 
large gallery, now the large dining-hall. One was commissioned in January, 1661, the second 
some time later. These pictures still occupy the positions for which they were originally 
furnished. They represent „The surprise of the Romans by night by Claudius Civilis" and 
„The Confirmation of the Peace between Civilis and Cerialis". A third picture painted by 
Jordaens at this time, „Samson putting the Philistines to flight", now hangs in the ante-room 
of the large dining-hall. 

These three pictures were described in verse by Jan Vos. Upon the first he wrote the 
following quatrain. — 

Het Roomsche krijgsvolk wordt van Neederlandt verrast. 

De dappre worden niet gekeert door leegerscharen. 
Zoo wordt den Batavier van 't Roomsche juk ontlast. 

Wie vrijheidt zoekt door 't zwaardt heeft zucht tot lauwerkransen. 

[„The Roman soldiery are surprised by the Netherlanders. 

Brave men cannot be restrained by the might of numbers. 
Thus the Batavian throws off the Roman yoke: 

He who seeks freedom by the sword deserves the laurel."] 

(1) CLEMENT de Ris, Les Musees de Province 1872, biz. 502. 

(2) Resolutien en Rapiaraus der heeren Thesaurieren van Amsterdam. Town archives of Amsterdam. 


On the second work he wrote: 

De vree vertoont zich bij Romein en Batavier. 

Zoo ziet men op de brug het moordtkrakeel beslechten. 
De. vreed' olijf verkrijgt men best door krijgslauwrier. 

Wie oorlog voert om vreed' is loffelijk in 't vechten. 

[„Peace reigns between Roman and Batavian. 

See, on the bridge the murderous fight is ended. 
The olive — branch of peace succeeds the laurel — wreath of war: 

Who fights for peace fights worthily.] 

The third picture was explained by Jan Vos thus: 

Hier wordt de Filestyn door Samsons kracht verslaagen. 
Wie kerk en haart bevrijt kan Godt en 't volk behaagen. 

[„Here we see the Philistines conquered by Samson's strength: 
God is pleased with him who delivers his Church and his home.J 

A fourth picture, Goliath slain by David, has been attributed to Jordaens; but as no 
mention of it is found in the record of payments made to him, and his name is not asso- 
ciated with it in the description of the Townhall, there seems to be no ground for believing 
it to be his work. 

It has been said that Govert Flinck supplied the sketches for the historical paintings 
which decorate the Town-hall, and that the works themselves were executed by Ovens, 
Lievens, Jordaens, and Legrand. As a matter of fact several of them were painted by Govert 
Flinck himself, while the others were by Ferdinand Bol, Jan Lievens, Bronckhorst, Niklaas 
Helt Stokade and Breze. (1) 

Those by Jordaens hang so high and are so badly lit that their subjects are scarcely 
distinguishable; and to judge of their artistic value — which at all events is not great — 
is impossible. It is difficult to understand how a great architect like van Campen, who had 
co-operated with Jordaens in the Orange Hall and reserved for him the place of honour 
there, came to banish his work in the Townhall beyond the range of vision and bestow 
all the good places upon other artists. The only explanation is that he seized this oppor- 
tunity of giving the Dutch painters their revenge in Amsterdam for the preference which 
Amelia van Solms had shown for the Flemish school in the decorations of the House in 
the Wood. It is equally a mystery why the town of Amsterdam paid such large sums for 
works destined to remain out of everyone's sight. 

The Pictures at Hulst. — In 1663 Jordaens executed the paintings which decorate 
the large hall, formerly the Court of Justice, in the so-called „Landhuis" at Hulst. They 
cover three sides of the mantelpiece, and represent the „ Glorification of Justice". The figure 
of Justice is seated in the centre of the picture, towards the foreground, a lion resting at 

(1) Vondel's works. Edited by Van Lennep, VI, 615; VII, 88, 89: IX, 658. 



her feet ; in her right hand she holds the tables of the Law, on which we read from Deut. 
1, 16: Verhoort uw broederen ghey Rechters ende rechtet recht tusschen eenenygefyc ende synen 
broeder ende vreemdelinck. An angel with sword and scales stands in the right background, 
with a second allegorical figure, Veritas (Truth), — a nude female holding up a mirror. 
On the left are Moses, Aaron, Fortitudo (Courage) who is represented as a woman wearing 
a helmet and armour and carrying a column, and Justitia (Justice) with white, red, and 
blue drapery, accompanied by a two naked children. Aaron, grey-haired and grey-bearded, 
in his priestly robes, stands on a lower level than the table of the Law and points up 
to it. Moses, with black hair and beard, two rays of light shooting forth from his forehead, 
appears above the table. The work is rather coarse and soiled, yet in spite of this we 
can see that Veritas has been a fine figure. The painting is signed J. Jord. fe, Ao. 1663. 
The narrow sides of the mantelpiece are occupied by two other scenes. That to the 
right represents an angel carrying a sword and scales, and bears the inscription: Tweeder- 

ley weechschael en tweederley 
zwaerdt is den heere een 
gruwel. To the left appear 
three angels, — one with a 
mask, another with a Medusa 
head, while the third is tum- 
bling down. The inscription 
on it runs: De Heere heeft 
een afgrijzen van den bloed- 
gierigen en den bedrieger de 
Heere straft alle ongerech- 
tigen. (Sap. VI). 

The pictures still occupy 
the places for which they 
were furnished, and save for 
being much soiled and sunk 
are in their original condi- 
tion. The inscription on the 
right-hand side has been painted over and is only partly decipherable. 

The price paid to Jordaens for them was 200 rijksdaalders. In the accounts of the 
Ambacht of Hulst, which used to sit in the „Landhuis", we read: „22 June, 1663 Two 
hundred ryxdaalders assigned for the pictures which are to be placed on the mantel- 
piece in the Court of Justice, and two deputies appointed to negociate about them with 
the painter Jordaens"; while on July 2 of the same year there is an entry „The afore- 
mentioned deputies report that the said offer has been accepted". (1) 

Jordaens did a beautiful drawing, now in the Print-room of the Hermitage of St Peters- 
burg, which repeats the composition in the front of the mantelpiece exactly excepting the 
figure of Justitia. F & 

JUSTICE. Drawing (Hermitage, St. Petersburg). 

f ?7T A F °f ™ E * CHAMBER ° F THE GUILD ° F ST - Luke " - When K i«g PhiHp IV 
founded the Antwerp Academy in 1663, the town Council allocated to the Old Guild of 

(1) Communicated by Mr. P. N. Brouns. Discovered by Mr. F. Calland, archivist of Hulst. 


St. Luke a first-floor storey in a wing of the Bourse. It was there that the Guild established 
its first theatre and, later on, classes for instruction in art. Several painters presented works 
with which to decorate this hall, a good example in which Jordaens led the way. In 1665 
he gave the Guild his picture of Justice or Human Law founded on Spiritual Law, which 
is now in the Antwerp Museum. For the greater part the composition is the same as 
that in the front of the mantelpiece in the Court of Justice at Hulst. Unlike the Hulst 
picture and the St. Petersburg drawing, however, it is an upright. Justice sits in the centre 
with the lion at her feet; on her right hand stands the angel with sword and scales, with 
three little angels in attendance. To the left is Moses, holding the table of the Law, to 
which Aaron is pointing. The other figures, Veritas, Justitia, and Fortitudo art left out. 
The passage from Deuteronomy already quoted is inscribed on the tables, as well as that 
from Lev. XIX, 15: Gij en suit niet oneerlijk handelen ... en sul . . . voor de gerecht . . . noc 
geen . . . The picture is signed : Arti pictoriae Jacobus Jordaens donabat. It is typical of 
some coarse work which Jordaens executed at this stage of his career. Moses and Aaron 
are rather common figures; Justice looks sleepy. The symbolism is childishly naive. The 
prevailing brown shadows overwhelm the faint lights. 

At the sale of Jordaens' effects there appeared „A large piece, ,The Justice Seat', or 
,Moses and Aaron' by him (No. 73) 5 ft. 1\ in. high, 8 ft. wide". It fetched 30 guilders. 
This probably was a third version of the subject we have been discussing. 

Besides this,, Justice", Jordaens presented to the Guild of St. Luke for their large hall 
two other works, both of them now in the Antwerp Museum. One represents ..Commerce and 
Industry protecting Art". Industry is seated on a marble bench, backed by a balustrade, 
her head richly decked with pearls. She is clad in bright white and pale blue. At her feet 
kneels an artist, in a majestic red cloak and a white garment, to whom she is holding a 
wine-goblet. Seated on the same bench, to their right, is Mercury, the god of Commerce, 
stretching his caduceus over his protege. Beside him are four women personifying the Arts. 
A woman kneeling at the left stretches out her hand towards the artist; there are present 
also Apollo with a violin and bow in his hand and two little Cupids, one of whom holds 
a tambourine. 

It is a well-composed allegorical scene, the quiet tones of which stand out with 
considerable brilliance, though subdued by abundant, heavy shadow. But the general effect 
is not very decorative. Apollo in a woe-begone attitude is a boorish figure ; Mercury, sitting 
on the bench, is not at all god-like in appearance ; while the artist seems to be refreshing 
himself from the breast of Industry rather than from the cup she offers him. The canvas 
was originally shaped with broken angles, but these were afterwards made straight, and 
painted over with black. 

We may mention that Mr. Fairfax Murray of London has in his collection a drawing 
in colours treating a rather enigmatic symbolic subject that bears a certain likeness to this 
picture in the Guild of St. Luke. On an elevation is seated a Maid with a shield, decorated 
with a Medusa head, on her arm. Time holds a crown above her head. Beside Time 
stands Mercury; and on the other side is an old man, with a municipal crown on his 
head, offering the Maid a branch with fruit; a kneeling man presents her with a dish of 
fruit; another holds a heart up to her. In front of her are several figures of men, women, 
and children. 

The second of these ceiling pictures represents Pegasus causing the fountain Hippocrene 
to spring forth from Parnassus. We see in it a winged white horse prancing on Parnassus, 


while from under his hoofs the fount Hippocrene springs up from the two spurs of the 
summit. Five little angels are hovering below and two satyrs are standing to the right. 
The picture is as coarse in conception as in execution, inelegant in composition, and 
without any artistic value. 

Jordaens, as has been said, was not alone in contributing thus to the decoration 
of the hall of the Guild of St. Luke. Artus Quellin presented it with his marble statue of 
of the Marquess of Caracena, Stadtholder of the Southern Netherlands; and Theodor 
Boeyermans executed for it a ceiling piece that was a sequel to the two presented by 
Jordaens. The Guild expressed its gratitude to both painters in a lame panegyric, specially 
composed in honour of Jordaens, and inscribed in the registers of the chamber. 

The most noteworthy point in the doggerel is that Jordaens is referred to in it as 
Mynheer, a title sparingly employed in those days and as a rule only in the case of 
persons who were very highly esteemed or belonged to a distinguished family. 

It was not only in these verses, however, that the Guild conveyed its thanks to 
Jordaens; it expressed them in another and more striking way. The accounts of the 
Olivebranch for the official year 1666—67 contain an entry of 336 guilders paid by the 
Guild for a silver ewer and basin which the Chamber presented to him. Boeyermans at 
the same time received a silver-gilt cup valued at 50 pattakons (125 guilders). 

Jesus among the Scribes. Mentz. — Greatly superior to these allegorical pieces is a 
painting of The twelve year old Jesus among the Scribes which dates from 1663 and is now 
in the Mentz Museum. It was designed for the High altar of the St. Walburgis Church at 
Veurne, from whence it was removed by the Commissaries of the French Republic in 1794, 
and presented to the museum at Mentz by Napoleon. The signature on it is J. Jor. fee. 1663. 
In the centre of the picture stands the youthful Christ, dressed in a plain, loose, grey-blue 
garment, lifting his right hand with outstretched fore-finger, while his left rests on the open 
Bible. Mary in a brilliant blue dress has entered with Joseph, and both are looking on at 
the astonishing scene. An old priest in a white surplice stands behind them ; beyond him is 
another in a gold-coloured cloak, in front of whom is a scribe stooping down to pick up 
a book. To the right we see one of the high officials of the Temple, dressed in a brilliant 
red cloak, the hood of which is pulled over his head. Below him are two scribes, one of 
them seated at a table, pen in hand, with a book before him, the other bending over him 
to point out something on the page. Higher up, beyond Jesus, sits the High Priest on his 
throne; he leans forward to listen to the child prodigy. A few priests are grouped about 
him, and one leans over a balustrade immediately above him. For back-ground we get the 
rich architecture of the temple. 

This is a masterpiece of observation and character-study. All the personages in it 
appear simultaneously arrested by the wonderful sight of a child instructing the most 
learned scribes, men who had spent a lifetime in probing the mysteries of the holy book. 
Mary is struck dumb before the miracle, and watches with open mouth and outstretched 
hand. The artist evidently did not know what to do with Joseph, and represents him as 
a rather commonplace dandified fellow. But the priests form a whole gallery of strongly 
characterised heads. The attention of several of them is strained ; it is so, for example, with 
the High Priest who, forgetting his usual attitude of stately dignity, bends eagerly forward, 
attracted by the words of the child. Other priests are equally fascinated, and with inclined 
heads regard him with critical eyes and rapt attention. Some of them are trying to understand 


and solve the mystery. The one in the red cloak, resting his chin on the hand that grasps 
his beard, casts an acute, critical, distrustful look upon Jesus. The other above him, leaning 
on the barrier next to the High Priest, also rests his head on his fist, possessed by a pained 
and anxious curiosity : he feels offended, and evil suspicions occupy his mind. Others regard 
the scene less seriously, laughing or smiling as at a spectacle that is unusual, but to which 
they attach little importance. There are two old men listening quietly with whom the words 
of the child preacher seem to go in at one ear and out at the other; they look gravely 
before them, or cast down their eyes, dozing off to the sound of his words. In the foreground, 
at Jesus' feet, are others of a different spirit. They are the old expounders of the Law| 
who have grown grey in the study of the Book and research of its subtle meaning: 
here is a youth challenging their wisdom, refuting all their traditional lore — to them he is 
a rebel, a heretic; he sins against established doctrine, twisting the clear meaning of its lore. 
Listen! now they have caught a word which certainly puts him in the wrong. In this way 
the critics hunt diligently for a flaw in the argument of the disputant, and hug themselves 
on finding one. And meanwhile Jesus with simple attitude and gesture proceeds with his 
exposition of higher laws and a nobler doctrine than they can understand. 

It is probable that the people of Veurne, which is situated near Diksmude in West 
Flanders, were led to choose Jordaens as the painter of the altar-piece for their church 
because twenty years previously he had furnished one for their neighbours. And Jordaens 
also seems to have had that work of 1644 in his mind when he came to paint this one in 
1663. The styles of the two pictures, indeed, are not the same; but though the manner 
is different, the composition is strikingly similar. He paints in both a central figure that by 
its unusual colour and form is in strong contrast with its surroundings. In this canvas it is 
the youthful Jesus, standing erect and isolated in the centre; he wears a purple shirt- 
shaped garment which entirely envelopes him; his small face is surrounded by a heavy 
shock of brown hair. It is not so much the beauty as the singularity of the young preacher 
that strikes us, just as is the case with the negro king in the picture in Diksmude; and 
round the rather unattractive central figure in both is grouped a richly glowing throng of 
Temple servants in their brilliant ecclesiastical robes, gold and scarlet chasubles, priestly 
garments of white and blue, and others of warm hues. Mary with her pale-blue and brilliant 
dress makes an ample, blithe patch of colour that balances the opposing richness of the 
priest in equisite red and white. The silvery brightness that prevails in the Diksmude 
work gives place here to a golden warmth. While the colour has increased in richness, 
however, it has also become heavier and more pretentious. The Temple resembles a palace. 
Its occupants are robed as if for the reception of a king, not a child. Yet they are not 
imposing. Their features are contorted with angry passions, and discover no generosity in 
their hearts or nobility in their persons. 

Nevertheless, what splendour there is in this glorious colouring, this golden light, 
and the lavish profusion of high-pitched tones ! What ease in the expression of deep thoughts 
and in the arrangement of this throng of brilliant figures round the unassuming person of 
the Child! 

It was in all likelihood immediately after this Mentz picture that Jordaens painted the 
other of the same subject now in the Pinakothek at Munich. The latter is a smaller canvas, 
235 cm. high, 296 cm. broad, while that at Mentz is 425 cm. by 330 cm. The figures are 
grouped more openly; there is an additional one near the High Priest to the left; but the 
balustrade and the priest looking over it higher up in the earlier picture have been left 




out of the later The architecture of the temple also is different. Otherwise the two works 
are much the same, in colour as well as composition; but the one at Munich is on the 
whole inferior, possessing neither the vivid, powerful tonality, nor the free brush-work of 

the other. 

There seems to have existed still another large work treating of the same subject, for 
in the catalogue of the Ferdinand, Count of Plettenberg van Witte, sale (Amsterdam, 1733), 
mention is made of a Christ among the Masters in the Temple, 11 feet high, 9 feet, 3 in. 
broad, „a capital piece from Jordaens' best period", which fetched 120 guilders. 

There is a water-colour drawing by Jordaens in the collection of Mr. Fairfax Murray, 

London, which is clearly a study for the Mentz picture. In it the little Jesus is seated, 

leaning' with one arm on a bench. Many of the figures of the painting appear in it; but 

the High Priest up above and the scribe lower down picking up the book are wanting. 

Still another version of „Christ among the Scribes" is found in a drawing belonging 

to Mons. Delacre, Ghent. 
Here Jesus is standing with 
uplifted arm in front of a 
desk addressing his audience. 
Mary and Joseph now appear 
towards the right. On each 
side in the foreground sits 
a scribe. Higher up is a 
group of five others; and 
beyond them are two groups 
of listeners, leaning over a 
balustrade. In this version 
also the High Priest is left 

The works we have been 
discussing are those executed 
by Jordaens between 1653 
and 1665 which bear a date, 
or can have one assigned to 
them on the authority of trustworthy documents, and others evidently connected with them. 
During the thirteen years in question, of course, the master produced many more than 
the score or two pictures which we have described ; and it remains for us now to consider 
which others belong to the same period. The only criterion we have to depend on in 
this inquiry is the style in which they are painted. 

JESUS AMONG THE SCRIBES (Detail, Museum, Mentz). 

The Dedication in the Temple. Dresden. — One very important work which we 
assign to this period on account of the striking similarity of its execution to the Christ 
among the Scribes in the Temple at Mentz, is the large Dedication in the Temple in the 
Museum at Dresden. In the background we see the dome of the temple and the supporting 
columns. Under this dome, which rises at the end of the aisle, stands the Ark of the 
Covenant, above which is suspended a baldachin of red velvet. Mary and the High Priest — 
the chief figures in the scene — stand in the foreground. Mary is clad in a pale-blue cloak 
and a white linen cloth covering the back of her head and falling over her neck; the 



cuffs of her red sleeves peep from under the cloak. She holds out her hands as if she 
were terrified that the High Priest would let the child fall. Simeon is wrapped in a 
costly surplice, ornamented with gold on a silver ground and shot with a few red tints: 
he wears a white linen garment under his cloak and a red velvet hood on his head. 
Between him and Mary, a step higher than -they, stands St. Anna, smiling down lovingly 
upon the littte child. 
St Joseph kneels 
next to Mary. His 
chief garment is 
an ample, tawny- 
coloured robe which 
envelopes him com- 
pletely. He rests his 
hand on a coop con- 
taining two pigeons 
which he has 
brought as an offer- 
ing. Behind him 
stand two children, 
one of them leading 
a goat, the other 
carrying a pigeon. 
To the left, besides 
the mother with 
her child on her 
arm, there are two 
men, looking on 
and a young woman 
with a pigeon-coop 
on her head. To 
the right, next to 
the High Priest, 
stand two choris- 
ters with burning 
torches and candles, 
and two old men. 
The picture is 
remarkable for its 
great wealth of 
warm colours; the 
draperies of Mary, 

Simeon and Joseph, the gold-embroidered garment of the nearest chorister, the reds in the 
robe of the mother to the left and of the baldachin up aloft, form the key-notes of the 
colour symphony. They rise in tender brilliance from a ground bathed in transparent evening 
light. Plentiful grey, dull shadows soften and fuse with the fierce glare of the vivid tones, 
so that while the light plays everywhere it nowhere falls harshly. There are several fine 

JESUS AMONG THE SCRIBES (Detail, Museum, Mentz). 


and admirably expressive heads: for example Simeon, lifting a face full of emotion to 
H^T^S for having been allowed to see the Messiah, _and the twofold men 

behind him, have 

powerful heads, characteristic of the populace and typical of the future 
Apostles The scene is simply and naturally composed; conceived and developed m the 
pfoCd sentiment which pervades and connects its several parts, without a smgle d.ssonan. 
note. The picture, magnificently decorative, is truly a masterp.ece. ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

ability as great as Rubens' to 
paint an altar-piece with gran- 
deur and majesty; but with 
the heroic style of his prede- 
cessor he mingles a homelier, 
popular sentiment. His perso- 
nages are taken from every- 
day life, particularly the on- 
lookers; yet neither they, 
nor the young acolyte with 
the face of the immature 
Antwerp boy, nor Joseph — 
an ordinary working-man — , 
disturb the solemn impres- 
sion. Jordaens, it is quite 
true, learned and borrowed 
much from his predecessor. 
This is illustrated in the 
present picture. We have 
already noted that Rubens' 
Dedication in the Temple — 
not the painting on the right- 
hand shutter of the Descent 
from the Cross, but that which 
Pontius engraved — shows 
exactly the same composition, 
and also that Jordaens, in 
his picture in the Museum 
at Lyons, did not imitate 
Rubens' painting of The Visit 
of Mary to Elizabeth on the 
other shutter of the Descent, 
but one engraved by Peter 
de Jode. Here, too, in the Dedication in the Temple at Dresden he follows the engraving 
of Pontius after Rubens. In this engraving Simeon stands with the child in his arms, his 
eyes turned heavenwards; Mary stretches out her hands as if to save the child from 
falling, while Joseph kneels beside her, and St. Anna stands in the background; a chorister 
with burning torch attends the High Priest, and a mother and child are among the on-lookers. 
Jordaens has altered the characters in details, and increased the number of the spectators 

. Drawing (Mr. Fairfax Murray, London). 



from three to eight. The Ark of the Covenant and the baldachin under which it stands are 
also additions. He has given to the whole a more emotional and lively appearance; the 
work gains in credibility and truth; there is less ceremony and a quicker pulse of life. 

1 do not doubt for a moment that the picture dates from the same period as the Christ 
among the Scribes at Mentz: the firmness of .the painting would seem to point to an 
execution a year or two before the other. The shadows are less plentiful and heavy; but 
the warm, dark tone, the broad brush-work, the sincere expression of the heads, and the 
healthy realism, prove it to belong to the period under discussion. 

We do not find in this picture, with the characteristic features common to Jordaens' 
models, any figures corresponding in minute details with those in other pictures of his; 
unless it be the child with the pigeon on its head, to the left, which is the same as the 
child in the Fertility, and the infant in the mother's arms which reproduces the little curly- 
head in the Miracle of St. Martin, both at 
Brussels. These, however, show that Jordaens 
in later years continued to use the models 
he had formerly employed. Though all the 
figures here, as was always the case in his 
later period, are healthily formed, we note 
that the mother with the child on her arm 
shows a growth on her right shoulder, which 
looks like a third breast, — a deformity that 
we find introduced into certain of his earlier 
works as well. 

This picture appeared at an anonymous 
sale at the Hague on June 26, 1742, where 
it fetched 245 guilders. As early as 1754 it 
was mentioned in the inventory of the works 
of art belonging to the royal House of Saxony. 
A picture treating the same subject, but of 
smaller dimensions, appeared at the Salamanca 
sale (Paris, 1875). The Albertina also pos- 
sesses a drawing in colours of the subject, 
and Mr Vaerewijck of Antwerp another: in 
both, however, there are slight modifications. 

Among other religious paintings of this period, the first to be discussed is Christ blessing 
the children in the Museum at Copenhagen. Christ sits on an elevation to which leads a 
flight of steps Round the foot of it are standing mothers carrying their children or leading 
them by the hand; half way up the canvas and at the top of it are grouped Apostles and 
other on-lookers. The picture is loosely painted, with brown-red shadows and patches of 
bright light. The men are strongly-marked Jewish types; the women elegant. The work 
leaves a vivid impression on one. It was purchased in 1759. 

In 1767 another version of the same subject appeared at the Julienne sale at Pans. 
God the Father calls the three children of the group to him, taking one of them by the 
hands- the canvas contains other fifteen life-size figures, several of whom, however, are seen 
to the' waist only. This work appeared at another sale at Paris in 1777, and a third version 
was put up at two sales at Mechlin, — in 1838 and 1862. 

Drawing (Mr. Fairfax Murray). 



Biblical Pictures with texts. There are in the Museum at Ghent, to which they 
came from St. Peter's Abbey in that city, two pictures in the same style and doubtless of 
the same date as those painted for the Guild of St. Luke, - the Woman taken in Adultery 
and the Reconciliation before the Offering. The artist indicates on the second the passage 
of Scripture which it represents: Matt. V. 23 24: („Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the 
altar and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee, leave thy gift before 
the altar and go thy way: first be reconciled to thy brother and then come and offer thy 
gift") The work is as coarse as the Guild picture, into which also the artist has introduced 
a text of Scripture. A few spots of light are scattered over a spongy ground, without 
either strength or brilliancy of colour; vigour and confidence are wanting in the treatment, 
drawing, and expression. It is all mud and water, - a striking instance of the inferior 
work which sometimes Jordaens allowed himself to produce at this period. There are other 
examples of pictures with texts from the Bible, or references to them. On one in the 
Museum at Lille/ for example, there is a reference to Matt. V. 20: („For I say unto you 

that unless your righteousness 
shall exceed the righteousness 
of the Scribes and Pharisees, 
ye shall in no case enter 
into the Kingdom of Heaven"). 
A copy of this picture is in 
the church of Herenthals. 

A drawing belonging to 
Mr. Fairfax Murray, London, 
bears the name of the painter, 
and M. XVIII : 2 Het en sij 
dat ghij het Rijcke der Heme- 
len ontfa(nkt) als een kindeken 
soo en sulde ghij daer niet 
in comen. This is really a 
very free rendering of Math. 
XVIII, 3: „Verily I say unto 
you, except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the 
Kingdom of heaven". On another in the same collection we read, „Luk. VI, 37, Geeft en 
u sal gegeven worden een voile uitgeschude maet. Jordaens". („Give and it shall be given 
unto you in good measure", etc. Luke VI, 38). 

A drawing belonging to Mons. Delacre of Ghent bears the indication, „Luk. VI, 8". 
(Christ healing on the Sabbath) ; and Mr. Rump of Copenhagen possesses one, representing 
Christ delivering the possessed, with the reference: „Luk. VIII, 28, 29". 

On another drawing in the Print-room at St. Petersburg we read Overmidts de Joden 
Teekens begeeren en de Grieken wijsheit soecken doch wij prediken Christus den gecruysten 
den Joden een ergernisse en de Griecken een dwaesheijdt, maar beyde Joden en Griecken die 
prediken wij de wijsheydt Godts en de Crachte Godts. I Cor. II : 22, 23, 24, 21, Martii 
1658 hage. (For the Jews require a sign and the Greeks seek after wisdom ; but we preach 
Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumbling-block and unto the Greeks foolishness; but 
unto them which are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the 
wisdom of God. I Cor. I, 22, 23, 24). 




In the same class of works may be included a drawing in the Museum at Grenoble 
bearing these moralizing lines: 

De Waerheyt is voor Conninghen en Prinsen eenen seer seltsaemen vogel 

Sy werdt haer meest vermaskert ende bedeckt gestelt voor oogen 

Tot dat den Snellen Tijdt dezelfde naekt voorsteldt 

Waer door menichmael te laet het Recht eerst wordt gekent 

J. Jordaens, 8 Januari 1658. (1) 
(1) Which, literally translated, run: 

Truth is with King and Princes a very rare bird 

Which is oftenest presented to them masked and disguised 

Until fast-speeding Time discovers it naked 

And then, too often, Justice is recognised too late. 

Of the less important pictures 
of this period there is an example 
in the Offering of Abraham and 
Isaac which came into the pos- 
session of the Museum at Milan 
through an exchange with the 
Louvre in 1813. Isaac is kneeling 
on the pile and Abraham is in the 
act of raising his axe to kill him 
when an angel with outspread 
wings arrests his arm. The figures 
are ugly, the light contrasts harshly 
with the pitch-black shadows, and 
for these careless, coarse elements 
there are none of higher value to 
compensate. Most probably this 
picture was No. 27 in the inven- 
tory of Jordaens' estate at his 
decease. The same composition, 
hastily and coarsely painted on a 
smaller scale, is now in the Museum 
at Stuttgart. Other examples, also 
of smaller dimensions, have appear- 
ed at various sales. There is a 
drawing in the Louvre in water- 
colours and ink representing Abra- 
ham in the act of blindfolding Isaac, 

and another in the Print-room in Berlin (already mentioned on p. 189) shows the patriarch 
at the moment when an angel stops him lifting his sword. 

The St. Ambrosius in the Museum at Ghent is broadly painted, but lacks real strength. 
The saint, wearing a red cap, a priestly garb thrown over his shoulders, holds a silver 
staff, casts up his eyes to Heaven from an open book lying before him. 

ABRAHAM AND ISAAC. Drawing (Louvre, Paris). 



The Triumph of Bacchus. Brussels. — This mythological picture, which also falls 
within the period we are discussing, is distinguished among Jordaens' works by being 
almost wholly brown in tone. Bacchus approaches, riding a lion and supported by two 
satyrs; he is followed by Silenus astride a donkey, holding a wine-flask to his mouth, and 
accompanied by two big satyrs, dancing and beating tambourines, and a little satyr. 
Behind him again totters an old toper, also supported by a satyr. Then follows a train of 
bacchantes carrying censers on poles; one of them with a basket of fruit also. A satyr 
blows a trumpet, two little ones trip behind. A woman lies on the grass; another, partly 
hidden by the frame, flies from a satyr who is laying a hand on her shoulder. Another 
scene is disclosed to the right: satyrs picking fruit from the trees hand it to bacchantes; 
while there is an old, tipsy fellow with a wine-jug in his hand lying on the ground. In the 

THE TRIUMPH OF BACCHUS (Museum, Brussels). 

foreground, besides a sick man lying full length and a bacchante asleep, are fruit, some 
copper dishes, and a deer grazing. A temple set on the top of a hill appears in the background. 

All the figures are nude. The old ones are flabby and obese, with hanging breasts, — 
the effects of many a drinking bout. The young ones are vigorous and plump, with heavy, 
fleshy limbs, typical of luxurious living. The heavy women are examples of Jordaens' ideal 
of female beauty. A rich, warm light falls on all the figures, most brightly on the group 
of satyrs and bacchantes gathering fruit on the right. Its glow diminishes on the left, and 
there especially — but this in some degree is true of the whole picture — the general tone 
is brown, with dim lights on the curves of the bodies, which here and there are modelled 
with bluish shadings. The trees in the landscape stand out sharply against great warm 
clouds in the sky, into which the figures are painted with softer outlines. 

In this carouse of creatures enjoying themselves in accordance with their animal natures 



we find a symbol of mortality. A caricature of Flemish life lurks in this glorification of 
warm sunshine and voluptuous flesh. The paint is laid on flowingly, and stippled, thereby 
adding strength to the sun's warmth. The tone is singular: we find something like it, 
indeed, in the Miracle of St. Martin, 1630, but while there is nothing radiant about that 
picture, everything in this one shines and sparkles. Here the beautiful forms of 1630—1640 
are forsaken; the element of caricature enters largely; and it is on this account that we 
date it later than 1650. M me Bougard of Brussels possesses a replica. It is possible that 
one or other of these pictures was the „Triumph of Bacchus and Silenus" which appeared 
at the Johan Can, Ridder van Domburg sale (Amsterdam, 1710), the Willem Six sale 
(Amsterdam, 1734), the Locquet sale (Amsterdam, 1783), the Choiseul-Praslin sale (Paris, 
1803), and the de Marneffe sale (Brussels, 1830). Waagen mentions another small example 
belonging to Lord Northwick (1). A Bacchanal, with little women, satyrs, bacchantes and 
children, appeared at the Frangois d'Orville sale (Amsterdam, 1705). 

(1) Waagen. Treasures of Art in Great Britain. Ill, 206. 

Drawing (Rijks Museum, Amsterdam). 



16 6 6 — 16 7 8. 

Jordaens' Closing years — His conversion to Calvinism — His last 

works — His death. 

(Museum, Brunswick). 

FOR nearly half a century Jordaens, the 
artist, had a peaceful and prosperous 
career. His fame grew with his years, 
and the only important events in them requiring 
to be recorded were the commissions that 
flowed in upon him from at home and abroad. 
He executed works for the most eminent of 
Antwerp's citizens and for churches and clois- 
ters in the city and beyond it. The widow 
of the Stadtholder and the Queens of Eng- 
land and Sweden were among his patrons. 
He had built for himself a beautiful house, 
and his income increased daily. After the 
deaths of Rubens and Van Dijck he was 
deservedly ranked first among the Flemish 
painters. Yet during this apparently peaceful 
existence there 'must have raged violent storms 
in the bosom of Jordaens, the man, preceding 
a decision on his part which testifies to an 
unusually resolute spirit. 

Jordaens becomes a Calvinist. — In the 
latter half of his life he left the Roman Catholic 
Church and went over to the Calvinists. When and in what manner he took this step, 
his reasons for it and its consequences, are matters that have naturally occupied the 
attention of his few biographers in recent years and will no doubt be discussed often by 
those to come. It is our purpose now to recapitulate all that is known on the subject; 
and as our inquiry necessarily takes account of the conditions of the Protestants in the 
Southern Provinces, we shall in the first place glance briefly at their history. 

During those troubled times Antwerp for the greater part had gone over to one or 
other of the sects attached to the new doctrines. From 1564 onwards, Lutherans, Calvinists, 
and Anabaptists were numerous in the town and were found in all classes. In the course 
of the subsequent twenty years the Calvinists gained the ascendency, and one of their 


leading men, Marnix van St. Aldegonde, was ruling the town as Burgomaster when in 
1585 it was besieged by Alexander of Parma. With its surrender in August of that year 
this ascendency of the Calvinists ceased. By the treaty made with Parma on August 17, 
1585, Protestants were permitted as a special act of grace to remain in the town for a 
period of four years. Article VI of the treaty read: „A11 the aforesaid citizens and inhabitants 
shall be allowed to continue in residence during a term of four whole years without having 
to undergo examination concerning the state of their religion, provided they live quietly 
and without disorder or scandal; in the meantime reflecting and determining whether they 
are content to live in the exercise of the old Catholic Apostolic Roman Religion, so that 
if they do not so decide they may leave the country, as they are free to do should they 
think it best". 

Nothing was said in the treaty or elsewhere as to what they had to expect were they 
not minded to live in the practice of the old religion, yet could not decide to leave the 
country; and, indeed, that was not necessary. Such knew very well that they fell under 
the edicts of the Emperor Charles which decreed their death," to wit, men by the sword 
and women by the well, if they did not maintain and defend their errors, and if they 
persisted in their errors or heresies, by fire". 

Philip II had confirmed his father's proclamations (1), and the Arch-dukes Albert and Isabella 
had instructed the governors of the provinces to put them into execution. The Inquisition 
was still in existence. It is true that the dreadful practice of burning at the stake had 
ceased, but it was still sanctioned by law. Following the victory of the Northern Provinces, 
and even before Spain recognised her defeat, it was realised that if the Protestants in the 
South were treated too harshly, life would be made unbearable for the many thousands 
of Roman Catholics who were under the Government of the United Provinces; and on 
this account alone the old barbarous edicts were treated as a dead letter, and only such 
steps were taken as were necessary to prevent the evil, when it appeared, from spreading 
and threatening danger to Church and State. 

Thus it was that, shortly after 1600 and during the remainder of the 17 th century, 
heretics were found living in the Southern Provinces. It was notorious that there was in 
West Flanders a ..Beggars' "-quarter (Guezen hoek), with the village of Maria-Hoorebeke as 
a centre, where throughout the sixteenth century (as, indeed, down to the present day), the 
Evangelical doctrine was preached. Occasionally the Protestants were threatened with prose- 
cution and more or less severe penalties, but at the same time the authorities winked at 
their profession of religion. On August 31, 1608, giving effect to a suggestion made to 
them by the Bishops at their Provincial Synod at Mechlin, the Archdukes issued an edict 
touching matters of religion, by which teachers, printers, and booksellers were forbidden to 
practise their calling unless they professed the Roman Catholic religion; while no one was 
allowed to settle in any place without a certificate of their orthodoxy from the priest of 
the parish in which they had last resided. But no specific penalties were formulated 
against any who failed to observe these enactments (2). 

^ On December 31 1609, the Arch-dukes again issued a proclamation anent „scandals 
against or exercises in contempt of our Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Religion", forbidding 

(1) Anselmo Placcaeten ^^"^^s in which regulation is made for the good and diiigent maintenance 
0, certi St™ra n rt^^ul e d b a y nd th ;esreVin" S e' Provincia, ^nod at MechHn, in the months of June and July , t60, 
Brussels, Rutgeert Velpius, 1608. 


the spread of heresy by means of preaching or otherwise, „ under penalty of fine or perpetual 
banishment". Foreigners professing strange faiths were bidden conduct themselves quietly, 
without discussing matters of politics or religion; behaving respectfully towards the established 
religion, and refraining from boasts that they themselves professed any other than the 
Roman Catholic faith. 

There was an even greater tolerance during the Twelve Years' Truce (1609—1621). 
On March 22, 1617, and again on April II, 1620, all foreign ministers were ordered by 
proclamation of the Sheriff, Burgomasters, Aldermen and Council of the town of Antwerp 
to report themselves to the Magistrates, under penalty of fifty guilders and banishment from 
the town, and the citizens who gave them lodging had to intimate the same to the Sheriff 
under a penalty of a hundred guilders. 

Thus at the worst those who spread heresy suffered banishment, as was the case also 
with those who professed heretical doctrines. Eighty families were banished the town in 
1625. (1) On September 5, 1629, the municipality requested leave from the Infanta to banish 
those „who were notoriously heretical and turbulent", and on the 24 th . of October instructions 
were issued that only good Catholics were to be admitted to the Town-militia. (2) Many such 
steps were taken and orders issued ; occasionally persons were punished, but vigorous measures 
were not enforced; the authorities hesitated and compromised: they realised that the evil 
was no crying one, and that to resort to violence would be to incur a greater trouble. 

It was quite well known to the authorities that the heretics remained in the town; 
they were informed of their names and of their places of abode and assembly. The Arch- 
duke Albert addressed a letter to the Burgomasters and Aldermen on April 1, 1620, informing 
them that sermons were frequently preached at a house near the Sandersgat, called „De 
stad van 's Gravenhage", to congregations that sometimes numbered two hundred, and 
instructing the Magistrates to take steps to put a stop to such heretical assemblies. (3) 
There is lying in the archives of the Bishopric of Antwerp a list of nineteen persons or 
families, „all heretics of the worst brand," residing in the town in 1629, which details 
their names, occupations, and places of abode. (4) And as it was in Antwerp, so it was 
throughout the whole country: one section of the clergy wished to clear out the whole 
heretical brood forthwith, but there was another which advised milder measures, and the 
civil authorities agreed with the latter. 

We gain a very clear idea of the condition of the Protestants in the Provinces through 
an Inquiry into the steps to be taken to prevent the spread of heresy, instituted by the 
Spanish Government in 1663. At Munster, after the signing of the Peace of 1648, a Chamber, 
half Spanish, half Dutch, had been established to determine the frontiers of the two countries. 
The Spanish Commissioners, when they had completed their task, drew the attention of the 
King to the fact that several of the inhabitants of Limburg and the countries across the 
Maas were in the habit of attending Protestant services in the adjoining communities, and 
suggested the advisability of renewing the edicts against this practice. At the same time, 
however, they pointed out that there was a danger of the United Provinces making reprisals 
in the event of such action being taken, and that it might be more discreet to suffer and 
wink at the evil in case a worse should befall. 

(1) DlERCKXSENS : Antverpia Christo nascens et crescens. VII 195. 

(2) F. JOS. VAN DEN BRANDEN: Geschiedenis der Antwerpsche Schilderschool, p. 836. 

(3) DlERCKXSENS: Op cit. VII. 118. 

(4) Mertens en TORFS: Geschiedenis der stad Antwerpen. V. 604 



These suggestions of the representatives at Munster were reported by the Government 
to the B 1S hops and the different tribunals, who were asked to advise upon them All the 
authorities consulted were agreed as to the right of the Government to punish renegade 
Catholics and to prevent non-Catholics from settling on the territory of the Spanish 
Netherlands; but they were by no means unanimous as to the wisdom of applying severe 
measures. Several of the bishops were of the opinion that the evil was not sufficiently 
great to call for a renewal of the old edicts: those of Bruges considered it futile to issue 
new proclamations when the old ones to the same effect were well known already and in 
this the bishops of Ghent and Namur concurred. The Archbishop of Cambray thought it 
would be sufficient if the King of France were requested to banish heretics from those 
parts of Flanders that had come recently into his possession, as well as from Atrecht and 
Hainault. His brethren of Antwerp and Tournay preserved silence on the matter. The bishop 
of Roermond, on the other hand, pressed for the utmost severity, even the application of 
the death sentence, so nume- 
rous had heretics become in 
his diocese; and the Arch- 
bishop of Mechlin desired to 
see a revival of those enact- 
ments at least which were 
issued by the arch-dukes in 
1609. All the clergy were una- 
nimous against the appoint- 
ment of heretics to public 
offices, and against mixed 
marriages. As for the higher 
Courts of Justice who were 
appealed to for advice, 
either they did not answer 
or else they postponed the 
inquiry. (1) 

It is evident from the 
answers received that the 
majority of the clergy, like 

the civil authorities, regarded the danger which the Roman Catholic Church ran from the 
heretics as too slight to justify their rigorous prosecution; and in this opinion they were 
no doubt strengthened by the reflection that severe measures against the Protestants in 
the Spanish Netherlands would expose the far greater body of Catholics in the United 
Provinces to similar treatment. 

In these circumstances, as one can readily understand, Protestants found it possible to 
remain on in Flanders: they were not systematically prosecuted, although the law could 
always be put in force against them when it was considered necessary. If their conduct 
was too flagrant, they were removed across the frontier; if they prudently kept to them- 
selves, they were as a rule left in peace. A proclamation of the Sheriff, Burgomaster, and 
Aldermen of Antwerp on June 13, 1658 ordered „anyone meeting the Consecrated Holy Mass 

Drawing (Mr. Delacre, Ghent). 

(1) E. HUBERT, Une enqugte sur les affaires religieases dans les Pays-Bas espagnols au XVIIe Steele in Melanges Paul Friderieq, 
biz. 239. 


in the streets to revere and honour it by bending the knee, or else to enter a house or 
pass by another street", — certainly a very temperate edict for those days. 

On the other hand it is difficult for us, with our ideas of the binding power of the 

laws and the minutely defined regulations of the Registrar's office, to form a clear view of 

the position under the law in which these heretical persons in the Southern Provinces found 

themselves. Registers were not kept in registrars' offices in those days. The Council of 

Trent empowered the priest of every parish to enter in a book kept for the purpose the 

names of all children baptised, together with those of the parents and sponsors. It was in 

this way that a child was registered as a citizen who had conformed to the laws of church 

and state. The priest was obliged also to enter in a book, which he had to preserve with 

the greatest care, the names of married couples, with those of the witnesses, and the place 

where the marriage was celebrated. (1) Prfests of the Catholic Church, in fact, were the 

only officials of the Civil Government legally entitled to record the dates of births, 

marriages, and deaths. (2) Marriages which had not been blessed by the Church were not 

regarded as legal, just as the legitimacy of children who had not been baptised by it was 

not recognised. It is true that the consequences were not so unbearable as they would be 

felt to be to-day; nevertheless, the resulting disabilities must have been great. Not to seek 

the sanction of the Church for such important events in life was equivalent to an open 

profession of dissent, bringing in its train possible persecution and exclusion from public 

office. There is no doubt that several Protestants, often with the connivance of the 

Catholic clergy, were married in the Catholic Church and had their children baptised into 

it, holding themselves justified in going through these formalities because of the advantages 

which were thereby left open to them in civil life. It was different, however, in the case 

of a funeral. For the body of a heretic to be brought into the Church and buried in 

consecrated ground was regarded as a formal act of sacrilege towards the old faith, and one 

of perfidy towards the new; and since, moreover, edicts and proclamations were vain against 

the dead, heretics whose means permitted it left instructions at their death that they were 

to be buried in Protestant soil outside the country. Jordaens made this arrangement for the 

burial of his wife, as his heirs did for that of himself and his daughter. 

But although those who made open profession of the Reformed faith in the XVII th . 
century no longer went in danger of their lives, yet they were still exposed to -serious 
penalties and inconveniences of many kinds. For it must not be forgotten that throughout 
the century, and in the first half of it particularly, there was a continual struggle between 
the old faith and the new. It was the period of Catholic reaction. The time of assurance 
in the ancestral faith, of repose of mind disturbed by neither doubt nor strife, such as had 
existed before the Reformation, was indeed past; past also were the years of the rising 
flood of the new doctrine, inundating the country like a spring tide that washes away dykes 
and sluices, rendering powerless those who attempted to avert the danger. The Catholic 
Church had come to her senses: she had marshalled her forces and, no longer content 
to act in self-defence only, had forced the attack, and could boast of her victories year 
after year. Omnipotent in the Southern Provinces, she remained watchful of events in those 
of which she had been recently, robbed, or where her power was contested; she was armed, 
too, to fight and avert the danger, and did not allow her weapons to become rusty. 

(1) Concilii Tridentini Canones et Decreta, Sessio XXIV, Caput 1, 11. 

(2) De Facqz: PrtcU de I'ancien droit de Betgique p. 281 -quoted by Alvin in bis Le Paintre Jordaens est-il ne calviniste? 
(Bulletin de l'Academie royale de Belgique, 1855, p. 740). 


Thus, to cast off her powerful and vigilant authority, as Jordaens decided to do, was 
still a hazardous venture. 

The date at which he took this decisive step is not certain. It seems that even before 
1650 suspicion fell on him; called to account by the authorities on July 23, 1649, because 
of a journey to Brussels which he had made in the previous May, „he swore and affirmed 
truthfully, and established by evidence given on oath, before God and the Saints, that he 
visited Brussels with his son on that occasion for no other purpose than to make payment 
of the costs of his action against Franchois Rijssels". (1) 

There was a more serious occurrence, however, a few years later. He was heavily fined 
for heretical writings. According to Pinchard, the fine was 240 pounds and is recorded in 
the accounts of the Sheriff of Antwerp for 1646—1650. This, however, is not quite correct. 
The note of the fine paid by Jordaens appears under the general heading „ Ordinary Account, 
Mr. Nicolaes van Varick, etc. etc., January 1, 1651 to June 30, 1658". The document 
referred to records the sums received and spent by him, as well as the sentences he 
Inflicted. He begins with a list of those „ executed by the sword or rope or by water", 
and continues with ..punishments, such as scourging, branding, banishment, etc.", concluding 
with the fines. Under a heading „ Other returns of various kinds recovered from the following 
persons, etc.", we read: „From the painter Jordaens, for having written some scandalous 
papers, satisfaction IICXL £". The sum is here reckoned in pounds Artois, which were 
equal to Brabant guilders, and at the rate of the present day would amount to about 1500 
francs. The account of which this is an item runs, as we said, from January 1, 1651 to 
June 30, 1658, and contains twenty-four entries, that referring to Jordaens being the 
nineteenth. If, therefore, these items were entered in the order of their occurrence (which 
seems almost certain), and we strike an average over 1\ years or 90 months, we arrive 
at the 71 st - month, or November, 1656, as the date of Jordaens' fine. His punishment, it 
may be said, is the only one of the kind occurring in the account; all the other fines 
were imposed for infringements of police regulations, while the more severe penalties were 
passed upon murderers, thieves, disturbers of the peace, — not one for political or eccle- 
siastical offences. 

There can scarcely be any doubt that the „scandalous" papers written by Jordaens 
were of a heretical nature: in those days heresy was always referred to as , scandalous'. 
For example, among the decrees of the Synod of Antwerp which met in May, 1610, was one 
prohibiting the reading of „any book against the Church or the Catholic religion, or that 
incited one to speak slightingly of the religious orders or degrees, or that was otherwise 
, scandalous' or suspect". (2) In the same year the Council of Flanders forbade the import- 
tation or receipt of any „books, tracts, chorus, or song, heretical and ,scandalous' ". (3) 
We have already seen that in the edict of December 31, 1609, the errors of the heretics 
were called „scandals". 

Now, what were these papers for writing which Jordaens was fined? Unfortunately we 
cannot tell, but we can hazard a surmise regarding them. On May 5, 1655 the Governor 
issued an edict with the following instructions to the Magistrates: „Being informed that 
the ministers and preachers of the pretended reformed religion some time ago resolved to 
send forth into the country and towns within our government (and, it is said, have already 

(1) F. JOS. VAN DEN BRANDEN, Op. cit. p. 837. 

(2) Scandalosos vel suspectos (Decreta Synodi diocesanae Antverpiensis, Ex officina Plantiniana 1610. p. 13.) 

(3) Ghent. Jan van den Steene, Anno 1610. 



sent) certain of their number to sow and spread their sects and heresies, we therefore 
order you herewith to guard against that danger with renewed diligence and rigour, by 
proclamation and the infliction of such penalties as are set forth in the edicts, but with 
the discretion which each case demands, until further orders." (1) 

There is evidence that shortly after this a little book had a wide circulation in Antwerp, 
encouraging those of the Protestant faith and containing a „Guizen"-catechism, for on 
August 25 the Magistrates resolved that „as a certain little book with a ,Guizen'-catechism 
has been distributed throughout the town, instructions are given to pay one hundred guilders 
to any one who discovers the person responsible for the deed". This resolution was 
published in the town on the following day, mention being made of „some little books in 
the Duytsche (Flemish) and French languages, being a Guizen-catechism." It is quite 
possible that these were the „ scandalous" papers which Jordaens was charged with writing, 
and if so, it follows that as early as 1655 he had cast in his lot with the Reformers and was 

working zealously on their behalf. 
Jordaens' wife died on April 17, 
1659, and was buried in the church- 
yard of the Calvinistic parish of 
Putte, in the Commune of Ossen- 
drecht, just across the Dutch border, 
in the grave in which he and his 
daughter Elisabeth were laid to rest 
nineteen years later. 

On December 16, 1660, he 
appeared as a witness in an action 
concerning the genuineness of cer- 
tain pictures attributed to Van Dijck, 
and the sheriff of the Court noted 
on his declaration." juravit tantum 
per Deum" („he swore by God only"), 
from which it would appear that in 
open court he denied allegiance to 
the State Church without experiencing any trouble in consequence. 

The last and most important proof of his being a heretic is that during the closing 
years of his life the Protestants in Antwerp held their meetings in his house. 

The power of Spain having been re-established in the Southern Netherlands, the 
Protestants of the Northern Provinces sought to spread their doctrines throughout them, in 
the same way as the Catholics in the South were eager to recover lost ground in the North. 
The centre from whence the proselytising influence flowed towards the South was the 
Synod of South Holland at the Hague. There are still preserved in the archives of that 
institution many documents having an important bearing on the history of the Evangelical 
church in Flanders and South Brabant. A congregation was formed in Flanders in 1607 
with the title of „The Mount of Olives under the Cross", the clergymen of which were 
paid by the Synod of South Holland; and from a document dating from the early years 
of this institution we learn that the ..labourer" in the ..Mount of Olives", who had been 

ISAAC AND JACOB. Drawing (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam). 

(1) Placards of Brabant. Velpius, 1664, III, 34. 


sent from London, was expected to travel from place to place in Flanders, to have a trade, 
to wear workman's clothes, and to preach in secret, through never to congregations exceeding 
twelve persons. 

A second, a Brabant, „Mount of Olives" came into existence in Antwerp, of which 
he registers from 1659 to 1795 are extant. Its beginnings, however, date from farther back 
than that. Herman Herberts, its first minister, is mentioned as early as 1607. (1) For a time 
there was no regular service, and it was only after the Peace of Munster that the congre- 
gation had an uninterrupted existence. Joannes Beccius was minister in 1652, Boerhaven in 
1654 and Herman Lydius in 1659. From the last-mentioned year until 1787 the church 
registers were kept regularly, and in these, now lying in the office of the registrar in 
Antwerp townhall, there are preserved the minutes of the proceedings of the Vestry, the 
membership-roll, and lists of those who were 
baptised and married between 1659 and 1791. 
In 1671, when the congregation met in Jor- 
daens' house, it comprised ninety members; 
and there were still forty-two in 1791. From 
1660 to 1787, 163 children were baptised, 
and from 1674 to 1786, 71 marriages were 
celebrated. The ministers were always paid 
by the Synod of South Holland, and were 
under the supervision of their Lordships, the 
Delegated Councils of the Provinces, who 
appointed them, and twice a year signed an 
order for their salary, as well as one for the 
rent of the church or room in which they held 
their services. The last minister, Dr. Adrianus 
Uyterhoeve, delivered a valedictory address 
on May, 1, 1791. When the Batavian Govern- 
ment stopped the payment of the annual 
stipend of the clergymen in 1795, the „Mount 
of Olives" ceased to exist. During its last years 
the service was held in the „ Eastern House", 
which was also the minister's residence. 

According to a tradition current in the 
congregation, the Brabant „ Mount of Olives" owed its origin to an agreement between the 
Duke of Brabant (that is, the King of Spain) and the Members of the States of Holland, 
come to on the occasion of the signing of the Peace of Munster; even as it was believed 
that in the Peace of 1609 there was a secret article to the effect that neither the heretics 
in Belgium nor the Catholics in Holland should be prosecuted on account of their religion. 
There is no good authority for either statement. By articles 17, 18, and 19 of the Peace 
of Munster, the King of Spain and the States General undertook that their respective 
subjects should enjoy the same freedom in the practice of their religion as had been 
granted by the Kings of England and of Spain to Spaniards residing in England to 
Englishmen in Spain; both signatories undertook to see that due provision was made for 

Drawing (Rijksrauseuin, Amsterdam). 

(1) Celebration da cinqaantenaire du Synode de I' Union des Eglises protestantes de Belgique, Bruxelles, 1890, p. 137 et seq. 



decent burial-grounds for the subjects of the other, while such foreign residents, on their 
part, were to conduct themselves modestly and without offence in the practice of their 
religion. This toleration became still greater as went time on and before the end of the 
XVII th century the preachers and professors of the Reformed Church of foreign nationality 
in Antwerp were certain of personal protection so long as they kept themselves free from 
public scandal. That in the case of Antwerpers themselves this was true, to some extent 
at least even so early as 1660, we have seen in the fact that when Jordaens in the witness- 
box claimed to take the oath in the manner prescribed by the Reformed Church, no difficulty 
was raised, nor did he himself suffer inconvenience in consequence. 

On the other hand such toleration had its limits, and the books of the Brabant „Mount 
of Olives" contain evidence that full freedom and security was not enjoyed by the Protestants. 
There is, for example, the declaration of one of the members of the Protestant community 
in Antwerp, Abraham de Gauche, in 1659, that he could not appear at the Holy table 
because he feared his servant would betray him. In 1665 the congregation were obliged to 
pay hush-money to a poor woman called „Dutch Mary", who was employed to clean their 
hall : when they learned that she had entered the service of the Dean of the Church of Our 
Lady their anxiety increased, and from 1666 to 1670 we find them without a fixed meeting- 
place and looking out for a hall where they would be safe. 

In 1671, „Jordaens with his daughter and servants was admitted to Christ's Holy table 
and the Holy Sacrament." He was then seventy-eight years old. Communion was celebrated 
for the first time in his house on December 24, 1674; and was repeated there March 14, 
July 21, and December 28, 1675; April 12. and December 25, 1676; March 20, and Decem- 
ber 25, 1677; March 9 and June 17, 1678. On other dates in these years Communion was 
celebrated in other houses. (1) 

In the records of the Church we find this note: „Anno 1678 Octob. died the cunning 

painter Jordaens at o' clock, and at two o' clock the same night his daughter, Elisabeth 

Jordaens." Both, as we have mentioned already, were buried under the soil of the States, 
outside Antwerp, at Putte, in the churchyard of the Reformed community there. By the 
treaty signed on the surrender of Antwerp, two churchyards within the town were assigned 
to the Protestants remaining there; but after the expiry of the four years during which 
heretics were allowed to reside in the town the churchyards were closed. 

Except the heavy fine which was imposed on him, and the necessity his heirs were 
under to bury him outside his own country, Jordaens so far as we can see suffered nothing 
by going over to the Reformed Church. He was as highly esteemed and honoured, and 
commissions came to him as freely, after he took that step as had been the case before. 
When his brother artists spoke to him, or about him, they addressed him as „Mijnheer" 
Jordaens, a title which was given only to men in authority and gentlemen of distinction. 
We saw that, when in 1665 he presented the Gillyflower with a ceiling-piece for their hall, 
they presented him with a silver ewer and basin, and inscribed verses in his honour in 
their registers. In 1669 the members of the Olive-branch entertained him and his son-in-law 

the Inlwe'rn'^L'L 6 p" " °'-f ""^ """f ^ In ""^ ArcMveS We B » d a C °P y of the Re S ister ot Baptism, and Marriages in 
Ise doculntf Th r h rr D h "L ™ m '^ *° ' 789; * C ° Py ° f the Register of M ""^s, I6 65-1789: and , great number, of 
he VestrvTrl ifiW tn nm ■£? ' "^ * ^ R( * istrar ' s 0ffi « * Antwerp, comprise three registers. - 1. Minutes of 
the Vestry from 1659 to 1700, with the names of those confirmed during that time. 2. A copy of the same book from 1659 to 1700 

o ?; e r.ccu™ te^r OeZMl '^ ™\ C ° Py , ^ b ° Ught '» ^ for the SUm °' '«" * uilders from ^ A B " ^ ™ 
the davT Si cLlZT ? u ?i" S N °" Ce SUr Mdaens - and in "--sequence fell into several errors, as, for instance, 

membersWD roH a *1 *" e ?° bt ** d at J ordaens ' house - 3 - Mil »^s of the Vestry from 1701 to 1791, containing also the 

membership-roll, a schedule of property, the names of the ministers, and the index of those baptised during this period 


in their hall. Not only did he number eminent persons among his patrons and execute 
works for municipal and other bodies, after he had forsaken the Roman Catholic Church; 
but to the end of his life Catholics, both clergy and laymen, commissioned altar-pieces 
from him. In 1655 he painted a St. Carolus Borromeus tending sufferers from the Plague 
for the Church of St. James at Antwerp; in 1663 a Christ among the Scribes for the church 
at Veurne; later still, a Mount Calvary for the Church of St. Gommarius at Lier; and in 
his last years an Ascent of the Virgin in the Teirninck School at Antwerp, and several 
other altar-pieces. The Protestant had no scruples in painting Catholic subjects for Catholic 
Churches, and the Catholic priests, on the other hand, had no hesitation in applying to 
a heretic artist to decorate their altars. 

There still remains the question, When and how did Jordaens go over to the Reformed 
Church? Cornelissen (1) and Alvin (2) believe that his own and his wife's parents were 
Protestants from 1585 onwards, but that they were among those who, though secretly loyal 
to their new faith, had their children baptised in the old so as to evade the edicts against 
the heretics. Jordaens in 1671, they surmise, was only professing openly what he had 
always believed in his heart. We have seen already that he did not wait until he had 
been inscribed in the records of the Reformed Church as taking the Communion, before 
declaring his opinion in public; whether he did so a little sooner or a little later, however, 
does not affect the question of his being born into a Calvinist household. The answer to 
that, we contend, is in the negative. No serious reasons are suggested for believing that 
he was. Jordaens and all his brothers and sisters were baptised in the Church of Our Lady, 
where also his marriage and theirs were consecrated; his sister Magdalena and Elisabeth 
became Beguines, his brother Abraham an Augustine. 

It is true that non-catholics are said to have been married and to have had children 
baptised in the Roman Catholic Church, to avoid being suspected of heresy; but there is 
no proof that such was the case in Jordaens' family, while the fact that his brother entered 
a cloister and his sisters the Beguinage, militates against the soundness of this conjecture. 
Moreover, there is the absence of any proof that Jordaens belonged to the Reformed Community 
before 1655, or at least before 1649, or that his parents or his wife's parents were not 
good Catholics. It seems more probable that he ventured on this important step in the 
second half of his life, and that he was persuaded to take it by people whose acquaintance 
he made in Holland. 

It is noteworthy that Jordaens, who frequently visited the Northern Provinces, was 
engaged on important works there during the period in which his conversion would seem 
to have occurred. From 1649 he was corresponding with Constantyn Huygens about the 
paintings in the House in the Wood, which were commissioned from him shortly there- 
after and finished in 1652. In 1661 he painted three large works for the town-hall at 
Amsterdam, and in 1663 the pictures for the mantelpiece in the large hall of the Court of 
Justice at Hulst. His daughter, Anna Catharina, born on October 23, 1629, married Johan 
Wierts, president of the Council for Brabant at the Hague, a follower of Jansenius. In 
view of her age, we conjecture that this must have been about 1649. Jordaens was on the 
best of terms with his son-in-law, who on September 27, 1660, bought a house and 
grounds for him at Voorbosch, on the south side of the Heerestraat at the Hague, for 6550 

(1) Messager des sciences et des Arts de la Belgique. 1833. 1. 

(2) Le peintre Jacques Jordaens est-il ni Calvlniste. (See ante). 



guilders. (1) In 1669—1670, as we saw before, they attended together a social gathering 
in the Chamber of the Gillyflower at Antwerp. That Jordaens was much in Holland after 
1649 we know from the works which he delivered personally at the Hague, Amsterdam 
and'Hulst- and we have also reason to believe that he visited other places, and in all 
probability' worked in them. In his evidence in the action Hillewerve v. Meulewels, he 
stated that he was in Utrecht three days before Whitsuntide, 1661. He was not the only 
Flemish painter to visit and work in the Northern Netherlands at that time. Van Thulden, 
a Catholic of Den Bosch, was his principal assistant in the glorification of Prince 
Frederick Henry of Orange, the most formidable enemy of Spain, and Thomas Willeborts 
Bosschaert, Gonzales Coques, and even Daniel Seghers, who was a Jesuit, worked for 
the Prince of Orange. But while they were not influenced in their religion thereby, Jordaens, 

THE WORSHIP OF ART. Drawing (Mr. Fairfax Murray, London). 

we conclude, made acquaintances in Holland, and heard and saw things there which 
caused him to reflect and, in time, won him over to the Reformed faith. 

We do not say that he was naturally inclined to doubt and scepticism. Too little is 
known about him as a man to justify us in forming a definite opinion about his conception 
of life. But from his works, so far as we can judge his feelings by them, we know that 
he was not by nature meek or endowed with a strong feeling for religious forms. His 
religious pictures are sacred stories conceived in an entirely human spirit. His first dated 
picture, The Adoration of the Shepherds, 1618, in the Museum at Stockholm, is a little 
scene from the home life of a Flemish workman. Mary is a respectable housewife, concerned 
about her child, regarding and exhibiting it with eyes full of love. His Christ among the 

1) Register of Notary C van der Beets. The Hague, Communicated by Dr. A. Bredius 


Scribes at Mentz represents a young teacher to whose words the old priests listen with 
astonishment and suspicion, and his Christ expelling the merchants from the Temple in the 
Louvre, a quarrel in the market-square. So with all his work: it lacks reverence Th 
disciples laying Christ ,„ the grave, in the picture in Antwerp Museum, push the body 
into the cavity of the rock, head-first, - a tasteless conception. Sometimes even he seems 
to ridicule a sacred subject; in the Susanna and the Elders in the Museum at Copenhagen, 

7 A 6Xa 7i e, K SUrPriSed bathCr SCemS rath6r t0 "** the ex P erience - I" the Museum 
at Asschaffenburg we find a St. Augustine with a chalice in which lies a flaming heart, 

and to this a young man is applying a match with which to light a lamp Yet the 

spiritual lesson this picture is intended to demonstrate is that the saintly father by his 

example fires his pupils with the love of God. He treats subjects from pagan mythology 

with no greater respect. In Jupiter fed 

by the goat Amalthea, he shows the god 

clasping his empty feeding-bottle and 

crying for his food; into his represen- 
tation of the story of Amor and Psyche 

he introduces unsightly pieces of furniture 

and unseemly actions. 

Refined feeling in such matters he 

certainly had not. He loved the life of 

the people, burgher enjoyment, profuse 

repasts with all their bustle and noise, 

and their less delicate accompaniments. 

He is carried away by bright, jolly, 

ancestral customs; he is a materialist, 

attracted by the joys of eating and 

drinking, and song and courtship are 

what he most often delights to depict. 

When he introduces himself into his 

pictures it is with puffed-out cheeks, in 

the role of a peasant blowing on his 

porridge spoon, or as a guest at the 

Epiphany feast playing the bagpipe. 

His personages are healthy to the core; 

his men enjoy life to the full, and his 

women, brimming with vitality, and 

filling their ample clothes well, are bold in their lovemaking, though without going to 

excess in their dalliance. 

Yet, while he is a materialist, he is also something of a thinker, a philosopher. The 
heads he painted best are those of people shrewdly observant or deep in thought. His 
evangelists and scribes, his ancient satyrs in The Peasant and the Satyr, his heads of 
Apostles and philosophers, tell us unmistakeably that the jovial painter was a reader of 
the human soul. Though his figures are always alive with light and colour, though 
for him the world is valuable only as a treasury of precious tones and delicate hues 
in which warm glow and cool shadow intermingle, yet very often also it is the soul 
no less than the body that attracts him, not merely an exterior tempting to the painter, 

Drawing (Mr. Fairfax Murray, London). 


but inner feelings as well calling for the elucidation and discovery of their spiritual forces. 

He stamped this dual personality on his portrait of himself which Peter de Jode 
engraved. In build sturdy, even to the point of coarseness, with long untidy locks, a 
broad visage and strong jawbones, he possesses a searching eye and a piercing look; 
his is the head of a man who troubles little about outward appearances, but wishes 
to penetrate to the reality and the substance of things. He does not seem to have much 
feeling for conventional forms and accepted ideas; his wish is to go his own way and to 
do as he likes. A lover of ancient custom when it affords him a glimpse of a curiously 
picturesque world, he does not in deed, speech or thought, tamely follow those who 
have gone before. He looks at the world through his own eyes, and boldly reports his 
opinion of what he sees. 

Such was Jordaens in his art, and no doubt he was the same in his religion. Though 
the step he took must have seemed strange and dangerous to those around him, he was 
not deterred by their opinion, but withdrew with his kin from the world in which he had 
lived. He was not dismayed by the punishment inflicted on him or by the envy and hatred 
his conduct excited in powerful and distinguished people. He acted according to his 
convictions, though he found himself alone among his fellow citizens in daring to oppose 
himself to the current of popular opinion. His conversion had little influence on his work. 
To the end of his days he went on painting saints and sacred stories, as the demand for 
them was made upon him. He regarded such commissions as matters of business to be 
completed faithfully, just as his carpenter supplied him with frames of a size and shape 
according to his instructions. It was in this spirit that, in 1658, he painted the Last 
Judgment, now in the Louvre, with Calvin among the damned falling into the abyss. At 
the same time he shows a preference for treating subjects from the Testament, Old and 
New, and for explaining his pictures in a truly Protestant manner by means of scriptural 
texts; inscribing them on the canvas, as, for example, in his Human Law founded on 
Divine Law in the Museum at Antwerp, and in the Court of Justice at Hulst; or else 
indicating the verse, as in the Reconciliation before the Offering in the Museum at Ghent, 
in the Christ and the Pharisees at Lille, and in several drawings. 

Pictures at Seville. — We know very little about Jordaens as an artist later than 
1665: a few only of his pictures painted after that year bear a date, though that of a few 
more is determined from authentic documents. For the rest, we must be guided by the 
evidence of their style to the date of their execution. As to his life as a citizen in this 
period, except the part he took in the service of the Reformed Church, there are few events 
of importance to record. The two dated pictures referred to are in the chapel of San Jose, 
in the Cathedral of Seville. Both bear the date 1669. One, representing the Circumcision, 
shows a certain resemblance in composition to the Dedication in the Temple at Dresden' 
but is much smaller (about 150 cm. high and 200 cm. broad). In both a high priest stands 
under a baldachin of red velvet, while a second, kneeling before him, offers him the infant 
Jesus. A third is descending the steps. Joseph and Mary are kneeling in the foreground. 
On either side of the High priest stands a chorister, carrying a burning torch in a candle- 
stick. Lower down on the canvas are seen the mass of the people, among them a man riding 
a donkey. To the right are a mother with her child and several onlookers. The light falls 
on the group in the centre and diminishes in strength towards both sides. The ensemble 
recalls to mind the picture at Dresden mentioned already. 


A drawing in the Museum at Rotterdam shows a much altered representation of the 
same scene. 

An Adoration of the Magi serves as a pendant to the Circumcision. Mary, in a blue 
cloak, sits to the right with her child in her lap. Joseph leans with one hand on a staff, 
and lifts his cap with the other. One of the kings, in a white cloak richly embroidered with 
gold, kneels before Mary; on his knees beside her is a servant with a gold vase in his 
hand; the second king, a stout figure in a gold-coloured cloak, stands behind the first; 
higher up the negro king, wearing a turban with a high plume, is looking on with curiosity 
at the scene. To the left are two torch-bearers, pages, a horse, and two camels. Near the 
negro king are a servant with a monkey on his hand and a man on horseback, and to 
the right several onlookers, among them a stout man in red; on the ground lies an ox. 
The picture is rich and varied in its light-effects. Its resemblance to the altar-piece at 
Diksmude is striking. 

Pictures at Oosterhout. — We have now to speak of an event in Jordaens' life 
which enables us to fix the date of certain of his works. In 1636 his sister, the novice 
Elisabeth Jordaens,. a beguine at Antwerp, entered the cloister of St. Catharinadaal at 
Oosterhout, near Breda, in North Brabant. When, in the following year, Breda fell into the 
hands of the United Provinces, she laid aside her nun's garb; but in 1645, she returned 
to the cloister, together with her sister Magdalena, also a beguine at Antwerp. In 1646 
she died, leaving a sum of 1000 guilders to be paid to the Cloister after the death of 
Magdalena, an arrangement which her sister sanctioned. On Elisabeth's death Magdalena 
returned to Antwerp; and at her death, which occurred there, the Provost of the cloister at 
Oosterhout claimed the 1000 guilders from her heirs and communicated with Jacob Jordaens 
and Augustyn Thijssens, also a painter, on the subject. Both, however refused to transfer 
the money, but in 1673 were forced by legal process to do so, and paid the legacy, partly 
in money and partly by three pictures, — The Martyrdom of St. Quiryn, The Adoration 
of the Magi, and St. Norbertus receiving the cloth of his Order. It is probable that Jordaens 
painted one or even two of these pictures. The first of the three has disappeared, but 
the two others are still in the convent. (1) 

I made an effort to view them, but was only partly successful. As no man is allowed 
inside the convent, the pictures had to be brought outside if I was to see them, and this 
was possible only in the case of The Adoration of the Kings; the other, St. Norbertus, being 
too large to be taken from the room in which it hangs. The Adoration of the Magi looks 
as if it had been painted in Jordaens' studio, but it is not by his hand, and so informs 
us little about his style in 1673. The Virgin sits with the little Jesus on her lap; the child 
holding a globe with a crown and a cross. Above hover two angels, carrying a garland 
of flowers. To the right are two kings worshipping the child: one is wrapped in a cloak 
of gold brocade, the other in a red garment; to the left we notice the negro king, carrying 
a silver incense-boat. Inscribed at the top is, Psalm 38. V. 29: Et in templo ejus omnes 
dicent gloriam, a verse which used to be sung at Epiphany feasts. 

The picture is completely spoiled, — cracked and faded. The curious idea of giving the 
child a globe in his hand, and still more the inscription from the Bible, confirms the conjecture 
that the painting, though not executed by Jordaens, was nevertheless supplied under his direction. 

(1) Eene kleine bijdrage tot de Geschiedenis van J. Jordaens, by F. W., Flemish School, XX 111, 178. 



It may also be taken as almost certain that during the last years of his life Jordaens 
painted more and more darkly: first the shadows become deeper and the figures heavily 
outlined- gradually the vivid colours disappear, and during the closing years he seeks his 
effects exclusively in the contrast of light and shade, black being predominant. Among the 
works belonging to this period some are masterpieces, but there are others without charm, 
indifferently treated by the master himself or, more usually, executed by his pupils and 

There are three pictures in the Museum at Antwerp which I date from the last twelve 
years of his life.. 

The Last Supper. - One, The Last Supper, ranks among his greatest achievements. 
In a hall of monumental dimensions, screened in the background by two barred windows 
and a door, the Last Supper is being celebrated. Through an open window on the right 

we look out upon a field; 
a piece of red drapery is 
suspended high up on the 
left. Thirteen have sat down 
at the table, Christ in the 
centre facing the spectator, 
with Judas opposite. The 
Saviour puts a piece of bread 
into the traitor's mouth with 
an inelegant gesture, and 
even more unpleasant is that 
of the ruddy knave himself. 
Christ leans his left arm on 
the table, and his right on 
the head of a brown dog. 
The Apostles are conversing 
in groups, one of three figures 
to the left, another of four, 
and two, of two to the right. 
We are to imagine that Jesus has spoken the words, „Verily I say unto you, that one 
of you shall betray me" and, in answer to John's questions, „Lord, who is it?" has 
replied, „It is he to whom I shall give a sop when I have dipped it." And when he had 
dipped the sop he gave it to Judas, Simon's son, Iscariot. (1) A moment before, the 
Apostles had been seated quietly at table, but at the words and action of Christ they 
have jumped up in great agitation. We seem to hear them say: „So he is the traitor! Who 
would ever have thought it." This commotion and movement have brought life and variety 
into the groups, and the monotony of their lines is broken. All the heads are those of 
workers: powerful figures without coarseness, but also without spiritual refinement; all of 
them gray and old; not ascetics, not patriarchs or fanatics, but faithful believers, people 
from among the crowd with picturesque heads. Judas alone is vulgar and ugly ; the others 
are healthy in body and mind. As the quiet evening hour advances, all these men are 

THREE WANDERING MUSICIANS (Sketch, Museum, Madrid). 

(1) John XIII, 21-26. 



becoming restless and anxious, one inquiring inquisitively, another busy explaining; some 
gently and in astonishment, that one deeply moved and indignant. 

The most, remarkable thing about the picture is its cross lighting. On the right the 
light of the setting sun, falling through an open arch, touches most strongly the group of 
the three Apostles; passing on to Judas, whose head is deep in shadow, and legs even 
more so. Competing with it is the artifical illumination from a chandelier with twelve 
lights hanging from the ceiling; it falls on the centre of the scene, on Christ and the 
group of four Apostles on his left. The light from both sun and lamp is tempered; 
gradually diminishing in strength from left to right, with multifarious play of dusky shadows. 
There are neither very high nor very low tones. A soft glow suffuses the whole, with 
copper-coloured gleams in the light passages and bronze tints in the dark. The back-ground 
is dimly lit; all the figures are 
shrouded in brown shadows. The 
painting is unusually broad and 
rough — smeared rather than 
brushed; the flesh lacks firmness, 
but is tender, and has the quality 
of paint that has been kneaded 
and thumbed. 

The contours are blurred and 
softened; melting masses and 
gleams of brightness glow from 
beneath the heavy shadows in 
which bronze-brown shimmerings, 
outline everything dimly, so that 
little appears in relief,-only the 
corner of a table, appearing to 
shoot up through the canvas, or 
a head or a leg showing from 
beneath the table. The picture 
was originally in the old Au- 
gustine church at Antwerp, the 
archives of which might have 
thrown some light upon its origin 
had they not unfortunately been 

lost. I have no doubt, however, that Jordaens executed it at the end of his career, when 
he frequently used these same coppery tints, and employed an increasingly bold method 
of illumination. Reynolds, who saw the picture in 1783 hanging in the Augustine Church 
for which it was painted, recognised in it some excellent heads in the style of Rubens. 

At the Aarnout de Lange sale (Amsterdam, 1883) there was a pen-drawing Christ at 
table with his diciples washed in with soot. 

In the right aisle of the Augustine Church, where „The Last Supper" hung, Reynolds 
discovered another picture by Jordaens, Christ praying m the garden of Olives. Descamps 
when he saw it a few years earlier (1) wrote: „Christ seems to faint at the sight of the 

SILENUS, FLORA AND ZEPHYRUS (Mrs. Parmentier, Knocke). 

(1) Reynolds Voyage II, 283. Descamps, Voyage pittoresque. p. 173 



instruments of passion which the angels show him. In the foreground the disciples are 
lying asleep." He describes it as a good picture, composed and painted well, and striking 
in effect. It seems to have been a pendant to „The Last Supper", and of equal importance 
Curiously enough, it is not mentioned among the pictures carried off by the Commissaries 
of the French Republic, while „The Last Supper" appears on their list. We know nothing 
of its history later than Reynolds' mention of it. 

The Hospital Nuns. — The second of the pictures belonging to Jordaens' last period, 
now in Antwerp Museum, is called The Hospital Nuns, and represents a scene from the 
wards of the St. Elizabeth Hospital at Antwerp for which it was painted. In the excellently 
preserved archives of the City's Hospitals, including the documents of the old Hospital in 
question, there is unfortunately no reference to this important work, though it evidently 
is a memento of benefactors or directors of the institution. 

The scene is laid in a hall, shut off at the back by red drapery, against which is a 
seat occupied by a nun dressed in black with a white kerchief over her head, — clearly 
the Mother-Superior. On a table in front of her stands a large copper basin, from which 
she is serving out soup. Beside her, to the left, stands a nun completely in white, holding 
two loaves; while to the right another, also in white, is supporting an invalid; more to 
the right still is a fourth, holding a glass to the lips of a sick mother who is seated 
on the floor, pale as death. To the left there is a fifth nun, putting a shirt over the shoulders 
of an invalid. A group in front of the table are waiting for the food about to be dispensed; 
seven patients and a dead child are grouped on the floor. In the foreground is a man, dead 
or dying; and two mothers, each with a child, seek the sympathy of the sisters. In an 
ante-room we see a nun at a sick-bed. In the background to the left are a lady and a 
gentleman distributing alms to three poor persons, and there is a priest to the right: no 
doubt two benefactors and the chaplain of the institution. Behind the priest is seen 
dimly a picture representing the Ascent of the Virgin. 

The work is broadly and rather coarsely painted; the white patches of the nuns' 
garments and of the linen of the poor stand out powerfully in relief against the dark 
background and the heavy shadows which envelope the whole scene. The back of the 
naked man being dressed displays strong, knotted muscles, and the suffering of the coarse 
patients is roughly depicted. The composition keeps the scattered action together cleverly. 
The whole has been painted with more facility than care ; the varied movement and strong 
contrast of light and shade are attractive. The lady and gentleman in the background, 
doubtless, as well as the priest and perhaps also the nuns, are portraits. The rough but 
fluent, brush-work, the abundant shadows, and the strongly realistic representation point 
to an advanced period in the painter's life. 

The Entombment. — This is the third of the pictures in the Museum of Antwerp 
referred to, and it seems to me to date from shortly after 1665. The sun has set, and low 
on the horizon is the bright-red after-glow. Four men are at work, pushing the dead body, 
head-first, into the grave. Two venerable disciples, Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, 
are standing at the foot; Joseph, an old man with long hair and beard, and wearing a 
little red cap, holds the shroud. He is robed in a costly garment of red and gold, like 
a priest; Nicodemus, who has the features of an old swarthy Jew, holds the dead body by 
the legs. Both are stooping forward in a watchful attitude. Two labourers stripped to the 


waist are at work in the grave, near the head, one lying with his breast on the ground, 
the other half out of it. John is stooping down between the two to help; and in the 
background are seen Mary, weeping, and Magdalen, who has a vessel of ointment in her 
hand, also wiping away tears. Two other sorrowing women stand beside her 

The picture is low-toned. Christ's body and the shroud, on which the light falls most 
strongly, are in high relief. Heavy, dark shadows lie on the dead body and give the canvas 
a leaden hue. The scene is coarsely conceived; there is something almost unseemly in the 
way in which the dead body is being handled. The execution, too, is rough, though the 
painting is broad. Joseph of Arimathea and the labourer to the left are hastily painted 
with a swift brush. But on the whole it is an effective composition of care and sorrow, 
realistically conceived, and cleverly rendered. It was painted for the Pieter Pot Abbey at 
Antwerp. There is a drawing of it in red and black chalk in the Rijks-Museum at Amsterdam. 

A Vanitas. — In the Brussels Museum also there is a picture which almost certainly 
belongs to the same period-a Vanitas (the Vanity of the World). On a table lie costly 
objects representative of wealth, such as a magnificent silver dish, and a rich vessel; as 
well as others symbolic of the pleasures of life, of power and authority, to which death 
puts an end, — musical instruments, books, flowers, fruit, a cuirass, a plumed helmet, a 
globe. All these are surmounted by a duck lying under a skull. Here, as in a riddle, lies 
the explanation of the picture, for there is a play upon of words the eend of eendvogel — 
(eend = duck) and end (=end) and thus we have „Death in the end". Crowning the whole 
is a lantern with one of the panes open, allowing Time to blow out the candle; there 
are also two amorini, one flying away and another blowing soap bubbles. 

The still-life is executed with remarkable skil; particularly the silver dish, a marvel 
of broad and tender painting, reproducing the peculiar tints of the metal with surpassing 
truthfulness. The reflections from the copper vessel also, and the sheen of the steel cuirass 
and of the wood of the mandoline, are rendered with remarkable broadness and suppleness. 
A parrot appearing among this soft play of light and shade strikes a sharp note with its 
many coloured feathers; and dominant over all is the sharply-lighted, grinning skull. 
Time and the children are painted in wavering patches of light with muddy shadows. The 
bold and true play of the light, the rich, oily touch, the heavy shadows growing darker and darker, 
indicate Jordaens' later period when his virtuosity reached its zenith. In the Museum at 
Lille there is a picture (No. 775) by Peter Boel, dated 1663, representing the same subject, 
in which, we believe, that animal painter co-operated with the master; there is no doubt 
that Jordaens not only painted the figures, but also put the finishing touches upon the 
still-life, thus to all intents and purposes making the work his own. 

Mount Calvary. Bordeaux. — This large canvas, which he painted for the St. Gom- 
marius Church at Lier, is one of the greatest works of Jordaens' last years. Carried away 
in 1794, it was presented by Napoleon to the Museum at Bordeaux, from whence it was 
taken to the cathedral where it still hangs. 

In the centre Christ hangs on the Cross, with his eyes turned heavenwards in suppli- 
cation to his heavenly Father. The transverse beam of the Cross is very short, and the 
arms of the sufferer are stretched upward at a very acute angle. To the left hangs the 
repentant thief turning penitently towards Christ; he is bound with cords to a T-shaped 
cross. The reviling thief is bound to a similar cross on the other side, his two arms tied 



together and slung over the cross-beam. An executioner is engaged in binding his heavily 
built legs Magdalen kneels at the foot of the cross, laying one hand on the shaft and with 
the other holding a cloth before her face. She wears a white garment, over which is thrown 
a piece of gold and red drapery that falls in ample folds. To the right stands John in a 
full red cloak, one arm across his breast, the other hidden under his robe; Mary in pale 
blue drapery over a white garment stands beside him; and both look up at Christ with 
pitying gaze. The figures to the" left are a Roman officer, draped in yellow and wearing a 
helmet, and mounted on a white horse, and an executioner, naked except for a blue cloth 
around his waist, holding a sponge on the point of his lance. In front of these is a mounted 
man only his head and that of his horse coming within the canvas. There is a second 

THE HOSPITAL NUNS (Museum, Antwerp). 

horseman behind the cross, and round the top of it float a few angel-heads in a nimbus. 
Out of the dark background the figures rise luminously in warm tones. Christ is 
pale with dark grey shadows which cover the face as if with soot, outline the muscles of 
the arms like cords, mark with deep furrows the upper part of the body, and give a 
corpse-like hue to the legs. The bodies of the thieves are brown, with violently marked 
muscles; this is especially so in the case of the reviling one, whose back exhibits two 
lumps of flesh with a deep furrow between. The flesh of the executioner and of the officer 
also is notched with heavy shadows, darkened and blackened. There are several dark patches 
on Mary Magdalen's garment, where the colour has been lost Mary and John are painted 
in bright colours, although the fear on their faces is indicated by means of heavy brown 



tints. The red garment of the dearly beloved Apostle is the only vivid colour-patch in the 

picture, the blue one of Mary the only high tone. 

It is evident that in painting this picture Jordaens had in mind Rubens' Mount Calvary, 

then in the Church of the Franciscan Friars, now in the Museum at Antwerp, and adopted 

its composition; the sadness and the horror of the scene, however, are expressed in his 

own way. The majesty of the principal figure has vanished; there is no longer nobility in 

Christ's anguish ; the scene is changed to one .of rude torture and suffering. The figures 

stand out against the dark sky in half-luminous, spectral tones. The dominant evening light 

renders all the forms vague, 

blunting the projecting parts and 

deepening the depressions: the 

malefactors on either side of 

Christ are vulgarised, and the 

pitiful aspect of grief is wantonly 

effaced. We do not find here 

those characteristic heads to 

which Jordaens gave such mag- 
nificent vitality in the Mentz 

picture. In his endeavour to display 

enormous masses of flesh and 

broad pieces of drapery exhibiting 

in the waning light a mysterious 

refulgence which we cannot ex- 
plain, he has produced, if not a 

fine, at least a powerful work. 

The first impression received 
from the picture is repulsive, but 
admiration follows a closer inspec- 
tion of it. I experienced this very 
markedly the last time I saw it. 
When I entered the church the 
morning light was weak and, 
with the natural darkness of the 
picture, gave to the figures a 
fantastic shapelessness. As the 
sunlight became stronger, however, 
it brought life to the lights and 
gold and silver into the bright 

spaces; a brilliance of glory began to shine through the darkness, and gradually the 
struggle between the light and the browns became a dramatic song, finishing in a hymn 
in praise of the triumph of light. The draperies of Mary, John, and Magdalen became 
softer the head of the white horse and the golden drapery of the officer more supple; it 
was only at the top of the canvas that the light failed to dispel the gloom, where, through 
the shimmering shadows, one realises the sufferings of the self-sacrificing God and of 
the two tortured malefactors. The picture impressed me strongly. I felt that Jordaens had 
hazarded everything to secure the effect he aimed at, and had triumphed ; sacrificing beauty 

(Church of the Beguinage, Antwerp). 


of form and charm of colour and lighting, he succeeded in representing this mysterious 
struggle between light and darkness, and in expressing the agony of the Saviour and the 
grief of his relations and friends, heightened by the painful melancholy of Nature herself. 
It is quite certain that this picture dates from about 1670, and is one of the great works 
of the artist's last period. 

Christ on the Cross. Tournay. -•- Another Christ on the Cross, in the church at 
Tournay, dates from the same time, but has much less value as a work of art. Here, also, 
Christ's arms are stretched sharply upwards on the cross. Mary Magdalen kneels at the 
foot, encircling it with her arms; the Roman soldier holds up the sponge to the sufferer. 
Mary, John, three Roman soldiers (one of them mounted on a white horse), a man, and 
a woman with her child, are gathered round the cross. The picture, dark in itself, hangs in 
a dark chapel. The shadows are black. The man with the lance has been painted in brown 
ochre. Our Lady in her blue robe and John in his red cloak are dim and vague figures; 
Magdalen, wearing a yellow garment, is posed in a tasteful attitude. Here and there gleams 
of light appear in the pool of darkness, but they fail to give life or charm to this night- 
scene, in the painting of which Jordaens indubitably had a small share. 

The Ascent of the Virgin. — Among the last pictures Jordaens painted are two 
belonging to Antwerp charitable institutions : an Ascent of the Virgin in the Teirninck School, 
and a Dead Christ in the Maagdenhuis, the property of the Board of Charities. In the first 
we see Our Lady ascending to heaven, both arms uplifted. She wears a white garment 
over one of blue; little angels are hovering round her, and above her radiates a warm, 
nimbus. In the foreground is seen the vacant grave, in front of which kneel three women, 
two of them exhibiting to the Apostles the flowers they have taken out of it. One -of the 
Apostles peers into the tomb behind which he is standing, stooping so much to do so that 
we look down on the back of his head and his shoulders. The majority of the other eleven 
standing round the grave are gazing into its empty depth; one only follows Mary with 
his eyes. 

The picture is very dark in the central passages; those higher up on the canvas, — 
the Virgin ascending and the little angels — are lighter; and so are the women in their 
white, yellow, and blue robes in the foreground. A flickering light falls also on the heads 
of some of the Apostles. The darker tone prevails, however, in the ruddy shadows and in 
a circle of light so dull that the figures only partially loom forth from it. The flesh is in 
baked tints, over which the shadows are cast like so many rust-coloured stripes. Here and 
there a forehead, a neck or an arm emerges, but the whole is a pool of darkness, with 
fitful bright gleams. 

It obviously dates from after 1670. Jordaens had studied the effect of weak light fighting 
the hosts of darkness. The figures are suggested only, rather than drawn ; the, draperies are 
w.sted or narrowly pleated; there is no wealth of colour or light; the study of his 
figures has not concerned the painter, who has been attracted mainly by the mysterious 
shimmering of the scorching heat, the flaming and flickering of the warm light flooding the 
scene, and the transparency of the semi-darkness. In his change of style he is like Frans 
Hals who also in his last pictures showed a great preference for powerful, jet-black shadows 
This work, like all the others in the institution, was the gift of the founder, the venerable 
Mr. Teirninck, and formerly stood on the altar of.the chapel. Now it is in the.picture gallery 



This is the only Ascent of the Virgin by Jordaens that we know, but he certainly 
painted others. One appeared at the G. J. van Rymenam sale (Mechlin, 1858); another at 
the Simon sale (Brussels, 1852). Parthey mentions a sketch in the Bartels collection, at 
Berlin. There is also a drawing of the subject in the castle at Chantilly; and others appear- 
ed at the Jacob De Wit sale (Amsterdam, 1755), and the Daniel De Jonghe sale (Rotterdam 
1810). In the early part of his career Jordaens, in collaboration with Luellincx, painted an 
Ascent of Our Lady and two angels, which is mentioned in the inventory of the Widow 
Jan van Haecht at Antwerp, July 5-7, 1627. (1) 

The Dead Christ. — This picture, now in the Maagdenhuis, was in Jordaens' posses- 

VANITAS (Museum, Brussels). 

sion at the time of his death, and in view of this and from its style we conclude that it 
was one of his latest works. Christ has been taken down from the cross and lies on the 
ground with his head in Mary's lap. His swollen body is unsightly; the legs are covered 
by a white sheet which one of the disciples is lifting up. Mary's left hand is raised to her face 
in a gesture of woe ; John, in red, kneeling at Christ's feet, is holding the dead body as well 
as raising the sheet. Behind Mary are an old and a young woman; the old one holding a 
candle, the other a basket. Propped against the cross is a ladder, on which leans an old 
man dressed in a scarlet garment; behind John we see two women, one of whom carries 

(1) F. JOS. VAN DEN BRANDEN, Verzamelingen van schllderijen te Antwerpen. (Antwerp Archives. XXI. 326.) 


a copper basin. In the foreground stand a copper jug and dish; rocks are visible in the 
background. The evening has fallen, and the setting sun has left an orange-coloured glow 
in the sky towards the left. The painting is heavy and dark, with sombre gray shadows 
and vivid colour-effects on the white shroud, John's red garment, and the white bodice of 
the young woman to the left. 

The picture was bequeathed to the Maagdenhuis by Jordaens. In the archives of this 
house, now in the possession of the Borad of Charities which at present occupies the 
building, we read: „27 September, 1679, from Mr. Weerts, Counsellor in the Hague £25 
(Flemish) as a gift from his father-in-law Sr. Jacq Jordaens, deceased, besides the donation 
of the following picture Gd. 150. — 

„d° from the a forementioned Counsellor Weerts another picture painted by the said 
Jacques Jordaens, a Descent from the cross of the same size as the large overmantelpiece 
which he presents to the Poor besides the above mentioned £ 25 (Flemish) in money, in 
token of the charitable affection which Jacq. Jordaens, deceased, bore towards the Poor. 
Which picture has been placed in our Maghdenhuys as a memorial. 

„d°- 6 October (1679) to the men for carrying the picture to the Maghdenhuys received 
on 27 th ult. from the heirs of the painter Jacq. Jordaens G d -6.— " 

Mr. Rump of Copenhagen possesses a drawing which is evidently a study for the 
picture in the Maagdenhuis. (1). 

Mensaert mentions a Dead Christ in the St. Brice church at Tournay, a picture that 
suddenly disappeared without leaving a trace behind. At the Frans Mols sale (Antwerp, 
1769) and at the Schoreel sale (Antwerp, 1774) appeared a third copy. The dead Christ 
lies at the foot of the cross, surrounded by St. John and Joseph of Arimathea and a group 
of holy women. A smaller picture appeared at the Beschey sale (Antwerp, 1776); the 
inventory of Alexander Voet (Antwerp, 6-10 October 1689) mentions a Dead Christ by 
Jordaens. (2) The Albertina at Vienna possesses a drawing of the subject. (3). 

Portraits. — There are very few portraits extant painted by Jordaens in his last 
period. Of those which I know, one is the portrait of a man in the Louvre, formerly called 
the portrait of De Ruyter. It represents a corpulent personage, wearing black clothes, a 
white collar, and cuffs; a black sword-belt embroidered with gold runs slantwise across 
his breast. His long hair falls in curls over his shoulder. He is tremendously stout, and 
his eyes are almost closed with fat. The face has a coppery hue, and a grayish light 
falls on the hands. To represent such a figure realistically was to run a danger of falling 
into caricature, but the painter has avoided it by the elegance with which he invests 
the pose of the sitter, corpulent though he is, and the pride which he exhibits on his 
pear-shaped face, as he looks forth with a haughty challenge to anyone who would treat him 
with disrespect, and arrests the appearance of mockery on the lips of any who might 
feel inclined to smile. 

The second portrait with which I am acquainted belongs to his last period, and pro- 
bably to the very end of it, and is undoubtedly one of Jordaens' greatest achievements in 
this genre. It hangs in the Museum of Buda-Pest. The painting portrays an old gentleman 

^Lfv^U!-, th p:^ aagdenht,iS ^ A " tWerP - Handb °° k 1678 '* VO '- 53 " *«««"< '» EDM. QEUDENS, *«*.««,«*. 

(2) Antwerp Archives, XXII, 70. 

(3) Handzeichnungen alter Meister, I, 39. 



sitting in a red chair, one hand resting on the arm. He is dresed completely in black, save 
for the white collar and cuffs which stand out in sharp relief against his dark coat. His 
long hair is curly at the tips, the top of his head bald; he wears a moustache and there 
is a suspicion of a beard on the underlip. He looks decrepit, and has a melancholy and 
furtive expression. The painting is beautiful, firm without being hard; the light is soft 
but not hazy, the shadows are transparent, and the tone of the whole is unusually fine. 

Last Days. — Jordaens continued painting to the end of his life, though we know 

THE DEAD CHRIST (Board of Charities, Antwerp). 

but few works that date from his closing years. It seems probable that during these years 
he produced canvases which were either failures, or at any rate considered of such small 
value after his death, that they have disappeared. Of his life at this time, however, we 
possess a little information. Mathias Schuyts, a painter from Hamburg who visited him in 
1669, noted on the fly-leaf of Karel van Mander: Jacob Jordaens was the disciple of 
Adam van Noort. When I visited him in 1669, during my stay in Antwerp, I found him still 
painting industriously. He is kind, and polite, and took me over his house, showing me the 




many works of art in his possession, — his own and those of others" (1). Two years 
later Sandrart, who knew him personally, wrote that in his 78 th year (in 1671, therefore) 
he was living very quietly and comfortably at Antwerp, possessed of great wealth and 
held in high esteem (2). 

During his last years, however, his health failed, Constantyn Huygens notes in his 
^Journal", Saturday, 7 June, 1677: „The Prince of Orange sent for me immediately after 
the midday meal to go with him to Jordaens. The latter spoke with the prince, seated in 
a chair in which he was carried. He said that he was 86 years old, and talked much 
nonsense, getting mixed every now and then." (3) 

He died during the night of October 18 th -, 1678; and the same night, at two o'clock, 

THE DEAD CHRIST. Drawing (Mr. Rump, Copenhagen). 

died his daughter, Elisabeth, who had continued to live with him. No doubt both fell 
victims to the epidemic, which that year, and indeed most years, raged in Antwerp. „A 
flooding of the meadows on the other side of the Scheldt", says Papebrochius," was 
followed by a tainted air which brought to the town an illness unknown to the physicians, 

(I) „Jacob jordaens iss den dissipel geweest van Adam van Ohrt. A» 1669 vont ick hem nog narstich schilderen, doen:ick 
t Antwerpen wezende hem bezocht, ,ck bevont hem seer frindelick ende beleeft, want hei my in sein huys over al voerde ende al 

'r(Ku U n n stkron«k £jT" £) *° "" eige " "" "*"' hadde> t0 ° nde " C V ° SMAER ' 0wU «""«*«•"*«• <"*' ™°™- /«*«« 

ReicZ £\£. ^zvi^::^TT^: i0tfi im 78 Jahr seines Alters - ganz ruhig - und samiet benebens gr °- n 

(3) II (le Prince d'Orange) m- envoya querir incontinent apres disne et me fit venir avecq luy chez Jordaens qui parla a 
uy ass.s dans une dans laquelle on le portoit. II disoit avoir 86 ans et radottoit parlant mal Apropos de temis en temos 
(Journaal van Constantyn Huygens, Works of the Historical Society. Utrecht. New Series No 32 P m 


to which nearly one third of the population succumbed". (1) This illness, popularly known 
as the „Antwerp plague", raged for three months, and did not leave a single house 
unscathed and scarce one without a death. (2) 

In the accounts of the parish of Our Lady, the death of Jordaens is wrongly recorded 
as occurring on October 18, 1679. (3) 

Funeral. — As we have mentioned already, Jordaens was buried at Putte, a village 
to the North of Antwerp, lying partly in Holland and partly in Belgium, where there was 
a Protestant chapel. On his tombstone the following was inscribed: 




18 October A MVCLXXVIII 


Deerbare Catharina VAN Oort 


17 April A MVILIX. 


Jofv. Elisabeth Jordaens 
haere dochter sterf den 

18 October A 1678 

christus is de hope 
Onser heerlyckheit. (4) 

Under the French Republic, in 1794, the little church was demolished and the tomb- 
stones were left among the ruins. Jordaens', broken in three pieces, was discovered by an 
Antwerp merchant, Frans Pauweleart, in 1829. In 1833 Mr. Norbert Cornelissen, in a 
communication to the Messager des sciences historiques, Ghent, appealed for a worthy site 
for the tombstone, and in 1845, as the result of a request of the Belgian Government to 
the Government of the Netherlands in the previous year, for permission to erect a monument 
at Putte in memory of Jordaens, King William II of the Netherlands had all the tombstones 
which had been left lying there removed to a plot of ground enclosed by an iron railing. In 
1877, during the Rubens festivities, a small monument was erected on the same spot, to 
the pedestal of which was attached the tombstone of Jordaens as well as those of the 
painter Adriaan van Stalbemt (died September 21, 1662) and his wife Barbara Verdelft 
(died December 15, 1663) and of Guilliam de Pape (died 1674). The monument is surmounted 
by a bronze bust of Jordaens by Jef Lambeaux ; the front bears a bronze palette surrounded 
by a wreath of laurels, and a bronze medallion of Adriaan van Stalbemt has been attached 
to the left side. On the back is the inscription: „This monument, erected by a committee 

(1) Synopsis Annalium Antverpiensum. Edidit. I. V. S., 0. P., p. 44. 

(2) DlERCKXSENS : Antverpia Christo nascens et crescens VII, 412. 

(3) Jacques Jordaens f 18 8 1 "" 1679, Elisabeth Jordaens filia t 18 8" 1679 (Notes of Ridder Leo de Burbure, preserved in the 
town Archives of Antwerp, Vol. VIII, p. 79. Uittreksels uit de archleven der Hoofdkerk van 1100 tot 1796.) 

(4) Here lies Jacques Jordaens, born in Antwerp, died 18 October in the year MVCLXXVIII, and the respected Catharina 
van Oort, his housewife, died 17 April in the year MVILIX and Juffrouw Elisabeth Jordaens, her daughter, died 18 October in 
the year 1678. — In Christ lies the hope of our glory. 



of Belgians and Dutch in memory of. J. Jordaens, A, van Stalbemt and G. de Pape, on 
the site of their graves, with the aid of the municipality of Antwerp and of numerous 
lovers of art, was unveiled August 22, 1877, during the festivities celebrated at Antwerp 
on the occasion of the Rubens Tercentenary." 

As we have had frequent occasion to mention already, the pictures by Jordaens left 
behind him at his death were publicly sold at the Hague on March 22, 1734. The Catalogue 
enumerates 109 works, of which 42 are specially mentioned as painted by him. We 
append it in full. 

On August 8, 1886, a statue of Jordaens by Jules Pecher was unveiled in the park at 
Antwerp. It was erected by his native town from funds bequeathed for the purpose by 

Mr. August Nottebohm. In 1902 this statue 
was taken to the Gemeenteplaats and there 
placed opposite that of Anton van Dyck. 
Once again, in 1905, Antwerp did 
honour to the master. An exhibition of his 
works was held in the hall of the Fine-Arts 
Museum, when 91 of his paintings, 57 
drawings, 8 tapestries and all his etchings 
and the engravings after his works were 
gathered together from museums and private 
collections in Belgium, England, Holland, 
France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Den- 
mark, Sweden and Russia. 

Jordaens' place as an artist. — We 
have followed Jordaens through his long 
career, studying him as a man and as an 
artist. Except for his conversion to the 
Reformed faith there is little of general 
interest in the story of his life. He worked 
and lived for his art. He was happy in his 
lot. The son of a well-to-do burgher family, 
his life was tranquil and undisturbed; he 
acquired wealth and was highly esteemed 
in his native town and beyond it. For many years Antwerp ranked him as her leading 
painter and he received several commissions from crowned heads abroad. He was the 
last great master in the golden period of the school to which he belonged. To the 
principles which had made that school great, he remained faithful : a love of full, vigorous 
life, of cheery realism, brilliant colour, warm light, of everything, in a word, which 
makes this earth pleasant and worth living in. His was a strongly marked personality. 
From the very first he was attracted by the peculiarities of Flemish life. Greek and Roman 
beauty and Italian charm could not tempt him ; he was a man of the North, faithful to 
the actualities of his own soil and its history. He began by expressing, boldly and 
crudely, his preference for unpolished nature, for the masses, for the peasants with their 
rough corners and edges, their powerful colours and gestures. In this way he carried on the 
tradition of the old Flemings who looked for beauty in strength, and ranged himself with 

PORTRAIT OF A MAN (Louvre Paris). 




the younger generation of his country's artists who, as a protest against Southern sweetness, 
glorified more than ever Northern boorishness. 

We saw, how, after having boldly and even daringly introduced into his earliest works, 
some of them of large dimensions, a naturalism which no one had previously ventured 
to exhibit in great art, he suffered himself to be beguiled by the irresistible, alluring 
voice of Rubens, and yielded to his influence. Thus there were introduced into his pictures 
beautiful figures, elegant gestures, and a magic play of tints and tones. Yet he always 
remained the Flemish burgher, and a strong sense of truth ever made itself felt in his work. 
If he gave his models silk and velvet clothes, the silk was no less vivid in tone than the 
baize sleeping-jacket of his peasants; his light, flowing with richer tints and more tender 
shadows, remained no less vivid and bright 
in its radiance : his guests did not joke and 
carouse any the less freely and openly 
because now seated or standing round the 
richly spread board of the well-to-do bur- 
gher. The knotted muscles of his earlier 
figures give place to smooth, dimpled flesh, 
and velvet skin covers the bones, but the 
bony frame-work is not weakened thereby. 
The originality of the later Jordaens Was 
derived from the earlier, the excellences of 
whose work are not missing in that of 

succeeding years. Throughout all the 

changes in his style he was the painter of 

Flemish customs and popular amusements; 

the minstrel who sang the praises of what 

was sincere and healthful, of roguish and 

mocking laughter. As an observer of the 

joy and fun of the people he stands alone ; 

no one has ever expressed them with such 

daring and taste at once. He was the 

painter of the realities of all times ; he could 

see beyond the appearances of the crowd around him; he could read the soul and paint 

the thoughts and emotions of men, - the wrinkles in their minds as well as in their faces. 

His Followers. — Jordaens founded no school. His art was buried with him at Putte. 
This was not because he did not challenge or excite competition, but because there was 
no one who felt himself able to follow in the footsteps of this giant, with his great and 
brilliant art without becoming dwarfed in comparison. After his death, therefore, the 
painters continued in their allegiance to Rubens, and left Jordaens alone in brilliant isolation. 

We have seen that of the many painters who were apprenticed to him, no one made 
a name for himself. They assisted and copied him, but won no fame for themselves, while 
often their imitations were merely caricatures of their master's creations, emphasizing their 
coarser elements and robbing them of those which, with his bold grasp of nature, he 
fashioned into masterpieces. It was not only throughout his own country that his fame spread 
and won him pupils; from abroad also they flocked to him, attracted by his great renown. 




Queen Christina, we saw, sent him from Sweden the son of her chef Waldow, as an 
apprentice; and there was another foreign painter who took lessons from him. Jan Tricius, 
who was born at Cracow about 1620, and became the painter of the Kings of Poland, 
Jan Casimir Wasa, Michael Wisniowiecki and Jan Sobieski, learned the first rudiments of 
his art in Cracow. Leaving Poland about 1640, he resided for some years in France and the 
Netherlands, studying in Paris under Nicolas Poussin (1640—1642) and in Antwerp under 
Jordaens, and finally at Dantzic under Weiner. In 1651 he returned to Poland, and settled 
in Cracow, where he lived until after 1692. He died before 1696. It was as a portrait painter 

AS THE OLD COCK CROWS (Museum, Dresden). 

that he chiefly excelled. His principal canvas, a full-length of King Jan Sobieski (signed; 
Jan Tricius pinxit Cracoviae A 1677) is in Cracow University. He also painted altarpieces : a 
St. Floriaan is in the church dedicated to that Saint in Cracow; a „Christ on the Cross", 
painted in 1680, which decorates the high altar of the Parish Church of Bolechowice, a village 
in the neighbourhood of Cracow, betrays markedly the influence of the Antwerp School. (1) 

(1) From information communicated by Prof. Georges Mycielski. The document in which Tricius' stay with Jordaens is 
mentioned, and of which the contents are given by himself, is preserved in the archives of Cracow, and was published by 
Edouard Rostewiecki in his ..Dictionary of Polish painters" (Warsaw, 1851, 11. 269—270). It is a warrant of King Jan Sobieski 
appointing Tricius keeper of the royal castle at Cracow, and refers to the painter thus: „Jan Tricius our painter, who has 
attained great ability in his profession and art, in consequence of a long practice with the most renowned masters in painting 
and especially with Poussin at Paris, Jordaens at Antwerp, and Weiner at Dantzic." 


Jordaens and Jan Steen. — Jordaens exercised little influence over painters who 
did not come into personal relation with him. It is only in his contemporary Jan Cossiers 
{1600— 1671), a pupil of Cornelis De Vos, that we find traces of it. Cossiers took a delight 
in rendering actuality which caused him to degenerate into coarseness and vulgarity. In 
his religious scenes he displays a boldness that reminds us of Jordaens' want of respect 
in treating Biblical subjects; as, for example, in the pictures with which he decorated a 
great part of the walls of the church in the Begijnhof at Mechlin. He, however, cannot 
compare, in his colour or light-effects, with his predecessor, whose gift of shrewd obser- 
vation he also lacked. The only painter who really shows kinship with Jordaens, and, 
indeed, inherited his influence, is Jan Steen (1626—1679). The great Dutchman, the painter 
of merry-scenes and low-life, displays several points of resemblance with the Fleming who 
so indefatigably applied himself to the theme of „Long live happiness!" It is surely no 
mere coincidence that Jan Steen repeatedly chose Jordaen's favourite subjects, — „The 
Epiphany", „As the old cook crows", and the „Peasant and the Satyr". In them, without 
doubt, he takes a leaf or two out of the Fleming's book, Consider, too, for example, his 
frequent choice of bagpipe-players, flute-players, and travelling musicians. May we not 
attribute to the influence of Jordaens also his painting certain other subjects, which it 
surprises us not a little to find him treating at all, — works like „Moses striking water 
from the rock" and „Diogenes in search of a man". Nor is it only in the choice of subjects 
that we discover this resemblance ; it is found also in the spirit of his characters. Jan Steen 
shares with Jordaens the rare gift of being able to laugh with all his heart and soul. To 
the models of both, happiness comes by nature: now quietly modest or roguish, now 
wanton and noisy, their mirth is always natural, infectious, irresistible. Both artists show 
an honest enjoyment in the good things, the fat of the land; they take life easily, and 
contemplate what is beautiful and good from a material standpoint. We can almost imagine 
that the models of the two painters belong to the same family. Jordaens' women may 
wear clothes of stuff or silk or no clothes at all; Jan Steen's the Dutch bodice and skirt 
and cap of the landlady, or the more gaudy attire of the lady of pleasure ; but they are all 
alike voluptuous, plump, sparkling figures, however differently garbed. The jesters of both, 
again, with their half-shut eyes, drawn mouths, and sharp noses seem sometimes to have 
been painted after the same model. The colour is different; that of the Fleming powerful 
and broad, the Dutchman's subdued and of finer quality. The composition and the style, 
too, are different, Jordaens' absolutely simple, Steen's more brilliant and elaborate. Never- 
theless the relation between the two painters is undeniable, and it is fitting that Jordaens, 
who was himself so greatly attracted by North-Netherland, should find an echo of himself 
in one of its great masters in his art. 


In the measurements of the pictures the height precedes the breadth. 

Throughout the text voet and duim have been freely rendered „foot" and „inch". It is difficult, if 
not impossible, to arrive in all cases at their exact equivalents; for in Holland, before the introduction 
of the Metric System, the voet had a score or more significations. Moreover, it contained, sometimes 10, 
sometimes 11 or 12, duimen ; the duim again being subdivided, sometimes into 8 (achtsten), sometimes 
into 10 (lijnen). A further complication arises through the retention in Holland, after the introduction of 
the Metric System in 1869, of an older nomenclature for the metric measures. The meter was called an 
el; the decimeter, palm; the centimeter, duim; and the millimeter, streep. Thus, for example, 1 el, 3 palm, 
7 duim, 5 streep, might equal 1.375 M. ; but it might also mean something quite different. 

In these circumstances the translator, following the author, has made no attempt to reduce the 
measurements in the List to a common standard. 



in the possession of JACQUES JORDAENS, at his death. 
Sold March 22, 1734, at The Hague. 

1 An Italian Landscape, by 
Vander Ulft, 2 v., 6 d. by 

3 v., 7J d.l) 3 6-o2) 

2 The Prodigal Son, by Jor- 
daens, 2 v., lo£ d. by 3 v., 

10 d 10-15 

3 A little Kitchen, by Van \ 
Beest, 1 v., 34 d. by iv., 6 d. I fi 

4 A little Garden by the same, | ~ 

1 v., 34 d. by I v., 7 d. .J 

5 Three Naked Women and 
an Angel, by Jordaens, 3 v., 

74 d. by 3 v., 5 d.. 10-10 

6 A little Kitchen, 1 v., 5 d. 

by I v., 1 d 1-10 

7 A Seaport, I v., 3 d. by 9 d. 3-0 

8 A David, by Van Staveren, 

84 d. by 6J d 6-5 

9 Boys at Play, in the style of 
Brouwer, 114 d. by 9 d. 3-8 

10 A Merry Company, by 
Vinkeboons, 1 v., 24 d. by 

2 v 8-5 

11 A Soldier's Tent by Wou- 

werman, 2 v., 2 d. by 2 v., 

54 d 82-0 

12 A Diogenes by Jordaens, 

3 v., 8 d. by 5 v., 1 d. . 76-0 

13 A little Building by Bloemert, 

1 v., 2 d. by 10 d.. . . 1-2 

14 A little Kitchen, 1 v., 5 d. 

by I v., 24 d. ... 2-12 

15 A Seaport, I v., 3 d. by 9 d. 1-6 

16 A Face by Jordaens, 84 d. 

by 7 d 0-14 

17 A little Kitehen, 114 d. by 

9 d 1-0 

18 A few Children, symbolic of 
Harvest by Rubbens, 1 v. 

2 d., by 2 v., 34 d. . . 19-10 

19 A Flower-piece by Father 
Zegers, 1 v., 7 d. by I v., 

2d 6-0 

20 A Leda with the Swan by 
Jordaens, 1 v., 9 d. by I v., 

3d 4-5 

2 1 A Fruit-piece by Van Beyere, 

I v., 7 d. by I v., 2 d. . 1-12 





22 The History of Acteon, by 
Jordaens, 3 v., 10 d. by 4 v., 

6 d 

A little Landscape, 1 v., 
24 d. by I v., 2 d. 
A Little Garden by Pala- 
medes or Codde, 1 v., 2 d. 

by 1 v., 6 d 

A Little Landscape, 1 v., 

2 d. by 1 v., 2 d. . 

26 Pan and Syrinx, by Jordaens, 

3 v., 8 d. by 3 v., 34 d. . 
The Conversion of St. Paul, 
by uts. 3), 2 v., 34 d. by 2 v., 

11 d 

A little Farm-shed, by uts., 
1 v., 10 d. by 2 v., 44 d. 

29 The Unfaithful Shepherd, 

1 v., 10 d. by 2 v., 44 d. 

30 Socrates and Xanlippe by 
Jordaens, 2 v., 34 d. by 

2 v., 11 d. . 

Five little Children by A. B. 
Willaarts, 2 v., 54 d. by 

3 v., 3 d. . . . . 
The Stable at Bethlehem with 
several figures by Jordaens, 

4 v. by 5 v., 34 d.. . . 

33 Two little children with a 
dog by Jordaens, 2 v., 54 d. 
by 3 v., 3 d. . 

34 The Unknown God at Athens 
by Breenberg, 2 v„ 3 d. by 
2 v., 11 d. 

Arethusa by Moses Uyten- 
broek, 1 v., 3 d. by 1 v., 74 d. 
A Visit or a call of Mary 
to Elisabeth, 1 v., 3 d. by 

1 v„ I d 

A Peasant dance by Isaac 
Ostade, 1 v., 3 d. by I v., 74_d. 

38 An Italian Landscape with 
a few figures by Breenberg, 

2 v., 3 d. by 1 v., II d. 
A Wreath of Flowers by 
Velvet Breugel, with a figure 
by Jordaens, 2 v., 3 d. by 
I v., II d 


















1) 2 voct, 6 duim, by 3 voet, 7V2 duim. (See Translator's Note). 

2) Price in guilders and stuivers. 

3) Uts — ut supra, and here and throughout the Catalogue has to be read Jordaens. 

40 A Landscape, 1 v., \\ d. 

by 10 d. . . . 0-12 

41 A Portrait, II d. by 10 d. 7-10 

42 A little Landscape, 74 d. 

by 10 d 0-14 

43 A Field-labourer byjordaens, 

I v., 1 d. by I v., 6J d. 2-0 

44 Two Children and a Satyr by 
Jordaens, 2 v., 3d. by 2 v., 3d. 8-5 

45 The Story of Midas by 
C. L. M., 3 v., 6 d. by 4 v., 
44 d 

46 A Waterfall, by Knipbergen, 
1 v., 1 d. by 1 v., 9 d. . 

47 A Fruit-piece by Father 
Zegers, with figures by Jor- 
daens, 2 v., 3 d. by I v., lid. 

48 A little Landscape, I v., 
4 d. by 10 d. . 

49 A little Party by Hals the 
younger, II d. by 10 d. . 

50 A little Landscape, 7 d. by 
10 d. , . . 

51 A little Landscape with 
figures after the style of 
Berghem, I v., I d. by 
I v., 9 d 

52 Cupid and Psyche, by Jor- 
daens, 2 v., 64 d. by 3 v., I d. 

53 A Farm-shed, 1 v., 54 d. 
by I v., 10 d. . . 

54 A Battle by van Tol, I v., 
54 d. by 2 v. . . 

55 Christ in the Temple, 4 v., 
14 d. by 3 v., 4 d. . . 

56 An ass and a figure, 10J d. 
by I v., 14 d 

57 Noah's Ark, by Celyns, 
104 d. by 1 v., 74 d. . 

58 Cows and Sheep, by G. Cop, 
104 d. by 1 v., 2 d. . 

59 A Fruit-piece, 1 1 d., by 1 v., 
44 d 

60 A little Party by Codde or 
Palamedes, 5 d. by 7 d. . 

61 The Judgment of Paris in 
miniature, by Joachem Uite- 

waal, 6 d. by 8 d. . . . 14-10 




































62 A little Landscape, 4 d. by 
6i d 

63 A little Seapiece, 3J d. by 
6J d 

64 The History of Rynoud and 
Armide by B. Tysse, 3 v. 
by 3 v., 10J d 

65 A little Flower-piece, I v., 
1 d. by 8£ d 

66 Venus and Cupid with a 
Satyr by Jordaens, 3 v., 

5 d. by 2 v., 5J d.. 

67 A Flower-piece, 1 v., 10 d. 
by 1 v., 5 d 

68 A Seascape, 3^ d. by 6£ d. 

69 A ruined Building by J. v. 
CIoos, 6 d. by 9 d. . 

70 A small picture with figures 
representing Christ blessing 
the Children, after the man- 
ner of Rubbens, 7 J d. by I v. 

71 A very large picture, being 
a Sea Triumph, by Jordaens, 

8 v. by 12 v., 5 d.. 

72 Also a very large picture 
with the Weapons of Achil- 
les, by uts., 8 v. by II v. 

73 Also a large Justice or Moses 
and Aaron, by uts., 5 v., 7£d. 
by 8 v. . . . . 

74 The three Kings, a Copy 
after Jordaens, 3 v., 10J d. 

b y s v 

75 A Hunter and two Ladies, 
1 v., 2J d. by 1 v., 6 d. 

76 An „As the old Cock crows 
the young "one learns" by 
Jordaens, 5 v., 6 d. by 7 v., 

9 d, ... 

77 A Venus "and Satyrs by 
Jordaens, 3 v., 9 d. by 6 v., 

6 d 

78 A large square Piece, with 
four large oblique pieces, 
.serving as a ceiling of a 
large Chamber, representing 
the Story of Psyche, painted 










by Jordaens for Queen Chris- 
tina of Sweden, in all 24 v. 
by 22 v 150-0 

79 A Fruit-piece, 3 v r ., 3 d. by 

4 v., 2 d 7-10 

80 A little Seascape, 1 v., 6 d. 

in the round 0-11 

81 Christ feeding the Multitude, 
rich in detail, 2 v., 5 d. by 

3 v., 6 d 1 1-5 

82 Christ and the Woman of 
Cana, by Jordaens, 4 v., 

10 d. by 4 v., 10J d. . . 40-0 

83 Argus by uts., 3 v., 6J d. 

by 7 v., 4 d. . . 17-0 

84 A Story by Jordaens, 3 v., 

b\ d, by 7 v., 4 d.. . 33-0 

85 A Holy Family, 1 v., 7 d. 

by I v., 2 d 7-5 

86 A large Sea-fight at Gibraltar 
under Command of Admiral 
Heemskerk very elaborate, 

4 v., 4 d, by 6 v., 6 d. . 90-0 

87 A Woman and Child in a 
wreath of flowers by Jor- 
daens, 4 v., 5 J d. by 3 v., 10 d. 45-0 

88 A Midas, by Jordaens, 2 v., 

4 d. by 3 v., 9! d. . 16-10 

89 An Eleager by Jordaens, 

2 v., 3i d. by 3 v., l£ d. 39-10 

90 Cadmus by uts., 2 v., 4 d. 

by 3 v., 4 d. . . . 4-12 

91 A Night-light by uts., I v., 

4J d. by i v 15-0 

92 A little Farm-shed, I v., 

4J d. by 2 v., l£ d. . . 11-9 

93 A House for Harlots by 
Jordaens, I -v., 4J d. by 

1 v., 1 d 23-0 

94 A small Flower-piece, 6 v., 

2 d. by 4 v., 2d.. . 25-0 

95 A Small Flower-piece, 1 v., 

2,\ d. by 2 v., id.. . 0-15 

96 The Women at Christ's grave, 
by Jordaens, very beautifully 
and minutely painted, 7 v., 

4$ d. by 5 v., I d.. . . 155-0 

97 Abraham's Offering, by uts., 

,. 7 v., 7 d. by 7 v. . . 190-0 

98 The Bearing of the Cross, 
by uts., 7 v., 2 d. by 5 v. 

9 d. . . .... 100-0 

99 The Adoration of the three 
Kings, by uts., 9 v., 4 d. 

by 6 v., 7 d 150-0 

100 A delightful picture repre- 
senting a Young Man and 
a Young Woman, and a 
Cupid, by uts., 5 v., 6 d. 

by 4 v., 10 d 78-0 

101 A Vanitas, by uts., 5 v., 

8 d. by 3 v., 9 d. . . . 41-0 

102 A Boy and a Girl, by uts., 

6 v. by 2 v., 10 d. . 361-0 

103 A Balcony with a party of 
young people, II v. by 

4 v., 6 d 61-0 

104 A Balcony with a Moor 
and a Woman, by uts., 
II v., by 4 v., 4 d. . . 21-0 
A Fool with an Old Man 
and a Young Woman, by 
uts., 6 v. by 2 v., 10 d. 16-10 
A Fruit and Flower-piece, \ 
by uts., 3 v., I d. by 

5 v., 9 d 

A ditto, 3 v. Tjy 6 v., 2 d. 

107 Four Inscriptions with Orna- 
ments: the letter A., 5 v., 

I d. by 6 v., 9 d. ; the 
letter B , 4 v., 6 d. by 8 v., 

II d. ; C, 4 v., <j\ d. by 
8 v., 3I d. ; D., 2 v., 5 d. 
by 7 v., 4 d. . 

108 Six Busts on Pedestals, with 
Ornaments : each 13 v. by 
I v., 10 d. ; and another 
with ornaments, 5 v., 4 d. 
by 4 v. . . ' . 

109 A whole ceiling of five 
Pieces, representing the 
Story of Psyche and two 
smaller Flower-pieces, in all 
23 v. by 17 v 




(Catalogue, or a list of pictures, with the prices of the same, sold at public auction in 
Holland and elsewhere during a long period: together with a collection of lists of several 
cabinets still existing, published by Gerard Hoet. The Hague, Pieter Gerard van Baalen 
M.DCC.II. Vol I, pp. 400—406). 


The figures after the title of the work indicate the pages on which it is mentioned; those in italics, 
the pages on which it is described or is discussed at greatest length. The figures preceded by (pi) indicate 
the pages on which the works referred to are reproduced. 



The Last "Judgment . . 203, 230. 

Louvre, Paris. Canvas, 391 cm. by 
300 cm. 

Signed; J. JOR, fee. 1653. 

The Last Judgment .... 203. 

Formerly in the audience-chamber of 
the Town-hall of Veurne, where Des- 
camps saw it in 1768. Carried off by 
the Commissaries of the French Republic, 
and presented by Napoleon to the Museum 
at Strasburg. It was burned along with 
the Museum during the Franco-Prussian 

B. Old Testament. 

Adam and Eve in Paradise. 

Sale. — Chevalier de Burtin, Brussels, 

Canvas, 155 cm. by 183 cm. 

Later, in the possession of Mr. E. De 
Coninck, art-dealer, Brussels. On De- 
cember 9, 1902, sold by Frederik Muller 
at Amsterdam among the pictures from 
the Academy of Arts at Middelburg. 
The sale-catalogue contained a phototype. 

In March, 1903, an Adam and Eve in 
Paradise (in all probability the same 
work) was sold in Berlin by Rudolf 
Lepke for 2,330 marks. 

Adam and Eve expelled from Paradise. 
(With a festoon of flowers by D. Segers). 

Sale.- — Nourri, Paris, 1785. 

The Deluge. 

Sale. — May 16, 1696, Amsterdam. 

Noah bringing the Animals into the Ark. 

Sale. — Jules de Senezcourt, Brussels, 

Canvas, 138 cm. by 194 cm. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham . . 215 

Museum, Milan, No. 443 ; 243 cm. by 
154 cm. 

Received in exchange from the Museum, 
Paris, January 9, 18 13. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham. 

Museum Stuttgart, No. 441. 

Canvas, 76 cm. by 60 cm. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham. . 29 

Museum, Hamburg, No. 82. 

Panel, 68.5 cm. by 53 cm. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham. 

Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 
March, 22, 1734, 7 feet, 2 duim by 5 feet, 
9 duim, 190 guilders. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham. 

Sale. — Cuyper de Rymenam, Brussels, 
1803, 2 feet, 3 duim by 1 foot, 2 duim. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham. 

Sale. — L. J. Faydherberbe, Mechlin, 

Canvas, 72 cm. by 58 cm. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham. 

Sale. — Van Rooy, Antwerp, 1870. 

Canvas, 105 cm. by 78 cm. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham . 215, pi. 215. 

Drawing, Pen and Water-colour, 
Louvre, Paris. 

Signed : Jordaens. 

Abraham and Isaac. 

Drawing for tapestry : black-and red- 
chalk. Print-room, Berlin. 

Lot and his two daughters. 

3 feet, 6 duim by 4 feet, 6 duim. 

Sale in the "Koningen van Zweden", 
Bisscliopstraat, Brussels, in 1777. 

Lot and his two daughters. 

A charcoal drawing of this subject, 
with a portrait of Jordaens and a study 
of a man's figure on the back, appear- 
ed at the Artaria, Dr. F. Sterne and 
Prof. Dr. L. M. P. Sale at Vienna, in 1886. 

Isaac blessing Jacob. 

Canvas, 134 cm. by 171 cm. 

Bruges, The English Convent. 

Ditto. Sale.- Van Velsen, Mechlin, 1808. 

Ditto. Doudon, Brussels, 1818. 

43J duim by 72J duim. 

Signed, Jacobus Jordaens. 

Ditto. Sale.— Brussels. "Marche de la 
Chapelle," 1823. 49 d. by 63 d. 

Ditto Sale. — Van Meldert, Mechlin, 


Ditto. Sale. — Eg. van Laerbeke, Ghent, 

Canvas, 1 el, 3 palm, 7 duim by I el, 
7 palm, 4 duim. 

Ditto. Sale.-Mensart, Amsterdam, 1824. 

Canvas, 134 cm. by 173 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Soenens, Brussels, 1877. 

Isaac blessing Jacob 

Drawing, J. Masson, Amiens. 

Eliezer and Rebecca (with landscape 
by van Uden.) 49 

Museum, Brussels, No. 315. 

Canvas, 182 cm. by 307 cm. 

Sale. — Geelhand de Labistraete, Ant- 
werp, 1878. 

The picture appeared at an exhibition 
at Antwerp in 1849 in aid of the fund 
for the erection of a statue to Math, 
van Bree. 

Rebecca at the Well .... 50 

Canvas, 153 cm. by 183 cm. 

Sale. — Huybrechts, Antwerp, 1902. 

Ditto. Sale. — A. de Pester, Antwerp, 

Canvas, 57 duim by 69 duim. 

Ditto. Sale. — De Mameffe, Brussels, 

Ditto. Sale. — J. A. Snyders, Antwerp, 

Canvas, 145 cm. by 165 cm. 

Joseph and Potifhar's Wife. 

Sale. — Sr. Jacomo de Wit, May, 15, 
1741, Antwerp, 5 feet, 2 duim by 7 feet, 
3 duim. 

Moses taken Jrom the River. 

Canvas, 168 cm. by 279 cm. 

Sale. — De Robiano, Brussels, 1837. 

Pharoah's daughter finding the child 

Sale.— Robert Chantrell, Bruges, 1840. 

Panel, 15 d. by 23 d. 

Zipporah returns to Moses. 

Schloss Roland Fahne (Parthey I, 

Canvas, 5 v., 5 d. by 4 v., 11 d. 

Moses striking the Water from the 
Rock j/, pi. 32 



Museum, Karlsruhe, No. 186, 205 cm. 
by 180 cm. 

Ditto. Cassel. In the residence of the 
General Commandant. School-piece . 32. 
Ditto. Sale. — Lieven Leyens, Ghent, 
Canvas, n^duim by i8£ duim. 
Ditto. Sale. — Frans de Vos, Ghent, 

Ditto. Sale.— J. D. David, Brussels, 
May, 16, 1898. 

Samson slaying the Philistines. 
Palace, Amsterdam. Painted in 1 66 1. 

Samson hound by the Philistines. 
Drawing, black chalk, heightened with 
white chalk, on blue paper. 

Sale. — J. G. A. Frenzel, Dresden, 1837. 
10 duim, 4 lijn by 12 duim, 6 Hjn. 
David slaying Goliath. 
Royal Palace, Amsterdam. Painted 

in 1661 205. 

David with the head of Goliath. 
Sale. — Pixell, London, 1899. 
King David (Copy after Jordaens). 
Inventory of the Juffr. Susanna Willems- 
sens, widow of Signorjan van Bonn, 1657. 
Abimalech giving David bread and wine. 
Sale. — Soenens, Brussels, 1877. 
Canvas, 383 cm. by 296 cm. 
David and Bathsheba. 
Sale. — Chapuis, Brussels, 1865. 
Canvas, 65 cm. by 120 cm. 
David and Abigail. 
Sale. — C. L. De Corte and others, 
Antwerp, 1853. 

The Judgment of Soloman. 
Museum, Darmstadt, No. 308. 
Panel, 33 cm. by 104 cm. 
Ditto. Sale. — Van Ourshagen, Mechlin, 
Canvas, 35 cm. by 116 cm. 
Solomon consulting the Wise Men. 

Sale. — Cuypers de Rymenam, Brussels, 

Ruth showing her mother-in-law the 
barley she has gleaned. 

Sales. — Stier d'Aertselaer, Antwerp, 
1817 and 1822. 

Canvas, 17 duim, 6 lijn by 28 duim, 
5 Hjn. 

Ruth and Boaz. 

Sale. — Stier d'Aertselaer, Antwerp, 1 8 1 7 
and 1822. 

Canvas, 71 duim, 6 lijn by 28 duim, 
5 lijn. 
Amnon and Tamar. 
Academy, St. Petersburg. (Waagen, 
Gemalde Sammlungen zu St. Peters- 
burg p. 396). 

Esther and Ahasuerus. 
Sale. — P.J. de Marneffe, Brussels, 1830. 
Canvas, I el, 80 duim by 2 el, 60 duim. 
Job ........ pi. 37. 

Paul Mersch, Paris. 
Ditto. Sale. — Haro, Paris, 1892. 
Panel, 66 cm. by 53 cm. 
Susanna and the Two Elders. . 193,799. 
Museum, Brussels, No. 241. 
Canvas, 237 cm. by 174 cm. 
Ditto. Sale.— Mme. Genti'l de Cha- 
vagnac, Paris, 1854. 

Ditto. Sale. — V. L. and Charles van 
den Bergh, Brussels, 1858. 
Ditto. Sale. Gheldolf, Brussels, 1863. 
Ditto. Franck— Chauveau, Paris. 

201, pi. 200. 

The Same Composition. 

Canvas, 205 cm. by 179 cm. 

Ditto. Museum, Copenhagen, No. 169. 
198, 199, pi. 199. 

Canvas, 58^ duim by 77J duim. 

Signed: Jac Jordaens, fecit, 1653. 

Ditto. Museum, Verona. . 201, pi. 201. 

Canvas, 176 cm. by 215 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— De Proli, Antwerp, 1785. 

Ditto. Sale.— Robit, Paris, 1801. 

Ditto. Sale. — The Hague, September, 
18, 1837, through A. Lamme. 

Canvas, 2 el, 10 duim by 1 el, 8 duim. 

Susanna in her Bath. 

Sale. — Triponetty, Brussels, 1810. 

Canvas, 143 cm. by 168 cm. 

Susanna and the Two Elders, a dog 
and a parrot. 

Sale.— Bruges, May, 31, 1774. 

Canvas, 5 v. by 6 v., 2 duim. 

Susanna and the Elders. Drawing, red 
chalk, washed in ink . . . . 193. 

Louvre, Paris, No. 20013. 

Signed : J. Jordaens. 

Symbolic Piece. 

Masson, Amiens. Inscription: "Jesa, 
44, v. 15. 16, 17. Hage, 20, Mars. 1650". 

C. New Testament. 

The Head of the Virgin (study). 

Sir Charles Eastlake (Waagen, Art 
Treasures II, 264). 

The Marriage of Mary. Drawing. 

Sales, t- Boucher, Paris, 1771 ; Amster- 
dam, September 16, 1760. 

Mary's visit to Elisabeth. 

Museum.Lyons. No. 108. . 128. 

Canvas, 263 cm. by 185 cm. 

Painted in 1642 for the church of 
Rupelmonde ; carried off by the French 
in 1794. Presented to the Museum at 
Lyons by Napoleon I, in 1805. A copy 
is still in the church of Rupelmonde. 

Ditto. Sale.— Hulstaert, Antwerp, 1887. 

Canvas, 82 cm. hy 64 cm. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

15, 17, 19, 28, 196, 228, pi. 15. 

Museum, Stockholm, No. 488. 

Canvas, 124 cm. by 93 cm. 

Signed, on the handle of the milk can, 
I IoRdAnS FeCit 1618. 

Ditto. (Same Composition). . 16, 187. 

Prince Lichnowsky, Kuchelna (Silesia). 

Panel, 150 cm. by 125 cm. 

TheAdoration of the Shepherds. Museum, 
Brunswick, No. 465. 

Panel, 125 cm. by 97 cm. 

Ditto. Museum, Antwerp, No. 221. 
192, 196, pi. 201. 

Panel, 244 cm. by 220 cm. 

From the Episcopal Palace at Ant- 

Ditto. Museum, Frankfort, No. 139. 

195, pi. 195. 
Canvas, 72.5 cm. by 93 cm. 
Signed : J. Jor. fee 1633. 

Ditto. Museum, Lyons, No. 109. 

196, pi. 196. 
Canvas, 245 cm. by 205 cm. 
Formerly in the Hospital for Incurables 

at Liege. Carried off by the French 
Republicans, and presented by Napoleon I 
to the Museum at Lyons in 181 1. 

Z>z'#0.Museum,Grenoble,No.387 . 197. 

Probably the picture from the church 
of the Reguliere Canonesses at Courtray. 

Ditto. Sale of the suppressed Convents, 
Brussels, 1785. 

The picture came from the Terzieken 
Foundation, Mechlin. 

Ditto. Jhr. W. Six, Amsterdam. 

198, pi. 197. 

Canvas, 180 cm. by 179 cm. 

Signed J. .Jor. fe. 

Ditto. („The Birth of Christ on Canvas") 
18, 119. 

Estate of P. P. Rubens. No. 266. 

Ditto. Mrs. Bruzaud, Holland-Park. 
London, (Engraving, Marinus). 

if, 179, 192. 

Ditto. Drawing for the engraving by 
Marinus . . . . 192, pi. 17. 

Boymans Museum, Rotterdam. 

Ditto. Sale. — James Hazard, Brussels, 

Ditto. Engraving by Petrus De Jode 
180, 192. 

The Louvre possesses the drawing 
from which the engraving was made. 

Ditto, Schloss Rohland Fahne . 198. 

Panel. 1 v. 3 d. by 1. v. 11 d. 

Signed: J. J. F., 1649. 

Ditto. („ The Birth of Christ'). Sale. — 
Horion, Brussels. 

Reynolds — Voyages, p. 249. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jordaens, No. 32, 4 v. 

by 5 v, l\ d 198. 

Ditto. Sale. — Floris Drabbe, Leiden, 
1743. 4 v. by 5 v. 3 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Floris Drabbe, Leiden, 


In watercolour, 1 v. 4 d, by I v. i{ d. 

Ditto. Sale.. — Martin Robyns, Brussels, 
1758, 2 v., 6 d. by 3 v., 6 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Martin Robyns, No. 96, 
3 v., 4 d. by 4 v., 4 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jhr. Alexander van Sus- 
teren, Antwerp, 1764, 9 v. by 7 v., 2 cL 

Ditto. Sale of pictures from Saxony, 
Amsterdam, 1765, 24I d. by 19J d. 

Ditto. Sketch. Sale. — Van der Motten, 
Brussels, 1775, 2 v. by 1 v., 10 d. 

Ditto. Grissaille. Sale. — Bartels, Brus- 
sels, 1779. 

Ditto. Sale. — Johan van der Linden 
van Slingeland, Dordrecht, 1785. 

Panel, 474 d. by 36 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Private Collection, Am- 
sterdam, 25 July 1804. 

Canvas, 48 d. by 37 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Marie-Therese Wittebol 
and Mr. de Labistrate, Antwerp, 1804. 

Canvas, 54 d. by 44 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — The Baroness de Leyden 
de Warnand, Leiden, 1816. 

Canvas, 4 v., 8 d. by 4 v., 6 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — H. A. van den Heuvel, 
Utrecht, 1825. 

Canvas, 126 cm. by 108 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jean — Jacques de Faesch, 
Amsterdam, 1833. 

Panel, 1 el, 2 palm, 4 duim by 1 el, 
6 palm, 4 duim. 

Ditto. Sale.— J. J. de Raedt, Mechlin, 

Canvas, 152 cm. by 121 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Van Doom, Amsterdam, 

Ditto. Sketch. Sale. — George Stange 
Cologne, 1879. 

Panel, 36 cm. by 25 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Ludwig Bruckmann and 
J. B. Meyer, Cologne, 1890. 

Canvas, 65 cm. by 54 cm. 



Ditto. British Museum. Drawing red 

and black chalk 

17. 193. pl- 8 

Ditto. Drawing, Albertina, Vienm 
No. 616. 

Ditto. Drawing, Delacre,. Ghent. 18 

pl. 49. 

Ditto. Drawing. In black, white and 
red chalk. 

Sale.— Pierre Wouters, Brussels, 1747 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale.— Pierre Wouters 
Brussels, 1747. 

Hastily drawn with pen and bistre. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale.— Jacob de Wit 
Amsterdam, 1755. 

Ditto. Drawing. With the pen and 
washed in bistre. Sale.— Boucher, Paris 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Ploos van Am 
stel, Amsterdam, 1800. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Jos. Dan, Bohm 
Vienna, 1865. 

The Adoration of the Kings 130, 174 
193. 209, pl. 133 

Dixmude, Church of St. Nicolas. 

Canvas, 358.5 cm. by 265 cm. 

Signed Jac. yord. 1644. 

Carried off in 1794; returned in 1815. 

Copy in the Duinkerk Museum. 

Ditto. Museum, Rotterdam No. 141. 


Canvas, 262 cm. by 217 cm. 

Sales.— Jac. Jordaens, The Hague,i734 ; 

William II, The Hague, 1850 ; 

Viruly van Veeren en Dalem, 1880. 

Ditto. Cathedral of Seville . . 231. 

Dated: 1669. 

Ditto. Cloister, Oosterhout . . 231. 

Ditto. Sales. — Peeter Leendert de Neuf- 
ville, 1765, Amsterdam; Nicolas Neuf- 
hof, Amsterdam, 1777 . . . I31. 

Canvas, 6l£ d. by 41J d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Suppressed Cloisters, 
Brussels, 1785. Originating from the con- 
vent of the Poor Clares at Antwerp, 
5 v., 3 d. by 4 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Horion Brussels, 1788, 
2 v., 2 d. by 2 v., lid. 

Ditto. Sale. — Marenzi de Morensfeld, 
Bruges 1850. 

Canvas, 175 cm. by 135 cm. 

Ditto. Drawing, Plan tin— Moretus Mu- 
seum, Antwerp. Signed ,,1653 4 Aprilis 
J. Jds." .... 132, 193, pl. 130. 

Ditto. Drawing, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg, No. 4206. 

Ditto. Drawing with pen and colours. 
British Museum. 

Ditto. Drawing. Abel Cournault, Nancy. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Artaria, Dr. 
F. Storm, etc. Vienna, 1886. Chalk, 
Sepia and White. 

The Circumcision 

Seville Cathedral. Dated, 1669 . 230. 

Ditto. Drawing. Museum Rotterdam. 

pl. 7°- 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, 
Brussels, 1797. 

The Dedication in the Temple. 192, 
210, 230, 217. 

Museum, Dresden, No. 1012. 

Canvas, 395 cm. by 305 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— The Hague, 26th of 
June, 1742, 13 v. by 10J v. 

Ditto. Sale. — Salamanca, Paris, 1875. 

Canvas, 127 cm. by no cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Keller and Renier, 1905. 

Ditto. Drawing. Museum, Rotterdam, 
192, 230. 

Ditto. Drawing. Albertina, No. 614. 
193, 213. 

Ditto. Drawing. Antwerp, Vaerewyck. 

Watercolcur, iu many colours. 

The Flight into Egypt. . 106, 178. 

Antwerp, Mrs. Bosschaert— Dubois. 

Canvas, 100 cm. by 188 cm. 

Signed : Ja. Jor. fe. 1641. 

Ditto. Copy, in the Church of St. 
Anthony at Antwerp . . . 107. 

Ditto. Sale. — C. L. Reynders, Brussels, 

Canvas, 50 d. by 61 d. 

Ditto. St. Petersburg, Count Peter 

Ditto. Sale. — Alois Spitzer, Vienna, 

Bought by Lieutenant Matsvanszky. 

Ditto. Etching, dated 1652 . . 172. 

Ditto. Engraving by P. Pontius . 107. 

Ditto. Drawing: Black chalk and a 
little colour. Sale.— Amsterdam, October, 
1780 107. 

Ditto. Drawing: Black, red and white, 
chalk and a few watercolours. Sale. — 
Pierre Wouters, Brussels, 1797 . 107. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Walschot, Ant- 
werp,- I817, 23J d. by 4if d. . 107. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Jhr. Jos van 
Dooren, Tilburg, 1837. 3 v., 9 d. by 
5 v., 4 d. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — J. B. Boller- 
mann, Mainz, 1853. 3 v., I d. by 4 v. 

The Rest during the Fight into Egypt or 
The Holy Family 27. 

Museum, Brunswick. No. 466. 

Canvas, 286 cm. by 196 cm. 

Sale. — Lebrun, Paris, 1 79 1. 12 v., by 
7i v. 

Ditto. Ghent, Scribe . . . 27. 

Canvas, 206.5 cm - by I0 8 crn - 

On loan in the Museum, Ghent. 

Ditto. Formerly in Dusseldorf Museum. 

Canvas, 2 v., 2 d. by 1 v., n d. 

Ditto. Drawing, Louvre. No. 20015. 

pl. 16. 

Same composition as Mr. Scribe's 

The Return out of Egypt. 

Cologne, Weyer (Parthey I, 642). 

Canvas, I v., 4 d. by I v., 9 d. 

The Virgin (panel). 

Estate of Rubens, No. 267. 

A Madonna in a -wreath of flowers. 

Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 1734. 

Ditto. Sale. — Joan de Vries, October 1 3, 
1738, The Hague. 

Madonna (on copper). 

Sale of pictures from the suppressed 
cloisters of the Jesuits. Brussels, 1777. 

The Virgin. 

Sale.— Jacob de Wit, 1758, Amsterdam. 

The Holy Family in a Landscape with 
God the Father. 

Sale. — The suppressed Cloisters, Brus- 
sels, 1785, from the church of St. Catharine 
at Mechlin, 9 v. by 7 v., 6 d. 

The Holy Family in a wreath of 
fruit 97- 

Mrs. Errara, Brussels. 

Canvas, 164 cm. by 117 cm. 

The Holy Family. . ■ 26, pl. 25. 

Museum, New York. Canvas, 66 d. 
by 58-I d. 

Ditto. Sale.— Mrs. de Baudeville, Pans, 

Panel, 5 v., d. by 4 v., 6 d. 

Ditto. Museum, Schleissheim, No. 374. 


Ditto. Museum, Lille, No. 969. 27. 

Ditto. Museum, Dublin, No. 69. 26. 

Panel, 4 v. by 3 v. 

Ditto. Earl of Wemyss, London . 

Ditto. Paris, Mr. Souillie . 27. 

Sale. — Anguiot, Paris, 1875. 27. 

Canvas, 125 em. by 100 cm. 

Ditto. Tournay. Over the door of the 
sacristy in the Abbey of St. Martin. 

(Mensaert, II, 78). 

Ditto. Church of the Carmelites, 
Mechlin, (Mensaert I, 179). 

Ditto. Sale of pictures from the 
Cloisters of the Jesuits, Antwerp, 1777, 
No. 153. 4 v., 6 d. by 3 v., 7 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — June 20, 1714, Amster- 

Ditto. Sale. — Johan van Schuylenburg, 
September 20, 1735, the Hague, 2 v., 
\ d, by I v. 6£ d. 

Ditto. Sale. — The Hague. April 24, 


Ditto. Sale. — Jacob van der Dussen, 
Amsterdam, 1752, 4 v., 4 d. by 3 v., 3d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, April 2, 
1754, 5 v., I d. by 5 v., \\ d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Thomas Schwencke, The 
Hague, 1767, 58 d. by 76. d. 

Ditto. Sale.. — Amsterdam, January 20, 

Canvas, 44 d. by 59 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, November 
30, 1772. 

Canvas, 45J d. by 67J d. 

The Holy Family with St. John and 
St. Elisabeth. 

Sale. — Osley, London, 1787. 

The Holy Family. 

Sale. — Rob. J. B. van den Bergh, 
Ghent, 1829. 

Canvas, I el, 3^ d. by 9 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Paltsgraaf, Bruges, 1767, 
4 v., 9 d. by 5 v. 

The I oly Family and Saints. 

Sale. — J. J. van Hal, Antwerp, 1836. 

Panel, I v., 8 d. by 2 v., 21 d. (sic). 

Ditto. Sale. — Mrs W. dejonghe, widow 
of P. J. Oosthuysen van Rijsenburg, The 
Hague, 1847. 

Canvas, I el, 16 d., by I el, 4 d. 

Ditto. Cologne, Weyer (Parthey I, 641). 

Panel, 7 v. by 3 v., 6 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Fanton, Antwerp, 1859. 

Canvas, 114 cm. by 95 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— M. M. D. R. and Wil- 
motte, Antwerp, 1863, 

Canvas, 100 cm. by 88 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Aug. Geelhand de Mer- 
xem, Antwerp, 1804. 

Canvas, 90 cm. by 105 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Verellen, Antwerp, 1875. 


Canvas, 103 cm. by 90 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— P. A. Verlinden, Ant- 
werp, June 26, 1877. 

Panel, 108 cm. by 80 cm. 

Ditto. Drawing. Museum, Lille. 

Ditto. Drawing. Ghent. 

Delacre Collection. pl. 29. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Boucher, Paris 

The Infant Jesus with John. Museum, 
Madrid, No. 1406. 

Canvas, 130 cm. by 74 cm. 

Jesus, St. John and a lamb . . 43, pl. 48. 

Paul Wittouck, Brussels. 



Canvas, 91 cm. by 79 cm, 

Sales.— Tolozan, Paris, 1801 ; Valentin 
Roussel, Brussels, 1889. 

Jesus and St. John. 

Sale. — Regnier van de Wolf, Rotter- 
dam, 1676. 

Jesus playing with John. 

Sale.— Winckler, Cologne, 1888. 

Canvas, 39 cm. by 33 cm. 

Jesus on a sheep, with John, St Anna, 
St Elisabeth, Joseph, Martha and Joachim. 

Sale.— M. du Blaisel, Paris, 1870. 

Canvas, 155 cm. by 130 cm. 

The Infant Jesus standing on u. globe. 

Sale. — Stevens, Antwerp, 1837. 

Canvas, 80 cm. by 64 cm. 

Joseph and Mary finding Jesus in the 

Temple . 174, 208, 210, 213, 227, pi. 210, 

pi. 211, pi. 213. 

Museum, Mentz, No. 286. 

Canvas, 429 cm. by 330 cm. 

Painted for the High Altar in the 
church of St Walburg is at Veurne. 

Signed: Jo.Jor.fec. 1663. 

Ditto. Pinakothek, Munich, No. 815. 


Canvas, 235 cm. by 296 cm. 

Christ in the Temple among the Scribes. 
210, pi. 212. 

Drawing. Mr. Fairfax Murray, London. 

Ditto. Drawing. Delacre, Ghent. 210. 

Christ among the Scribes in the Temple. 

Sale. — Ferdinand, Count of Plettenberg, 
and Wittem, Amsterdam, April 2, 1738. 
II v. by 9 v. 3 d. 

St John in the Desert. 

Sale —Robert Chantrell, Bruges, 1840. 

Canvas, 45 d. by 41 d. 

John the Baptist (on copper). 

Sale. — Herman van Swoll, Amsterdam, 

The Baptism of Christ. 

Sale.— Mechlin, October 26, 1756. 

Christ with Martha, Mary Magdalen, 
St Peter and St John. 

Sales. — Mols, Antwerp, 1764; van 
Schorel, Antwerp, 1774- 

Canvas, 66 d. by 91 d. 

Christ with Martha and Mary, 

Multi-coloured watercolour, Museum, 

Ditto. Sale. — Antwerp, November 9, 

Christ blessing the Children. . 213. 

Museum, Copenhagen, No. 186. 

Canvas, 254 cm. by 277.5 cm - 

Ditto. Sale.— de Julienne, Paris, 1767. 


Ditto. Sale. — Paris, December 15, 1777. 

Panel, 14 d. by 23 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Henri van Assche, Brus- 
sels, 1 8 10. 

Canvas, 6 v. by 7 v. (with the frame) 

Ditto. Sales. — Paets de Croonenburgh, 
Mechlin, 1838; Baron Ch. de Vriere de 
Terdonck, Mechlin, 1862 . . 213. 

Canvas, 145 cm. by 192 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Despinoy, Versailles, 

Panel, 57 cm, by 73 cm. 

The Kingdom of Heaven and the 
Children . . . . 214, pi. 213. 

Drawing, London, Fairfax Murray. 

Signed : Jordaens. 

Give and thou shalt receive . pi. 77. 

Drawing, London, Fairfax Murray. 

Signed: J. Jordaens 

The Prodigal Son . 92, g8, pi. 102. 

Museum, Dresden, No, ion. 

Canvas, 236 cm. by 369 cm. 

Sale. — The Hague, June 20. 1742. 

Ditto. Museum, Lille, No. 293 . . 100. 

Canvas, 167 cm. by 225 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jacob Jordaens, March 
22, 1734, The Hague .... 101. 

2 v., 10J d. by 3 v., 1 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Suppressed cloisters, 1 777. 

From the Professed House of the 
Jesuits, Antwerp 99- 

Canvas, 1 v. by 9J d, 

Ditto. Ghent. Wouters . . . 100. 

The Prodigal Son. Brussels. Toussaint. 
100, pi. 103. 

Ditto. Drawing, National Museum, 

Christ healing on the Sabbath. 

214, pi. 221. 

Drawing in colours. Delacre Col- 
lection, Ghent. 

Christ healing the lame on the Sabbath. 

Watercolour. Masson, Amiens. 

Christ healing the Sick. 

Drawing in watercolours — red, blue, 
and bistre. 

Museum, Berlin, No. 2827. 

Ditto.. Drawing. Prince de Ligne, 1794. 

The Healing of the Blind and the Lame. 

Drawing. Sale. — Jos, Dan. Bohm, 
Vienna, 1865. 

Tolle Grabatum. 

Drawing, Museum, Brunswick. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, 
Brussels, 1797. 

Christ delivering one possessed 214. 

Drawing in watercolours. 

Printroom, The Hermitage, No. 361. 

Ditto. Drawing. J. Rump, Copenhagen. 


The woman taken in adultery. 214. 

Museum, Ghent, No. 6, 

Canvas, 165 cm. by 240 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — The Spanish Consul, 
London, 1772. 

The Reconcilation before the Offering. 
214, 230. 

Museum, Ghent, No. 5. 

Canvas, 167 cm, by 242 cm. 

Originally in the Abbey of St. Peter. 

Christ on the Sea. 

New Palace, Potsdam. 

Peter wakes Christ in the little boat. 

Sale, — J. Smits and J. Knoop, 
Amsterdam, 1834. 

Magdalen at Christ's feet. 

Drawing. Sale. — Hazard,Brussels,i789. 

The Marriage in Cana . . . 193. 

Watercolour in white, black and red. 

Museum, Berlin, No. 380. 

Ditto. Drawing, red and black chalk, 
and sepia 193. 

Museum, Berlin, No. 2820. 

Sale. — Jos. Dan. Bohm. Vienna, 1865. 

Christ and the Pharasees. 214, 230. 

Museum, Lille, No. 292. 

Canvas, 158 cm. by 239 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Josua van Belle, Rotter- 
dam, 1730. 

5 v., I d. by 7 v. 3 d. 

A copy, is in the Church .at Herenthals. 

Christ, seated at table, blesses the bread. 

Sale. — Miss Regaus, Brussels, 1775. 

2 v., 9 d. by 3 v., 5 d. 

Christ and the Woman of Samaria at 
the well. 

Drawing, red and black ^chalk. 

Sale. — Louis Metayer, Amsterdam, 

Ditto. Drawing. Printroom, Berlin 

Black and red chalk and watercolour. 

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes. 

Museum, Marseilles. No. 383. 

118 cm. by 185 cm, 

Ditto. Sale. — van Rotterdam, Ghent, 


Canvas, 158 cm. by 190 cm. 

St. Peter fishing. 

Inventory, Michiel Wouters, Antwerp, 

Ditto. Sale.— van Berthold. Cologne, 

Canvas, no cm. by. 85 cm. 

The small draught of fishes. 

Sale. — Fr. Mols, Antwerp, 1769. 

The Tribute-Money 

Sweden, Castle Finsprong. (Mr. Ring- 
borg, Norkoping), . . ioj, pi. 105. 

Ditto. Museum, Amsterdam. No. 742. 
104, pi. 106. 

Canvas, 1 14 5 cm by 195 cm. 

Signed : .?. Jord. fe. 

The beheading of John the 'Baptist. 

Sale.— Abbe de Wilde, Brussels, 1866. 

Canvas, 59 cm. by 62 cm. 

Christ expelling the merchants prom 
the Temple. . 172, 193, 229 pi. 177. 

Louvre, Paris. No. 201 1. 

Canvas, 288 cm. by 436 cm. 

Ditto. Etching by jordaens, dated 
1652 172. 

Ditto. Drawing. Museum, Brunswick 

175. pl- '73- 

Ditto. Sale. — Dr. van Herle van der 
Buecken etc., Ghent, 1856. 

Canyas, 190 cm. by 250 cm. . 

Christ expelling the merchants from 
the Temple. 

Lithograph, de Villain . . . 175. 

Ditto. Lithograph, Mauzaisse. . 175- 

Ditto. Drawing. In chalk on yellow 
ground and heightened with white. 

8 d., n linien by 14 d., 10 linien. 

Ditto. Sale. — Boucher, Paris, 1771. 

Ditto. Sketch. Sale. — Baron v. Denon, 
Paris, 1826. 

Ditto, Sale. — The Earl of Warwick, 
London, 1896. 

The Passion. 

Twelve pictures executed for the King 
of Sweden, Carl-Gustavus (Sandrart 
Teutsche Academie 336, — Houbraken I, 
158. — M. Abrege de la vie des peintres, 
II, 164). 

The entry into Jerusalem. 

Sale. — Dusart, Amsterdam, 1865. 

The Last Supper . . 115, 232, pl. 238. 

Museum, Antwerp, 215, 
• Canvas, 293 cm. by 65 cm. 

Ditto. Catalogue of the pictures of 
the painter Joannes van de Capelle, 
1680, Pud Holland X 34. 

Ditto. A supper by Jordaens, do. Oud 
Holland X 34. 

Ditto. A Meal after Jordaens, do Oud 
Holland X 37. 

Christ and his Disciples at table . . 233. 

Drawing. Sale. — Aarnout de Lange, 
Amsterdam, 1803, Kunstboek C No. 2. 

Christ in the Garden of Olives . . 233. 

Church of the Augustines, Antwerp. 

(Reynolds, Voyages II, 283 ; Descamps 
Voyage p. 173), 

At present in the Church of St. Catha- 
rine at Honfieur, 

To the left, near the apostles who 
have fallen asleep, we read J. Jord. 



F 1654. Bought by Mr. Lechanteur, Com- 
missary of Marine at Antwerp during 
the French Empire, and presented by 
him to the church, together with a 
..Bearing of the Cross" by Erasmus 
yuelhx, originally in the same church. 

Judas betraying Christ. . . 2 6 

Sale in the St. Jorishof, Brussels 1770 

4 v., 8 d. by 3 v., 9 d. 

Ditto. (Sandrart, Teutsche Academic, 336). 

Ditto. Sketch. Library of the royal 
Gallery, Copenhagen. 

The sorrowing Peter . . . .127 

Francois Hannet, Brussels. 

Ditto. Sale. — Lebrun, Paris, 1791. 

Canvas, 25 d. by 20 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— de Marneffe, Brussels, 

Canvas, 71 cm. by 58 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— P. Schut, Amsterdam, 
1 888, No. 30. 

St. Peter repentant . . . . 127. 

Mr. Gevers-Fuchs, Antwerp . 127. 

Head of an Apostle . 

Amand Harcq, Brussels-. 

St. Peter 


Sale. — Van der Straelen-Moons van 
Lerius, Antwerp, 1885. 

Canvas, 45 by 35J (sic). 

Christ before Caiphas. 

Drawing. Sale.— Gildemeester, Amster- 
dam, 1800. 

Ditto. Engraving by Marinus . 179. 

Ditto. Engraving by Hunnin. 

Ditto. Engraving (anonymous). Mar- 
tinus van den Enden, Exc. 

Ditto. Engraving (anonymous). An 
oblong with a. few alterations, Dan- 
ckertsz, Exc. 

Christ before Pilate ■. ... . 179. 

Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, Brus- 
sels, 1797, No. 187. 

Ditto. Engraving by Jacob Neefs. 1 79. 

Christ mocked 179. 

Drawing. Sale. — Habich, Cassel, 28.5 
cm. by 28.5 cm. 

Dated 1632. 

Christ ill-used by four malefactors. 

Drawing. (Wiegel, Handzeichnungen 

39 2 9)- 

Ditto. Engraving, J. J. Prestel sc. 

The Bearing of the Cross . . .131. 

Museum, Rotterdam, No. 136. 

Canvas, 259 cm. by 210 cm. 

Sale, — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 
March 22, 1734^ 

Ditto. William II, The Hague, 1853. 

Ditto. Viruly van Veeren en Dalem, 

Ditto. Originally in the Church of St. 
Francis Xaverius, de Krijtberg, Am- 
sterdam. 240 cm. by 175 cm. 

Christ stumbles beneath the Cross. 

Sale.— Georg Plach, Vienna. 1885. 

The Bearing of the Cross. 

Drawing. Rene della Faille Collec- 
tion, Antwerp. 

Christ on the Cross . 10, 20, pi. 10. 

Antwerp, Church of St. Paul. 

Panel, 242 cm. by 185 cm. 

Mount Calvary. 

Museum, Rennes, No. 103 . . 13. 
. Panel, 237 cm. by 171 cm. Originally 
in the church in the Beguinage, Antwerp. 

Christ on the Cross, with Mary.andJohn. 

h- in- 

Antwerp, Teirninck School. 

Christ on the Cross . . .15. 238. 

Cathedral, Tournay. 
Christ on the Cross between the two. 
Thieves. ... 15, 227, 235. 

Cathedral, Bordeaux, Originally in 
the Church of St. Gommarius at Lier. 
Christ on the Cross. 
Formerly in the Minimi Cloister, 
Antwerp (Reynolds, II, 279). . 15. 
Mount Calvary. 

Formerly in the Church of the 
Oratory, Bergen. (Mensaert, II, 86, Des- 
camps, 29). 

Christ between the two Thieves . 15. 
Originally in the Church of the 
Carthusian Monastery at Brussels, and 
sold from there, in 1785, with the pic- 
tures from the surpressed cloisters. 5 v. 
7 d. by 4 v. 

Christ on the Cross, with Mary, Elisabeth, 
and John. 

Brunswick, Hollandt (Parthey I, 642). 
Panel, 1 v., 3 d by 2 v., \ d. 
Christ on the Cross, with Mary, John, 
Mary Magdalen and others. 

Sale. — Mrs van Pafferode and Mrs 
Blommaert, Ghent, 1802. 
Christ on the Cross. 
Drawing. Print-room, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg, No. 362. 

Dated: 27 Martii 1638 ffage. 
The Descent from the Cross. 
Sale. — Frix, Brussels, 1775. 
3 v.. 9 d. by 2 v., 10 d. 
Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Van de Zande, 
Paris, 1855, 

Pieta 175, pi. 237. 

Antwerp, Church of the: Begrtinage, 
210 cm. by 165 cm. 

Jordaens made an etching of this com- 
position, and signed the plate „Jac, 
Jordaens, inventor 1652." 

There is a slight difference between 
the picture and the etching. 
Ditto .... 239, pi. 241. 

Antwerp. The Board of Charities. 
Canvas, 212 cm. by 257 cm. 
Bequeathed by Jordaens to the Poor 
of Antwerp. 

Ditto. Drawing. Mr. J. Rump, Copen- 
hagen 240, pi. 242. 

Ditto. Hamburg, Consul Weber's Col- 
lection 136, pi. 139. 

Canvas, 212 cm. by 257 cm. 
In the Duke of Marlborough sale, 
Blenheim, 1886. 
.D/tfcTournay.Church of St.Brice . 240. 
D/to. Inventory, AlexVoet, 1689. . 240. 
Ditto. Sale. — Frans Mols, Antwerp, 

1769, No. 32 240. 

Ditto. Sale.' — Van Schoreel, Antwerp, 

1774, No. 45 240. 

Ditto. Sale. — Balthasar Beschey, Ant- 
werp, 1776, No. 187 .... 240. 
Panel, 2 v., 5 d. by 2 v., 2 d. 
Ditto. Drawing. Albertina, 619^. 240. 
Reproduced in Handzeichnungen alter 
Meister, I, 39. 

The Entombment . . 193, 229, 234. 
Musesum, Antwerp, No. 217. 
Canvas, 267.5 cm. by 166.5 cm. 
From the Abbey of Pieter Pot, Ant- 

Ditto. Drawing. Ryks-museum, Amster- 
dam 193. 

Christ in the Grave. Sale. — Jean Leop.- 
Jos. de Man d'Hobrige, Brussels, 1820. 
Red and black, green and blue chalk. 
Mater Dolorosa. 

Drawing. Sale. — Earl of Warwick, 
London, 1896, No. 192. 

A study in white and black chalk. 

The Resurrection. 

Sale. — Charles Spruyt, Ghent, 1815. 

Panel, 45 d. by 28 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Cornelis Piera, Amster- 
dam, 1829. 

The Disciples at Christ's Grave 32, pi. 33. 

Museum, Dresden, No. 1013. 

Canvas, 215 cm. by 146.5 cm. 

From Jordaens' sale, The Hague, 1734. 

Ditto. Drawing. Print-room, Berlin, 
From the Adolf von Beckerath sale, 
Berlin, 1901 .... . 33. 

Christ appears to Mary Magdalen as 
a gardener. 

Sale. — Canon Knijff, Antwerp, 1785. 

66 d. by 49J d. 

Ditto. Drawing. London, Fairfax 
Murray pi. 172. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — James Hazard, 
Brussels, 1789. 

Ditto. Drawing. Earl of Warwick, 
London, 1896. 

The Doubting Thomas. 

Sale. — Schmitz, Brussels, 1901. 

Canvas, 152 cm. by 125 cm. 

The Disciples at Emmaiis . . 115. 

Museum, Brunswick, No. 467. 

Canvas, 198 cm. by 212 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Charles Spruyt, Ghent, 

Ditto. Sale.— Montriblond, Paris, 1784. 

Canvas, 72 d. by 73 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Canon Knyff, Antwerp, 

72 d. by 78 d. 

Ditto. Museum, Dublin, No. 57. 

Ditto. Lord Northwick, Thirlestane 

Christ with the disciples at Emmaiis. 

Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Fouquet, Am- 
sterdam, 1801. 

The Descent of the Holy Spit it. 

Sale. — C. Walwein, Ypres, 1839. 

Panel, 170 cm. by 140 cm. 

Ditto. Drawing. Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. No. 4216. 

Ascent of the Virgin . . . 227. 

Antwerp, Teirninck School. 

Canvas, 289 cm. by 180 cm. 

Ditto. Inventory, Widow of Jan van 
Haecht, July 5, 1627: "Ascent of the 
Virgin with two angels, by Geert Snellinx 
and Jordaens". 

Ditto. Sale. — R. J. van Rymenam, 
Mechlin, 1838. 

Canvas,. 80 cm. by 58 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Chevalier Simon, Brussels, 

98 cm. by 148 cm. 

Ditto. Drawing. Chantilly. 
Ditto. Sale. — Jacob de Wit, Amsterdam, 

Ditto. Sale. Daniel De Jongh, Rotter- 
dam, 1810, by Jordaens and De Wit, in 

The . Virgin, crowned by an angel. 

Sale in Lloyd's Rooms,. Brussels, 1837. 

The Burial of. Joseph. 

Inventory, Miss Catharina Dey, 1663. 

The Twelve Apostles. . . . 127. 

Museum, Lille. No. 294 (four pieces). 

Canvas, 155 cm. by 115 cm. 

St. Peter and St. Paul (2 pieces). 127. 

Sale. — Brussels, Suppressed cloisters, 



From the Cloister van Leliendaal, 

Ditto. Sale.— Van Ourshagen, Mechlin, 
Canvas, 75 cm. by 100 cm. 
Ditto. Sale — Ravaisson, Paris, 1903. 
Panel, 64 cm. by 50 cm. 
The Mourning Peter. . . 127. 

Antwerp, Gevers Fuchs. 
Ditto. Brussels, Hannet . . 127. 
St. Peter delivered from prison. 
Sketch in oils. Sale.— Jos. Dan. Bbhm, 
Vienna, 1865. 

Octagonal, 7 d. high and broad. 
St. Paul. 

Sale.— Ravaisson, Paris, 1903. (half- 
Ditto. Berlin, Schloss. (Parthey I, 641) 


The Conversion of St. Paul 

Jordaens painted the "Conversion of 

St. Paul" for the altar of St. Paul in 

the Abbey-church at Tongerloo. He 

received 400 rynguilders for the work, 

in October, 1647. 

Ditto. Sale.— J ac. Jordaens, The Hague. 

March 22, 1734. No. 27 . 
2 v., 3J d. by 2 v., 11 d. 
Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Van der 
Heyden, Amsterdam, 1827. 

Paul before Ananias . . .190. 

Drawing, Museum. Rotterdam. 
Paul and Barnabas at Lystra 132, 
. pl- 1 3 2 - 
Acadamy, Vienna. No. 663. 
Canvas, 170 cm. by 239 cm. 
Signed : J. Jor. fecit 164s. 
Ditto. Sale.— Amsterdam, August 31, 
1740. No. 18. 

Ditto. Sale.— Catharina Backx, widow 
of Mr. Allard de la Court, Leiden, 1766. 

Canvas, 5 v., 5 d. by 7 v., 8 d. 
Ditto. Sale. — Peeter Leenders de 
Neufville, Amsterdam, 1765 . . 134. 
Canvas, 6i£ d. by 45| d. 
Ditto. Sale.— Nicolas Nieuhof, Am- 
sterdam, 1777, No. 99. 
Canvas, 62 d. by 45 d. 
Ditto. Drawing, Antwerp, Max Rooses 
192, 193, pl. 133. 
Red and black chalk, toned with blue, 
green and white, in watercolours. 
An Apostle (bust) . . 127, pl. 40. 
Museum, Brussels, No. 314 (245). 
Canvas, 50 cm. by 48 cm. 
Ditto. Museum of the Academy, Vienna. 

No. 747 127. 

Panel, 64 cm. by 48 cm, 
An Apostle deep in thought. 
Sale. — Van Overloop, Antwerp, 1856. 
Canvas, 61 cm. by 46 cm. 
St. James, St. Matthew, St. Peter 
(3 pieces) ....... 127. 

Sale. — Ridder Gaspard de Wargny 
a'Audenhove, Brussels, 1897. 

Oval canvas, 1 12 cm. by 96 cm. 

St. Matthew 127. 

Berlin, Schloss. (Parthey I, 641). 

An Apostle 127. 

Sale. — Baron de Beurnonville, Paris, 

Canvas, 60 cm. by 50 cm. 
An Apostle denouncing a King. 191. 
Drawing. Black and red chalk washed 
with ink, in folio. 
Catalogue, Prince de Ligne, 1794. 

The sons of Sepha ill-treated by one 
possessed . . ... 191- 

Drawing. Boymans Museum, Rot- 

The Four Evangelists 27, 127, pl. 28. 

Paris, Louvre, No. 2012. 

Canvas, 134 cm, by 118 cm. 

The picture was in 1632 at Zeeger 
Pietersz' (Oud-Holland IV. 15), After- 
wards it belonged to Louis XVI. A copy 
of it was also at Zeeger Pietersz' in 1632. 
Engraved by Gutenberg in Le Musee de 
France, in mezzotint, by John Dean in 

Ditto. Sale.— Philip van Dyck, The 
Hague, 1753 2 9- 

4 v., 2 d. by 3 v., 8 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— Van den Heuvel, Utrecht, 

Canvas, 126 cm. by 108 cm. 

A copy in Jordaens' later style is in 
the cloister of the Jesuits at Tournay. 
An old copy is in the possession of 
Mr. Clemens, Hamburg. ... 29. 

Another belongs to the Earl of Hard- 
wick, at Wimpole. A fourth is in the 
church of St. John at Mechlin . . 29. 

Ditto. Leipsic, Von Speck Collection 
1827 29- 

Panel, 53 d. by 59 d. 

Behind Matthew stands an angel. 

Praying Saint (Evangelist). 

Museum, Caen, No. 96. 

Panel, 65 cm. by 50 cm. 

Head of an Apostle or an Evangelist 


Brussels, M. Harcq. 

Panel, 62 cm. by 48 cm. 

The four Ecclesiastics and St. Bona- 

Drawing. Red chalk. Catalogue of 
the Collection of the Prince de Ligne, 


Scene from Sacred History. 
Museum, New York, No. 132. 
Sketch. Canvas, \\\ d, by 9J d. 

D. Sacred and Ecclesiastical 

St. Ambrose 215. 

Museum, Ghent, No. 4. 

Canvas, 77 cm. by 56 cm. 

The picture was in one of the sup- 
pressed convents at Ghent, at the end 
of the XVIIIth century. 

The Martyrdom of St Andrew. 

Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, Brus- 
sels, 1797.— Laige upright drawing, 
washed in sepia, and heightened with 
white and other colours. 

The Martyrdom of St Apollonia 38, 
197, pl. 40. 

Antwerp, Church of St Augustine. 

Canvas. 409 cm. by 213 cm. 

The Martyrdom of St Apollonia. 

A sketch in colour by Jordaens. 

Inventory, Alexander Voet, 1685. 

Ditto. A finished sketch representing 
the Martyrdom of St Apollonia. 

Sale. — Doncker, Brussels, 1798. 

Paper pasted on wood, 23 d. by 14 d. 

St Augustine teaching his disciples. 

Museum, AscharTenburg.No. 233 . . 229 

St Carolus Borroviaeus . 227 pl. 202. 

Antwerp, Church of St James. 

Canvas, 288 cm. by 190 cm. 

The Miracles of St. Dominic ictf, 
pl. 109. 
Museum, Oldenburg, No. 126. 
Canvas, 315 cm. by 218.5 cm. 
St Jerome. 

Sale.— Van Goethem. Brussels, 1889, 
Canvas, 157 cm. by m cm. 
Ditto. Sale. — Brussels, August 24, 1859. 
Canvas, 130 cm. by 100 cm. 
Ditto. Sale.— Sauvage. 
St Jerome in contemplation. 
Sale. — Bruyninx, Antwerp, 1791. 
Canvas, 29 d. by 2i£ d. 

St Ivo 134- 

Museum, Antwerp, No. 808. 
Canvas, 236 cm. by 208 cm. 
Ditto. Museum, Brussels, No. 243. 
134, l g 3. P 1 - J 3 6 - 
Canvas, 105 cm. by 130 cm. 
Signed: J. Jor. ft. 1645. 
Ditto. Sale.— Bruyninx, Antwerp, 1791. 
Ditto. Sale. — Van Lancker, Antwerp, 


Assigned to Gerard Legrelle. 

Ditto. Sketch. Breslau, Standhaus 135 

Panel, 2 v., 2 d. by I v., 7 d. 

Ditto. Sketch. Sale.— Cuypers de Ry 
menam, Brussels, 1803 . . . 135 

Panel, II d. by I v. 

Ditto. Sale.— J. J. de Raedt, Mechlin 

1839 '35 

Canvas, 152 cm. by 206 cm. 
Ditto. Drawing. Prince de Ligne, 1794 

Watercolour washed with bistre. 
St George and the Dragon. 
Sale. — William MacBrath, London, 


The Martyrdom of St Laurence. 

Sketch. Sale. — Del Marmol, Brussels,. 

Ditto. Guillaume Verbelen, Brussels, 


St Magdalen. 

Sale. — Mrs. M. de Jonghe, widow of 
P. J. Oosthuyse van Rijsenberg, The 
Hague, 1847. 

Canvas, i el, 15 d. by I el, 31 d. 

Ditto. A Magdalen by Jordaens on 
panel. Inventory, JufTr. Susanna Willem- 
sens, widow of Signor van Born, Antwerp, 


St Martin delivering a demoniac 40, 
59, 105, 109, 180, 192, 213, 217, pl. 44. 

Museum, Brussels, No. 309. 

Canvas, 432 cm. by 263 cm. 
Signed: I Iordaens Fecit A°. 1630. 

St. Martin. 

A sketch in black and white. 

Inventory, Alexander Voet, 1685.. 

Ditto. Drawing. British Museum 193. 

A drawing for the painting of St. 
Martin in the Museum at Brussels. With 
considerable alterations. 

Ditto. Drawing. Plantin-Moretus Mu- 
seum, Antwerp. . . . 192, pl. 45. 

Watercolour. 41 cm. by 31.5 cm. 

Sale.— Habich, Stuttgart, 1899. 

The Virgin handing the Infant Jesus 
to St. Norbertus 231. 

Oosterhout, St. Catharinadaal Cloister. 

The Martyrdem of St. Quirinus . . 231. 

Delivered by Jordaens to the St. 
Catharinadaal Cloister, but since dis 

St. Sebastian. 

Museum, Angers, No, 366. 

Panel, 83 cm. by 61 cm. 



St. Ursula. 

Sale. — Count van Arundel, Amster- 
dam, 1684, No. 17. 

Martyr carrying a cross (St. Adrian). 

Printroom, Amsterdam. 

Ditto. Drawing, Sale.— Anonymous, 
Berlin, May 18, 1897. 

The Beheading of a Martyr. 

Drawing. Plantin-Moretus Museum, 

Sale. — Habich, Stuttgart, 1899. 

Martyrdom of a Saintly Woman, about 
to be beheaded. 

Drawing. Twenty figures. 

Sale. — Pierre Wouters, Brussels, 1797. 

Mortyrdom of a Saint. 

Drawing. Museum, Munich, No. 2721. 

A Saint about to suffer martydom. 

Drawing. — Sale de Silvestre, Paris, 

The flagellation of two Saints. 

Drawing. Sale.— Dr. Max Strauss, 
Vienna, May 2, 1906. 

Bought by Mr. Gaston von Wallmann 
at Blaschkow. 

An Exorcism. 

Drawing. Sale. — Boucher, Paris, 1771. 

The Mission of the Carmelites . 201. 

Antwerp. Church of the Shod Carmel- 
ites (Descamps, Voyage, p. 178). Dis- 

Triumph of Religion. . . . 191. 

Sale. — Pauwels, Brussels, 1814, 118 cm. 
by 80 cm. 

Veritas Dei (Allegory) . . . 191. 

Drawing. Albertina, No. 620. 

Colours and pen on paper. 

Veritas Dei. 

Drawing. British Museum . . 191. 

Inscription: Gal. 6 cap. Jordaens. 

TheTriumph ofChristianity 191. 

Museum, Dublin. 

Canvas, 280 cm. by 230 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Johann van der Linden 
van Slingelandt, Dordrecht, 1785 191. 

Ditto. Sale. — Spruyt. Brussels 1841. 

Ditto. Sale. — Mallinus, Louvain, 1824. 

The Holy Sacrament worshipped by 
Saints and Patriarchs . . . . 191. 

Drawing. London, Fairfax Murray. 

The Triumph of the Cross over the 
Seven Mortal Sins 191. 

Sale. — Mertens van den Bosch, Ant- 
werp, 1849. 

The Arms of Achilles . . . 145. 

Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 1734, 
8 v. by 11 v. 

Thetis receiving the arms of Achilles 145. 

Sale. — Nourri, Paris, 1785. 

Canvas, 17 d. by 22 d. 

Achilles mourns the death of Patroclus 
and receives Briseis. 

Sale. — Nourri, Paris, 1785. 

Canvas, 25 d, by 18 d. 

Achilles discovered by Ulysses at the 
court of Lycomedes. 

Sale. — Amsterdam, May 8, 17 1 5. 

Ditto. Sale.— P. J. Aerts d'Opdorp, 
Brussels, 1819. 

History of Act eon . . . 152. 

Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 1734, 
3 v., 10 d.- by 4 v., 6 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Abb£ Guillaume de 
Gevigny, Paris, 1779. 

An Action, after Jordaens . 152. 

Sale. — Jeremias Wildens, 1653. 

Adonis embraces Venus. 

Sale. — Peilhon, Paris, 1763. 

6 v. by 4 v., 9 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Prince de Conti, Paris, 

The Death of Adonis. 

Sale.— The Duke of Marlborough, 1886. 

52J d, by 60J d. 

The Death of Adonis. 

Sale.— At Rudolf Lepke's, Berlin, 
March 1903. 

The Battle of the Amazons. 

Sale. — David Ietswaart, Amsterdam, 


The Elopement of Amphitritc. 

Antwerp, Van der Veken. 

Exhibition of Old Masters, 1877. 

The sleeping Antiope. . . . 145. 

Museum, 'Grenoble, No. 388. 

Canvas, 130 cm. by 93 cm. 

Signed: J. Jordaens fecit j6jo. 

Ditto. Sale. — Mensaert, Amsterdam 

Ditto. Sale. — Baron van Leyden van 
Heurmen, 1719. 

History of Argus and Io. 

Mercury among the shepherds . 144. 
Berlin, Paul Meyerheim. 
Canvas, 190 cm. by 210 cm. 
Argus watching over Io . . . 144- 
Brussels, Emile Maryssen, art-dealer. 


Canvas, 56 cm. by 78 cm. 

Mercury discovers Argus watching 

over Io . 144. 

Antwerp. Aug. Delbeke. 

Canvas, 57 cm. by 76 cm. 

Argus waiching over Io . . 145. 

Sale. — Johan v. d. Marck, Amsterdam, 


Canvas, 44 d, by 61 d. 

Mercury sending Argus to sleep. 144. 

Sale. — Menke, Antwerp, 1904. 

Signed : J. Jor. fecit 1647. 

Ditto. Brussels, Marijnen . 

Dated: 1640. 

Argus and Mercury. 

Sale. — Antwerp, May 25, 1768. 

Canvas, 40 d. by 54 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— De Raedt, Mechlin. 

Canvas, 67 cm. by 84 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Walschot, Antwerp, 1817. 

Canvas, 3 if d. by 50J d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Count Stranaldo, Villa- 
nova, Cologne, 1880. 

Canvas, 70 cm. by 115 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Louis von Lilienthal, 
Cologne, 1893. 

Canvas, 119 cm. by 137 cm. 

Mercury sharpening his sword to kill. 

Argus 144. pl- !43- 

Antwerp, Mrs. Chs. Wauters. 

Canvas, 152 cm. by 188 cm. 

Mercury drawing his sword to kill. 144, 
176, pl. 41. 


Museum, Lyons, No. no. 

Canvas, 196 cm. by 235 cm. 

Ditto. Ghent, G. Hulin. 144, pl. 146. 

Canvas, 1 1 7.5 cm. by 201 cm. 

From the collection of the Earl of 
Shrewsbury, Alton Towers. 

Meracry raising his sword to kill 

Argus 144, 177. 

Etching by Jordaens. 

Mercury ready to kill Argus. . 144. 

Hermitage, St. Petersburg, No. 648. 

Canvas, 133 cm. by 187 cm. 

Ditto. Sir Archibald Campbell, Gars- 
cube • 144- 

Ditto. Sale. — David Ietswaart, Am- 
sterdam, 1749. 

4 v., by 6 v., 6 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — J oh. Lod. Strantwijk, 
Amsterdam, 1780. 

Canvas, 23 d. by 31 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Lavillarmois, Lille, 1795. 

Canvas, 31 d. by 29 d. 

Mercury ready to kill Argus. 

Sale. — Aug. De Keersmaecker and 
Father Beeckman, Antwerp, 1853. 

Canvas, 108 cm. by 158 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Capello, Amsterdam, 1767. 

Canvas, 52 d. by 71 d. 

Ditto. Sale.-Prince de Conti, Paris, 1777. 

Panel, 18 d. by 23 d. 

Argus and Mercury. Sale. — Francois 
Mols. Kolveniershall, Antwerp, 1769. 

Ditto. Sale. — Bruyninx, Antwerp, 179 1. 

Argus killed by Mercury. . . 144. 

Offered for sale to the Museum at 
Antwerp in 1902. 

Signed: J. JOR 16. 

Ditto. Sale. —Rudolf Lepke, 1905. 

Argus killed. 

Sale. — Ravaisson, Paris, 1903. 

Argus and various animals. 

Sale. — Horion, Brussels, 1788, 3 v., 6d., 
by 4 v., 6 d. 

Argus 145. 

Sale. — Jac. Jordaens. The Hague, 1734, 
3 v., 6J d. by 7 v., 4 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Horion, Brussels, 1788, 
2 ■>., 4 d. by 3 v. 

Argus and Mercury. 

Sale. — Daniel de Jongh, Rotterdam, 

Argus and Io. 

Sale. — Mile. Helene Herry, Antwerp, 
1884, 57 cm. by 78 cm. 

Ariadne in the train of Bacchus. 

g2, pl. 98. 

Museum, Dresden, No. 1009. 

Canvas, 240 cm. by 315.5 cm. 

Bought at Antwerp in 1 7 10. 

Atalanta and Hippoments . . 153. 

Sale. — Latinie, Antwerp, 1905. 

Dated : 1646. 

Sale. — Sels. Antwerp, 1882. 

Ditto. Antwerp, Max Roose. . 153. 

Canvas, 84 cm. by no cm. 

Sale. — Bysterbos, Amsterdam. March, 

Ditto. Sale. — Van Gemert, Antwerp, 

The child Bacchus, asleep . . 176. 

Etching by Jordaen. 

The Child Bacchus. 

Warsau, Count Branicki. 

Canvas, 116 cm. by 104 cm. 

The youthful Bacchus. 170, pl. 173. 

Antwerp, Max Rooses. 

Canvas, 75 cm. by 60 cm. 

Sale.— Foulon, Antwerp, 1900. 


2 5 8 


Ditto ■ 171- 

Sale.— Richardt, Rotterdam, 1882. 
Canvas, 58.5 cm. by 52 cm. 
Bacchus with panther's skin and 

Museum, Ypres, No. 30. 

Panel, 123 cm. by 94 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Hubert Duster, Cologne, 

1886 171- 

Canvas, 79 cm. by 65 cm. 
From the Croquillon collection, Cour- 

Ditto. Sale. —Michael von Kogelnic- 
eano, Cologne, 1887. 

Canvas, 90 cm. by 72 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Joh. jac. Claessen etc. 

Cologne, 1887 I7 1 - 

Canvas, 125 cm. by 85 cm. 
Ditto. Sale.— Niellon Torris, Brussels, 
Canvas, 119 cm. by 95 cm. 
Ditto. Sale.— Lanfranchi, Pressburg, 
1895, No. 84. 

Canvas, 130 cm. by 100 cm. 
Bacchus crowned with vineleaves, rum- 
mer in hand. 

Sale. — Haendeke, Cologne, 1896. 

Copper, 41 cm. by 33 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Schwarzschild, Cologne, 

1882 171. 

Canvas, 54 cm. by 47 cm. 

Bacchus, tipsy, offering a goblet to a 

satyr 171. 

Engraving, Frangois Lucas. 

Inventory, Herman De Veyt, Antwerp, 

Ditto. Sale. — De Lannoy and van Hal, 
Antwerp, 1850. 
Head of Bacchus. 
Sale. — Amsterdam, July 26, 1810. 
Panel, 12 d. by 10 d. 
Bacchus and Ariadne. 
Sale.— The Hague, July 18, 1753. 
Ditto, Sale. — Johan van Nispen, The 

Hague, 1768 93. 

Canvas, 48 d. by 51 d. 
Bacchus meeting Ariadne . . . 9 2 - 
Sale. — Gustave Couteaux, Brussels, 

Canvas, 69 cm. by 48 cm. 
Bacchus and Ariadne .... 93- 
Drawing. Sale von Klinkosch, Vienna, 
Red chalk, pen, and sepia. 
Bacchus and Ceres . . . 171- 

Sale.— Mr. A. H. Brussel, 1864. 
Canvas, 96 cm. by 73 cm. 
Bacchus, Ceres and Venus 
Sale. — J. de Nooy , Haarlem , 1 8 1 ! . 171. 
Bacchus, Ceres and Cupid followed by 

a goat , 171. 

Sale. — Houyet, Brussels, 1867. 
Canvas, 19 cm. by 73 cm. 
Bacchus, and seven other figures . 90. 
Sale. — Marten Robyns, Brussels, 1758, 
7 v. by 7 v., S d. 
The Triumph of Bacchus 88, pi. 90. 
Museum, Cassel, No. 109. 
Canvas, 204 cm. by 163 cm. 
A study (drawing) for this picture was 
sold at the D. Max Strauss Sale, Vienna, 
May 2, 1906, and bought by Mr. Gaston 
von Mallmann of Blaschkow. 

Ditto. Museum, Arras. ... 90. 
A copy of the preceding picture ; a 
second is possessed by Count Bronicki, 

Procession of Bacchus and Silenus. 153, 
21b, pi. 216. 

Museum, Brussels. 

Ditto. Sale.— Jan Frangois d'Orveille, 
Amsterdam, 1705. 

Ditto. Sale.— Willem Six, Amsterdam, 

Ditto. Sale. — Loquet, Amsterdam, 1783. 

Canvas, 49 d. by 80 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— Choiseul Praslin, 1808, 

Canvas, 56 d. by 42 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — P.J. de Marneffe, Brussels, 

Ditto. Replica, Mrs Bougard, Brussels, 


Bacchus and Bacchantes ; See Silenus. 

Triumph of Bacchus and Silenus. 2 1 7. 

Lord Northwick (Waagen, Art Treas- 
ures, III 206). 

Bacchus seated on a goat accompanied, 
by Satyrs. 

Sketch. Sale. — Cuypers de Rymenam, 
Brussels, 1803. 

Cunvas, II d. by 15 d. 

Bacchus with nymphs and a forest-god. 

Sale. — von Robert, Cologne, 1893. 

Canvas, 168 cm. by 112 cm. 

A Bacchanal. 

Sale. — Johan Can, Ridder heer van 
Domburg. Amsterdam, 1710. 

Ditto. Sale.— Rotterdam, June, 28, 1756, 

2 v., 6 d. by 3 v., 6 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— Von Kretschner, Amster- 
dam, 1757, 2.\ d. by 16 d. 
Ditto. Sale. — Horion, Brussels, 1788, 

3 v., 6 d. by 4 v., 6 d. 
A Bacchanal. 

Sale. — Walschot, Antwerp, 181 7. 

Canvas, 61 \ d. by 98 J d. 

Ditto. Sale.— Haarlem, April 8, 1800. 

Ditto. Sale. — Brentano, Amsterdam, 

Canvas, I el, 7 palm, 5 d. by I el, 
7 palm, 3 d. 

Ditto.Sa.le. — Mensart, Amsterdam, 1824. 

Canvas, 53 d. by 45 d. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale.— Jos. Dan.Bbhm, 
Vienna, 1865. 

Pen and colour. 

A tipsy follower of Bacchus, resting 
his head on a wine barrel. 

Sale. — de Scherpenseel Heusch, Brus- 
sels, 1881. 

Canvas, 138 cm. by 150 cm. 

Cacus stealing the cows of Hercules. 
176, 183, pi. 177. 

Etching by Jordaens. 

Signed: jac. jordaens inventor 1632. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, 
Brussels, 1797. . . . 176, 183. 

White, red and black and pen. 


Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 1734, 
Ns. 90, 2 v., 4 d. by 3 v., 4 d. 

Ceres in search of Proserpine. 

Sale. — Peytier de Merckthem, Antwerp, 

Canvas, 68 cm. by 82 cm. 

Circe and Ulysses . . 105, pi. 107. 

Canvas, 133 cm. by 204 cm. 

Crefeld, Heinrich Tack (in 1905). 

Ditto. Sale.— Joan Tack, Amsterdam, 

Ditto. Sale. — Haarlem. April 8, 1800. 

Danae and Jupiter. 

Sale. — J. Siebrecht, Antwerp, 1754. 

Dedalus and Icarus. 

Museum, Stuttgart, No. 324. 

Canvas, 135 cm. by 126 cm. 


Drawing, Sepia. Sale.— Jos. Dan. Bohm, 
Vienna, 1865. 

Diana and her Nymphs 

Drawing, Sale.— Pierre Wouters. Brus- 
sels, 1797. 

With pen, washed with colours. 

Diana and bathing nymphs. 

Drawing. Albertina, 622. 

Diana and nymphs bathing. 

Drawing. Boymans Museum, Rot- 

Diana's Bath Jo. 

Museum, Madrid, No. 1409. 

Canvas, 131 cm. by 127 cm. 

Diana and Callisto. . IJ2, pi. 154- 

Museum, Oldenburg, No. 105. 

Canvas, 81 cm. by 120 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Jacob van der Dussen, 
Amsterdam,' 1752. 

4 v., 9 d. by 6 v.. 7 d. 

Ditto, inventory, Jeremias Wildens, 

1653 '52- 

Ditto. Inventory, Jan van Born, Ant- 
werp, 1657. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, June 21, 

Panel, 31 d. by 46 d. 

Diana resting <?J. 

Sale.— Kums, Antwerp, 1898. 

Canvas, 205 cm. by 255 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Van Schorel, Antwerp, 


Ditto. Sale.— Robiano (Comtesse dou- 
ariere de), Brussels, 1838. 

Ditto. Sale. — Le Candele. Antwerp, 
1 881. 

Diana and her nymphs . . 93, 152. 

Paris, 1777, Lebrun Collection, 3 v., 
9 d. by 4 v., 10 d. 

Sale. — Abb£ Guillaume de Gevigny, 
Paris, 1779- 

Sale. — Fesch, Rome, 1845. 

Diana Resting 93 

Hermitage, St. Petersburg, No, 649 

Canvas, 224 cm, by 285 cm. 

Diana and her nymphs. 

Sale. — Henri Craen, Amsterdam, 1 1 1 1 

Canvas, 35 d. by 53 d. 

Diana and Acteon ..... 94 

Drawing. Museum, Brunswick. 

Pen and chalk, washed with colours, 

Cecrops' daughters discovering young 

Sale. — Amsterdam, April 6, 189S- 

Ditto. Sale. — Lyonnet, Amsterdam, 

Canvas, 34 d. by 50 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Philips Neven, Amster- 
dam, 1892. 

Canvas, 65 cm. by 80 cm. 

The Rape of Europa. 

Sale. — Ourshagen, Mechlin, 1892. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Metayer, Am- 
sterdam, 1799. 

Red and black chalk. 

Ditto. Drawing. St. Petersburg, Her- 
mitage 4210. 

In yellow, red and. blue chalk. 

Flora and Pomona. 

Sale. — Daniel Moore, London, 1899. 

Panel, 47 d. by 36 d.. . 

Flora, Silenus, and Zephyrus. 178, 

pl. 233 
Knocke, Mrs. Parmentier. 
Canvas, 128 cm. by 114 cm. 



Ditto Mr. William Grieve, Eastland, 
bcotland „o 

Ditto. Sale.— de Peters," Paris,' 1779' 
4 v. by 3 v., 9 d. 
Ditto. Drawing. Museum, Berlin, 2282. 

White, sepia and red. 

Inscription: Flora, Silenus et Zeihy- 
rus, i6jg. 

Hercules slaying the sons 0/ Earth. 119. 

By Rubens, finished by Jordaens. 

Nymphs filling the horn of plenty, 14J, 

pi. 147. 

Museum, Copenhagen, No. 167. 

Canvas, 246 cm. by 311. 75 cm. 

Signed : J. Jor je 1649. 

Hero and Leander. 

Sale.— Johan van Nispen, The Hague 
1768. S ' 

Canvas, 37 d. by 48 d. 

Jupiter fed by the goat Amalthea. 84, 
176, 178, 192, pi. 96. 

Louvre, Paris, No. 2013. 

Canvas, 150 cm. by 203 cm. 

Bought by King Louis XVIII. 

Ditto. Museum, Cassel, No. 103. 86 

pi. 87. 

Canvas, 219 cm. by 247 cm. 

Mentioned in the Inventory of the 
Museum at Cassel in 1749. 

Ditto. Museum, Cassel, No. 104. 87, 

pi. 89. 

Signed: Jac. Jordaens. 

Jupiter being fed by the goat Amalthe. 

Sale. — Stevens, Antwerp, 1837. 

Canvas, 115 cm- by 163 cm. 

Ditto. Etching by Jordaens, 1652. 176. 

Ditto. Sale.— De Vinck de Wesel, 
Antwerp, 1814 87. 

Canvas, 32 d. by 46 d. 

At the sale Stier d'Aertselaer, Ant- 
werp, 1822, bought by Mrs. Wellens of 

Ditto. Sale.— Delia Faille, 

The Hague, 1730. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, March 9, 

Ditto. Sale. — Locquet, Amsterdam, 

1783 87- 

Canvas, 72 d. by 78 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, October 19, 

Ditto. Berlin, Naumann, (Parthey, I, 

Jupiter and Amalthea, with several 

Sale.— Van der Stel, Amsterdam, 1781. 

Canvas, 33 d. by 46J d. 

Jupiter and Amalthea, with several 
nymphs and Satyrs. 

Sale. — Amsterdam, September 10, 1798. 

Canvas, 38 d. by 48 d. 

Jupiter and Amalthea. 

Brussels, Debuck. 

Canvas, 74 cm. by 104 cm. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Metayer, Am- 
sterdam, 1799. 

Nymph milking the goat Amalthea. 86. 

Drawing. Museum, Brunswick. 

Red chalk. Dated. A° 1671 '/• 

The Goat Amalthea. 86, 192, pi, 97. 

Drawing. Louvre, 20022. 

Red, black and blue chalk, back- 
ground washed in. 

Childhood of Jupiter. 

Blaschckow, Bohemia. Gaston von 

Canvas, 77 cm. by no cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Vrancken, Lokeren, 1838. 


Canvas, 33 d. by 48 "d. 

Jupiter and lo . 176, pi. 176. 

Etching by Jordaens, 1652. 

An offering to Jupiter . . pi. 65. 

Drawing. Museum, Rotterdam, 247. 

An offeting in a pagan Temple. 

Drawing. Sale.— Prince de Ligne, 1794. 

Black, red and white chalk on gray 


Sale.— Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 1734, 

I v , 9 d. by 1 v., 3 d. 


Ceiling-piece. Drawing. Sale.— Me- 
tayer, Amsterdam, 1799. 

Red and black chalk. 

Mars and Bellona. 

Sale. — Verellen, Antwerp, 1856. 

Canvas, 46 cm. by 63 cm. 

Mealager and Atalanta. 34, 187, pi. 34. 

Museum, Antwerp, Formerly Copen- 
hagen, Karel Madsen. 

Canvas, 154 cm. by 123 cm. 

Ditto. Museum, Madrid, No. 1407. 

„ _ 34. pl- 36- 

Canvas, 151 cm. by 241 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 

1734, No. 89, 2 v., 3£ d. by 3 v., \\ d. 

Ditto. Drawing. Amiens, Masson. 35. 

Ditto. Sale. — Pierre Fouquet, Amster- 
dam, 1 80 1. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, 
Brussels, 1797. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Lauwers, Am- 
sterdam, 1802. 

Red and black chalk and washed. 

Ditto. Sale. — Douariere d'Hoop van 
Abstein, Ghent 1849. 

Panel, 62 d. by 104 d. 

Bust of Mercury. 

Sale. — Von Conrath von Siegburg, 
Brussels, 1901. 

Panel, 64 cm. by 95 cm. 

Mercury and the daughters of Dryops. 

Copenhagen, Gustav Falck. 

Paper pasted on canvas, 50 cm. by 
75 cm. 

Mercury and Battus. 

Drawing. Prince de Ligne, 1794. 

Lightly sketched in black chalk, 
heightened with white on gray paper. 

The Judgment of Midas . 114, 153. 

Museum, Madrid, No. 1637. 

Canvas, 181 cm. by 267 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jacques Jordaens, The 
Hague, 1 734, No. 88. 2 v., 4 d. by 3 v , 9J d. 

Ditto. Sale.— Ridder Robert de Neuf- 
ville, Leiden, 1736, 2 v., 6£ d. by 3 v., 
10 d. 

The Judgment of Midas. 

Sale. — Hendrik van Limburgh, The 
Hague, 1759, 28 d. by 45 d. 

The binding of Mdrsyas. 

Sale. — Willem Six, Amsterdam, 1734. 

Apollo and Marsyas. 

Sale.— Mechlin, Nov. 29, 1838. 

Canvas, 1 v., 8 d. by 1 v., 7 d. 

The Punishment of Marsyas . 153. 

Amsterdam, Rijks-Museum, No. 1317, 
2 v., 6 d. by 3 v., 10 d. 
Ditto. Sale. — Van Swieten, The Hague, 

King Midas. . . . 1 53, pl. 155. 
Museum, Ghent, 98. 
Sale. — Huybrechts, Antwerp, 1902. 

Canvas, 116 cm. by 1 54 cm. 

The Judgment of Midas. . 152. 

Inventory, Jeremias Wildens, 1653, 

Ditto. Sale. — Brentano, Amsterdam, 
1822, 8 palm, 9 d. by I el, 2 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Cuypers de Rymenam, 
Brussels, 1802. 

Ditto. Sale.— de Beunie, Antwerp, 1827. 

Ditto. Sale. — Guillaume Verbelen, Brus- 
sels, 1833. 

Ditto. Sale. — Stevens, Antwerp, 1837, 

Ditto, Sale. — van Rymenam, Mechlin. 

Canvas, 74 cm. by 75 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Henri Beissel van Aken, 
Brussels, 1875. 

A Sea-triumph (Neptune abducts Am- 
phitrite) 48, pl. 58. 

Brussels, Arenberg Gallery. 

Canvas, 231 cm. by 349 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague. 
March 22, 1734, No. 71, 8 v., by 12 v., 5 d. 

Ditto. Sales. — King of the Netherlands, 
The Hague, 1842, Amsterdam, 1850. 

Canvas, 251 cm. by 375 cm. 

The picture is mentioned in a Cata- 
logue of the Rijks-Museum, Amsterdam, 
in the first half of the nineteenth century. 

Ditto. Sale. — Neville de Goldsmid van 
den Haag, Paris, 1876. 

Ditto. Sale. — J. Siebrecht, Antwerp, 


Ditto. Sale. — Pictures from Saxony, 
Amsterdam, May 22, 1765, 91 d. by 
138 d 49. 

A Sea-triumph. 

Sale.— H. Hissette, etc., Ghent, 1808. 

Canvas, 34 d. by 55 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jean Jacques de Faesch, 
Amsterdam, 1833, 

Canvas, I el, 3 d. by I el, 4 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Antwerp, May 21, 1838. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, August I, 
1828, 2 el, 2 palm, 7 d. by 3 el, I p. I d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Douariere Robert Geel- 
hand, Antwerp, 1888 . . . 49. 

Ditto. Sale.— Amsterdam, June 5, 1765. 

Canvas, 33 d. by 50 d. 

Neptune and Amphitrite (Gifts of the 
Sea) Vienna, Schonborn Collection. 96. 

Canvas, 300 cm. by 370 cm. 

Neptune and Venus, surrounded by 

Sale in Lloyd's rooms, Brussels, 1837. 

Triumph of Neptune, Drawing. 

Sale.— Geeraard Hoet, Amsterdam, 

Btack and red chalk and a little colour. 

Neptune strikes the Earth, 

Uffizi, Florence, No. 914. 

Neptune and Nymphs. 

Drawing. Albertina, 634a. 

Red and black chalk. 


Berlin, Palace (Parthey, 165). 

Nessus and Dejanira. 

Sale.— St. Remy, Cologne, 1892. 

Canvas, 120 cm. by 100 cm. 

Sleeping nymphs with Cupid, qi, 92. 

Brussels, Mrs. Bougard. 

Canvas, 1 60 cm. by 260 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, June 7, 1751. 

Ditto. Sale. — Joh. Lod. Strantwyck, 
Amsterdam. 1780 91. 

Three nude women and an angel. 91. 

Sale. — Jacob Jordaens, The Hague, 
1734, No. 5, 3 v., 7J d. by 3 v., .5 d. 



Sleeping nymphs .... 91. 

Drawing. Sale. — Neyraan (Amsterdam). 
Paris, 1776. 

Three nymp/ts with Amorini. 
Canvas, 1 el 3 p., 6 d. by 1 el, 8 p., 4 d. 
Sale.— Amsterdam, May 14, 1832. 
A Nymph with Cupid. . . 91. 

Sale. — Pieter Lydnnet, Amsterdam, 
Canvas, 29 d. by 44 d. 
A Landscape with steeping nymphs. 
Sale. — Jan Lucas van der Dussen, 
Amsterdam, 1774. 
Pan with goats and sheep. 178, pi. 178. 
Museum, Amsterdam, No. 741. 
Canvas, 136 d. by 173 d. 
From the sale Stinstra, 1822. 
Ditto. Hampton Court Palace. 
Pan and Syrinx. . 47, 201, pi. 53- 
Museum, Brussels, No. 240. 
Canvas, 172 cm. by 133 cm. 
Ditto. Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 
The Hague, 1734, 3 v., 8 d. by 3 v., 

3i d 47. 

Ditto. Sale. — Maria Beuckelaer, Doua- 
riere. Holungius, The Hague, 1752. 

Ditto. Sale. — Edmond Ruelens, Brus- 
sels, 1883. 
Ditto. Sale. — Brussels, May 21, 1851. 
Ditto. Sale. — Huygens de Lowendal, 
Antwerp, 1858. 

Canvas, 74 cm. by 92 cm. 
Pan and two nymphs. 
Marquess of Bute (Waagen, Art Trea- 
sures, III, 475). 

Pan with nymph and children. 
Sale. — De Boer, Amsterdam, 1840. 
Canvas, 1 el, 74 d. by 1 el, 74 d. 
The judgment of Paris. 
Sale. — J. Siebrecht, Antwerp, 1754. 
Ditto. Sale. — Spanish Consul (Anonym- 
ous), London, 1772. 

Ditto. Sale. — Nieuhof, Amsterdam, 

Sale. — Christiana Susanna De Vries, 
Amsterdam, 1840. 
Canvas, 1 el, 34 d. by 1 el, 66 d. 
Ditto. Sale. — Ourshagen, Mechlin, 1892. 
Canves, 75 cm. by 98 cm. 
An episode from the life of Paris. 
Academy, St. Petersburg. 
Paris and Enone. 

Sale. — Amsterdam, August 10, 1785. 
Panel, 30 d. by 44 d. 
Penelope and her lovers. 
Sale. — Charles Spruyt, Ghent, 1815. 
Canvas, 45 d. by 86 d. 
Perseus and Andromeda . . . 119 
Picture by Rubens, finished by Jordaens. 
Philemon and Baucis . . . 181. 
Museum, Helsingfors. 
Ditto. Sale.— Jan Aggers, Amsterdam, 

1702 181. 

Ditto. Sale. — Rotterdam, April 27, 1713 
Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, April 2, 1751. 
Ditto. Sale. — Court Andre de Stolberg, 
Soedar, Hanover, 1859. . . 181. 

Canvas, 3 v., 5 d. by 2 v., 6 d. 
Ditto. Sketch. Berlin, Naumann(Parthey, 
No. 34). '' 

Ditto. Sale. — Conrath von Siegburg, 

Brussels, 1901 jgj' 

Canvas, 65 by 78 (sic). 
Ditto. Drawing. British Museum. 181. 
Ditto. Engraving by P. Gladitsch. 181. 
Polymnia and the poet. 
Sale.— De Vinck de Wesel, Antwerp, 
1814. r 

Canvas, 41 d. by 30 d. 
Offering to Pomona . . 33, pi. 35. 
Museum, Madrid, No. 1408. 
Panel, 165 cm. by 112 cm. 
Prometheus .... 94, pi. ico. 
Museum, Cologne, No. 164. 
Canvas, 243 cm. by 196 cm. 
From the Schenk sale, i860. 
Ditto. Sale. — Van Heemskerlc, The 
Hague, 1770. 

Canvas, 96 d. by 70 d. 
The Rape of Proserpine 
Sale. — Busso, Ghent, 1832. 
The Story of Psyche .... 126. 
Ceiling from Jordaen's house: 
Chs. van der Linden, Antwerp. 
Dated : 1652. 

Ditto (Ceiling). Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, 
The Hague, 1734, No. 109 . . 118. 
A complete ceiling in five pieces re- 
presenting the story of Psyche, and two 
smaller flowerpieces ; together 23 v. by 1 7 v. 
Jordaens evidently treated the same 
subject for the Greenwich decorations. 
115— 118. 
Ditto. (A ceiliing). Sale. — Jac. Jordaens 
The Hague, 1734, No. 78. . . 118. 
A large square piece, with four large 
oblique pieces, intended for the ceiling 
of a large room; representing the story 
of Psyche, painted by Jordaens for Queen 
Christina of Sweden ; together 24 v. by 22 v. 
Cupid and Psyche . . 118. 

Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 1734, 
No. 52, 2 v., 6J d. by 3 v., 1 d. 
A satyr (bust). 

Sale. — Jacob De Wit, Amsterdam, 1755, 
2 v., 1 d. by I v., 8 d. 
A laughing Satyr. 

Sale. — Balthasar Beschey, Antwerp, 
1776, 1 v., 8 d. by 1 v., 5 d. 
A Satyr's head. 

Sale. — Countess Reigersberg, Munich, 
Canvas, 59 cm. by 52 cm. 
Ditto. Drawing in many colours. 
Louvre, 20033. ■ • • 190, pi. 157. 
A Satyr. 

Drawing. Red chalk. Louvre. 
Satyr carrying a string of fruit. 
Drawing. Sale. — FransBacker.Cologne, 
1882. Red chalk heightened with white. 
From the Boerner collection. 

Satyr carrying a Horn of plenty. 
Drawing. Sale.— Jacob De Vos, Amster- 
dam, 1883. Red chalk. 
A young Satyr. 

Drawing. Sale.— Artaria, Sterne, etc. 
Vienna, 1886. 

In pencil. Signed : Jac. Jordaens fee. 
i6j2. From the Bbhm collection, Vienna 
A Satyr. 

Drawing. Black and red chalk. Sale.— 
Earl of Warwick, London, 1896. From 
the Benjamin West collection. 
Satyr playing the flute. 
Sale.— de Vinck de Wesel, Antwerp 
Canvas, 22 d. by 14 d. 
Satyr carrying fruit. 
Same sale, same dimensions. 
Sleeping Satyr. 

Sale.— Baron de S., Brussels. May 2 
1869. ' 

Canvas, 120 cm. by 94 cm 
Satyr and Nymph. 
Berlin, Castle (Parthey 60). 

Young drunkard with woman and satyr. 
Sale. — Gottlieb Thiermann, Cologne, 
Canvas, 124 cm. by 100 cm. 
Satyr pouring out wine for a woman. 
Sale. — Amsterdam, May 1, 1849. 
Canvas, 1 el, 15 d. by 87 d. 
Satyr and Child. 
Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle, 76. 
Canvas, 170 cm. by 105 cm. 
Satyr and Cupid. 

Sale. — Ridder de Marssen, Maastricht, 
Canvas, 125 cm. by 174 cm. 
Satyr pressing grapes for his children. 
Sale.— Mr. A. H., Brussels, 1864. 
Canvas, 40 cm. by 35 cm. 
A Satyr and two children. 
Sale.— Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 1734. 
No. 44. 2 v., 3 d. by 2 v., 3 d. 
Satyr with woman and Cupid. 
Sale.— J. Siebrecht, Antwerp, 1751. 
Satyr put suing a forest god. 
Sale. — De Robiano, Brussels, 1837. 
Canvas, 132 cm. by 172 cm. 
Satyrs in a landscape. 
Sale. — Sir. P. Stevens, London 1804. 
Satyrs and monster. 
In the collection of Marten Kretzer, 
Amsterdam, 1650. 

Lambert van den Bos wrote a poem 
upon this picture, 1650: Oud-Holland, 
II, 114. 

Two young Satyrs carrying a wild- 
boar's head. 

Drawing. Sale. — Artaria, Vienna, 1896. 
Drawing in watercolour from the 
W. Koller collection. 

Bacchanalian Scene .... 48. 
Museum, Ghent. 
Canvas 117 cm. by 180 cm. 
Sale. — Fred Muller, Amsterdam, July 3, 

Satyrs and nymphs. 
Sale. — Baron M(ertens), Brussels, 1861. 
Canvas, 50 cm. by 55 cm. 
Ditto. New Palace, Potsdam(Parthey 61). 
Satyrs and women. 

Sale. — Gillis van Hoven, 1755. 4 v., 
2 d. by 4 v., I d. 
Satyrs and nymphs. 
Sale. — David Ietswaart, art dealer, 
Amsterdam, 1749. 

Sleeping nymphs surprised by Satyrs. 
Sale. — Brussels, July 17, 1776. 39 d. 
by 45 d. 

Satvrs and nymphs 

Sale. — Amsterdam, April 15, 1739. 
Satyrs and nymphs. 
Sale.— J. H. Onder de Wyngaert Can- 
zius, Delft, 1804. 60 d. by 70 d. 
Ditto. Sale — Amsterdam. Aug. 4, 1 828. 
Panel, 3 v., 7 d. by 1 el, 2 palm. 
Ditto. Sale. — Frederik Muller, Amster- 
dam, July 7, 1603. 

Canvas, 119.5 cm - by 184 cm. 
Satyrs and nymphs in a landscape 
Drawing. Sale.— Gildenleester, Am- 
sterdam, 1800. 
Satyrs and nymphs with Mercury. 
Drawing. Plantin-Moretus Museum. 

Red and black chalk, touched with 
the pen. 

Satyrs and three Graces, with a Cornu- 

(Sandrart, Teutsche Academie, p. 336). 
Satyr and three Graces. 



Sale.— Mad. de la Rocheb, Paris 1873 

Canvas, 66 cm. by 82 cm. 

Satyrs, nymphs and children warming 
themselves at a fire. 

Sale. — Antwerp, May 29, 1865. 

Canvas, 68 cm. by 80 cm. 

Saturn, devouring one of his sons. 

Sale.— Dusart, Antwerp, 1865. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale.— Pierre Wouters, 
Brussels, 1797 lg6 

Black chalk, upright. 

Head of Silenus. 

Sale.— Jacques Clemens, Ghent, 1770 

Panel, 18 d. by 12 d. 


Sale.— Willem van Haansbergen, The 
Hague, 1755. 

With accesories of fruit, etc., by 

Amor handing an apple to Silenus. 

Poullain collection; engravine bv C 
Maret. S y ' 

Sale.— Randon de Boisset, Paris, 1777 

Canvas, 3 v., 8 d. by 3 v., 6 d., 6 linien 

Silenus drunk. 

Potsdam, New Palace, (Parthey 48) 

Ditto. Sale. — Jean George Riedinger 
Cologne, 1841, 47 d. by 68 d. 

Silenus and the four Seasons 178. 

Same subject as Flora, Silenus and 
Zephyrus (See Flora). 
Helsingborg, Countess de la Gardie. 

Canvas, 3 v., 8 d. by 3 v., 6 d. 

From the Boisset collection; Crozat 
(Paris); Poullain (Paris); Count G. A. 
Sparre (Sweden). 

Silenus and the four Seasons. 

Sale. — Jan, Adriaan Snyers, Antwerp, 
1818 I7 8. 

Ditto. Sale. — Pommersfeld . . 178. 

Canvas, 4 v., 5 d. by 3 v., 9 d. 

Silenus and Bacchante. 

Sale. — Sils, Antwerp, 1882. 

Ditto. Sale. — Sassenus, Brussels, 1776. 
3 v., 7 d. by 3 v., 6 d. 

Toper supported by a woman. (Silenus ?) 

Bamberg, Himmerlein (Parthey, 93). 

Canvas 3 v., 8 d., 5 strepen by 2 v., 
8 d., 5 s. 

Silenus, Forestgod and Bacchante. 

Sale. — de Meulder, etc., Antwerp, 1854. 
145 cm. by no cm. 

Silenus drunk, with satyrs and bac- 

Sale.— Christian Everhard Vaillant, 
Amsterdam, 1830. 

Silenus on n donkey with two satyrs 
and children. 

Sale.— Engelbert and Tersteeg. Amster- 
dam, 1 808. 

Panel, 13 d. by 18 d. 

Ditto. Drawing. Museum, Rotterdam, 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale.— Van der Heyden, 
Amsterdam, 1827. 

Silenus tipsy, put to bed by Satyrs. 

Sale.— DeRenesse-Breidbach.Coblentz, 

Ditto. Sale. ^-Bianco, Milan, 1889. 

Panel, 48 cm. by 65 cm. 

March of Silenus. 

Sketch. Sale. — Baron de Beurnonville, 
Paris, 1884. 

In grisaille, heightened by a few touches. 

Silenus and Satyr. 

Drawing. Albertina, 624. 

Red and black chalk. 

Telemachus bringing Theoclymcuus to his 

Drawing in colours. Museum, Stock- 

Ulysses (on metal) . . . . 119. 

Sale.— Jeremias Wildens, Antwerp, 

Ulysses and Dido. 

Sale. — Joh. Lod. Strantwijk, Amster- 
dam, 1780. 

Canvas, 45 d. by 12 d. 

Ulysses with Nausicaa . . . 119. 

Antwerp, Van der Ouderaa. 

Sale. — Nicolaus Cornells Hasselaar, 
Amsterdam, 1742. 4^ v. by 6 v., 7 d. 

Ulysses at the feet of Alcinous' daughter. 

Sale. — Amsterdam, April 29, 18 17. 

The History of Ulysses and Polyphemus. 


Estate of Rubens, 265. 

Venus and mirror surrounded by the 
three Graces. 

Uffizi, Florence, No. 775. 

Venus and Adonis. 

Sale. — May 16, 1696, Amsterdam. 

Venus and Mars. 

Sale. — Edmojid Ruelens, Brussels, 1883. 

Canvas, 144 cm. by 135 cm. 

Venus, Mars, and Vulcan. 

Sale. — Philip van Dyck, The Hague, 
1753. 7 v., 8 d. by 10 v., 9 d. 

Venus and Satyrs. 

Sale. — Jac. J. Jordaens, The Hague, 
1734, No. 77. 3 v., 9 d. by 6 v., 6 d. 

Venus and Cupid with a Satyr. 

Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 1734. 
No. 66. 3 v., 5 d. by 2 v., \ d. 
Venus with Cupid and Satyrs. 
Sale. — Philip van Dyck, The Hague, 


The Sacrifice to Venus . . 94. 

Museum, Brunswick, No. 1015. 

Panel, 75 cm. by 142J cm. 

Ditto. Museum, Dresden. 94, pi. 99. 

Canvas, 83 cm. by 142 cm. 

Satyrs and Nymphs at a Sacrifice. 

Sale. — C. Vermeulen, Dordrecht, 1813. 

A Sacrifice to Venus and Mars . 94. 

Sale. — Von Schorel, Antwerp, 1774. 

Canvas on wood, \%\ d. by 23 d. 

Vcrtumnus and Pomona. 

Museum. Stuttgart, No. 336. 

Canvas, 135 cm. by 127 cm. 

Vulcan . 145. 

Sold by Jordaens to Martinus van 
Langenhoven in 1646. 

Zetes and Calais. 

Sketch. Sale. — Nourri, Paris, 178$. 

Canvas, io d. by 29 d. 

Mythological Banquet. 

Louvre, Paris, No. 2017. Lacaze 

Panel, 74 cm. by 105 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — J. Siebrecht, Antwerp, 

Ditto. Sale. — Horion, Brussels, 1788, 
2 v., 7 d. by 3 v., 7 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Coquereau, Brussels, 1806, 

Canvas, 117 cm. by 154 cm. 

Feast of the Gods. 

Sketch. Sale. — Ravaisson, Paris, 1903. 

Canvas, 47 by 74. (sic). 

Ditto. Drawing, red chalk. Sale.— de 
Silvestre, Paris, 1810. 


Museum, Toulouse, No. 97. 

Canvas, 73 cm. by 91 cm. 

A Rivergod. 

Drawing, black and red chalk. 

Sale. — Jos. Dan. Bohm, Vienna, 1865. 
13J d. by 9 d. 


Sale. — Marsenick, Cologne, 1891. 

Canvas, 125 cm. by 97 cm. 

An Episode from Ovid. 

Sale Leydenjunel,! 765. 46 d. by 48 d. 

Ditto. (A Mythological subject with 
12 figures). 

Sale in Lloyd's rooms Brussels, 1837. 

Ditto. (A Mythological subject). 

Sale. — Ant, Sils, Antwerp, 1882. 

Queen Thomyris. 

Sale. — Coenraad Baron Droste, The 
Hague, 1734, 23 d. by 19 d. 

King Candaules 140. 

Museum, Stockholm, No. 1 1 59. 

Canvas, 193 d. by 157 d. 

Ditto. From the Bizet Collection, 
Munich, No. 934 142. 

Diogenes searching for a man. 92, 100, 
193, pi. 102. 

Museum, Dresden, No. 1010. 

Canvas, 233 cm. by 349J cm. 

Bought in Paris in 1742. 

Sale. — Amsterdam, April 20, 1695 
(„Diogenes a capital piece"). 

Inventory, Sebastiaan Leerse, Antwerp, 
1691 : „A large piece Diosines painted 
by Jordaens." 


Ditto. Detail. Drawing Messr. J. and 
A. le Roy, Brussels. Signed : J. Jordaens, 
1642 103, 193, pi. 104. 


Sale. — Jacob Jordaens, 1734, The 
Hague, No. 12. 3 v., 8 d. by 5 v., 1 d. 

Diogenes searching for a man . 103. 

Sale. — F. Bernard, Standstead, London, 


Diogenes searching for a man. . 103. 

Sale. — Van Geetruyen and Beeckmans, 
Antwerp, 1850. 

Ditto. Sale.— Rotterdam, April 28, 

Canvas, ij el by 1$ el. 

Ditto. Drawing, Sale. — Amsterdam, 
April 29, 181 7. 

Socrates and Xantippe. 

Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 1 734, 
No. 30. 2 v., 34 d. by 2 v , 11 d. 

Ditto. (The Domestic Quarrel). 

Sale. — Van Saceghem, Brussels 1851, 
No. 32. 

Canvas, 163 cm. by 234^ cm. 

Paris, Poullain Collection, 178 1. 

Sale. — Arnoldus Dankmayer, Amster- 
dam, 1785. 

Ditto. Sale. — Du Bus de Gisignies, 
Brussels, 1878. 
Ditto. Sale. — Van Saceghen, Ghent, N0.43. 

Cauvas, 220 cm. by 180 cm. 

Democritus and Heraclitus . . 30. 

Museum, Brunswick, No. 120. 

Canvas 114 cm. by 107 cm. 

Ditto. Museum, New York, No. 102. 
SO, pi. 28. 



Canvas, 38 d. by 5° d. 

Ditto. Sale.— The Hague, May 3, 1729. 


Ditto. Sale. — P. A. Verlinden, Antwerp, 

Ditto. Sale. — At Terbruggen's, Ant- 
werp, 1868. 

Canvas, 112 cm. by 104 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Brussels, March, 25, 1849. 
162 cm. by 190 cm. 

Archimedes with a sphere in his hand. 

Museum, Wurzburg. 

Canvas I v., 3 d. by 2 v. I d. 


Sale. — van Ourshagen, Mechlin, 1892. 

Canvas, 72 cm. by 90 cm. 

The Continence of Scipio. 

(The Family of Darius before Alex- 
ander?) Museum Narbonne, 297. 

Ditto. Museum Louvain, No. 60. 
Ditto. Drawing. Museum Rotterdam. 

pi. 124. 

The Banquet of Cleopatra and Marcus 

Drawing. Sale. — de Silvestre, Paris, 

Death of Cleopatra. 

Berlin, von Peucker, (Barthey 78). 

The keys of the town presented to a 
Roman General. 

Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, Brus- 
sels, 1797. 

Black, red and white chalk, with a 
little yellow, and washed; rounded off 
at the top. 

The Romans surprised by night by 
Claudius Civilis. 

Amsterdam, Palace .... 204. 

The Confirmation oj Peace between 
Civilis and Cerialis 204. 

Amsterdam, Palace 

The women of Weinsberg. 

Sale. — Mrs. Vosmaer, Amsterdam, 1901, 

Panel, 72 cm. by 105 cm. 

Holland freed from the Spanish Yoke. 

Sale. — Monteleau. Paris, 1802, 287 
cm. by 140 cm. 

The Triumph of Frederick Henry 
159—169, pi. 159, pi. 163. 

The Hague, House in the Wood. 

Ditto.Sketch. Museum, Antwerp, pi. 165. 

Canvas, 118 cm. by 128 cm. 

Ditto. Sketch. Museum,Brussels,No.3i2. 

Canvas, 112 cm. by 116 cm. 

Ditto. Sketch. Museum, Warsaw. 

Ditto. Sale. — H. F. Broadwood and 
Lord Leigh, London. — (Christie's) 1899. 

Ditto. Sale.— M. H. W. Paris, 1900. 

Ditto. Inventory, Alexander Voet. 

Ditto. Sale. — Canon Knyff, Antwerp, 

Canvas, 44 d. by 42 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — de Montriblond, Paris, 

The Arch of Philip. (The two principal 
canvases) Paris, Simon . . . 113. 

The two Ferdinands by Rubens (retouch- 
ed), Windsor Castle . . . . 113. 

Paintings for the Arch of Philip, by 
Jordaens and Cornells DeVos 113. 

Cimon and Pero. 

Sale. — Lavillarmois, Lille, 1795, 3° d. 
by 42 d. 

The Hospital nuns .... 234. 

Museum, Antwerp, No. 216. 

Canvas, 267 d. by 369 d. 

The Marriage of a Princess. 

Sale. — Charles Spruyt, Ghent, 181 5. 

Canvas, 36 d. by 43 d. 

The Beheading of a woman. 

Drawing. Museum, Rotterdam. 

The twelve Months (Ceilings) 124. 

Palais du Luxembourg, Paris. 

Twelve pieces, about 150 cm. by 200 
cm., from Jordaens' house. 

The Four Seasons. 

Sale. — Jos. Ant. Squinto, Munich, 1903. 

Canvas, no cm. by 170 cm. 

The Four Seasons represented by four 
women (half-length). 

Sale — Jos. Ant. Squinto, Munich, 1903. 

Canvas, no cm. by 170 cm. 

Summer (?) (Four figures). 

Sketch. Hermannstadt, No. 579. 

Paper on panel, 32 by 62 (sic). 

Summer and Autumn. 

Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, Brus- 
sels, 1707. 

Black, red and white chalk, mixed 
with a few other colours. 

March (see Tapestries). 

The fertility of the Earth ; or Abundance. 
43. 59. 213, pi. 45. 

Museum, Brussels, No. 310. 

Canvas, 178 cm. by 240 cm. 

Signed : Jordae fecit. 

Ditto. Sale.— Delia Faille, The Hague, 

Ditto. Sale. — Hendrik van Limburg, 
The Hague, 1759. 

Tn 1764, it belonged to the Confrerie 
of Painters in the Hague. 

Ditto. Sale. — Willem van Wouw, The. 
Hague, May 22, 1764. 

Ditto. Sale.— J. F. de Vinck de Wesel, 
Antwerp, 1814. 

Ditto. Drawing. London, Heseltine, 
Study for the picture at Brussels, pi. 52. 

The Fertility of the Earth; or Autumn. 

Wallace Collection, London, No. 120. 
46, pi. 47. 

Panel, 4 v., 5^ d. by 7 v., 4! d. 

Ditto. Salei— Pommersfeld Collection, 
Wurzburg, 1857 and Paris 1867. 


Sketch. Sale.— de Beurnonville Paris, 
1884. 28 cm. by 36 cm. 

The Eank offers fruit to a Watergod. 


Sale. - Mrs van Pafferode and Mrs 

Blommen, Antwerp, 1802. 28 d. by 42J d. 

Commerce and Industry protecting Fine 

Art . . 207. 

Museum, Antwerp, No. 219. 

Canvas, 184 cm. by 495 cm. 

Painted in 1665 for the hall of the 
Guild of St Luke. 

Human Law founded on Divine Law. 
207, 230. 

Museum, Antwerp, No. 220. 

Signed : Arti Pictoriae Jacobus Jordaeity 

Painted in 1665 for the hall of the 
Guild of St Luke. 

Pegasus 207. 

Museum, Antwerp, No. 218. 

Canvas 261 cm. by 273 cm. 

Painted in 1665 for the ceiling of the 
Painter's room. 

Moses and Aaron (A court of justice) 


Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 1734. 
5 v., 7j d. by 8 v. 

Justice. ... ... 206. 

Overmantel. Hulst, Court of Justice. 


Signed: J. Jord. fe. A°. i66j. 

Ditto. Drawing. Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg 206, pi 206. 

Art, honoured by Time, the Gods and 
Men. ... 207. 

Drawing. London, Fairfax Murray. 


Drawing. Amiens, J. Masson. 

Signed : Jordaens. 

Astronomy (see Tapestries) 

Homage to Love. 

Drawing. Antwerp, Bouquillon. 

The Fight between Virtue and Vice. 

Sale.— Jos. De Bom, Antwerp, 1878. 

Canvas, 116 cm. by 157 cm. 

Falsehood and Sincerity (2 pieces). 

Sale.— Van der Hulst, Mechlin, 1890. 

Canvas, 187 cm. by 87 cm. 

The Vices (The Seven Deadly Sins). 

Museum. Salzthalen, No. 203. 

Canvas, 12 v., 10 d. by 17 v., 8 d. 

Drawing. Museum, Grenoble. 
Signed : J. Jordaens 9 January, i6jS. 
Justitia, Fides, Charitas 
Drawing. Museum, Amsterdam. 
Red chalk, lightly washed with blue 
and red. 

The Vanity of the World. („Death in 
the End"). 

Museum, Brussels, No. 313. 
Panel, 138 cm. by 196 cm. 
Bought from Mr. Lucq in 1844. 
Vanity (Vanitas). 

Sale. — Locquet, Amsterdam, 1 783, 
No. 172. 

Canvas, 42 d. by 54 d. 
Ditto. Sale. — Potier, Paris 1757. 
Canvas, 42 (sic) by 4 v., 4 d. 
Ditto. Engraved by Jacob Neefs(r), 
1610, 1665. 

A drawing corresponding with this 
engraving appeared at the James Hazard 
sale, Brussels, 1789, No. 497 

Ditto. Drawing. London, Fairfax 

Ditto. Sale.— Jac Jordaens, The Hague, 
1734, No. 101, 5 v., 8 d. by 3 v., 
9 d. 

Young woman holding a skull . 180. 
Sale. — Chapuis, Brussels, 1865. 
Panel, 72 cm. by 59 cm. 
Jesters (woman and man) playing 

with a cat 82, pi. 88. 

Paris, Porges, Collection. 
Canvas, in cm. by 116 cm. 
Sale.— Martin Robyns, Brussels, 1758. 

Jester with a cat 82. 

Wilson Collection ; exhibited in Paris, 
1873 and 1881. 
Canvas, 83 cm. by 70 cm. 
Ditto. Sale. — Nuntio Molinari, Brus- 
sels, 1763 -. . . 82 

Canvas, 33J d. by 26J d. 
Ditto. Engraving, Alex Voet. 82, 181. 
Sale. — Thomas Schwencke. The Hague, 
1767. 38J d. by 30 d. 



Ditto.Sa.le.— Bbgaerts.Brussels, 1777. 82. 

Ditto. Sale.— Mrs. van Griensven Berntz 
The Hague, 1862. 

Ditto. Sale.— Nic. Nieuhof, Amster- 
dam, 1877. 

Canvas, 79 cm. by 56 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Beurnonville, Paris, 1881. 


Ditto. Sale.— De Meulder, etc. Ant- 
werp, 1854, 85 cm. by 70 cm. 

Ditto, Sale. — Bruynincx, Antwerp, 1 79 1 . 

Canvas pasted on panel, 24 d. by 18 d. 

Man-Jester and Woman-Jester with 
an- owl jge 

Engraving, Peter De Jode. 

Ditto. Le Carnaval. Engraving, Surugue 

The Jester of Francis I. 

Sale.— De Busscher, Ghent, 1887. 


Sale. — Kuinders, The Hague, 1899. 

Canvas, 133 cm. by 105 cm. 

Two Fools 

Sale. — J. Siebrecht, Antwerp, 1754. 

The Five Senses. 

Sale.— Count Andreas de Stolberg, 
Soedar (Hanover), 1859. 

Canvas pasted on wood, 2 v., 4 d. 
by 2 v. 

Fortune's Way. 

Sale. — Verellen, Antwerp, 1856. 

Canvas, 118 cm. by 120 cm. 

Three Allegorical Figures (War and 
Peace, Wealth and Poverty, Victory). 

Prague, Muller von Nordegg (Parthey 


Canvas, 2 v., 4 d. by 2 v., 11 d. 

Allegorical Figure (The End of the 

Sale. — Van Hal, Antwerp, 1836. 

Canvas, 130 cm. by 117 cm. 

Allegorical piece. (Prisoner before the 
Judge, etc.). 

Drawing. Sale. — Basan, Paris, 1797. 

Symbolic Subject. 

Drawing. Hermitage, St. Petersburg, 
No. 421 1 (with the inscription : Deligei). 

A Symbolic Title. Drawing. Sale. — 
Ploos van Amstel, Amsterdam, 1800. 

Allegory (Grief and Charity). 

Drawing. Albertina, 621. 


As the. Old Cock crows, the youug one 
learns .... 71, 74—81, pi. 75. 
Museum, Antwerp, No. 677. 
Canvas, 128 cm. by 192 cm. 
Inscription: Soo D'ovde songen so 


Signed : J. Jord. fecit 1638. 

Ditto. Sale. — de Julienne, Paris, 1767. 

76. 177- 

Canvas, 6 v., 5 d. by 5 v., 10 d. 

Ditto. Brussels, Arenberg Collection 


Sale.— P. J. F. Vrancken, Lokeren, 1838. 

Ditto. Wurzburg, Palace. . 79, 80. 

Ditto. Louvre, Paris, No. 2015. 76,78, 

pi. 80. 

Canvas, 154 cm. by 208 cm. 

The inscription on a cartouche at the 
top reads : „Ut Genus est Genius concors 
consentus ab ortu." 

From the Lebrun sale, 1 79 1; bought 
by Louis XVI. 

Ditto. Museum, Dresden, No. 1014. 
78, pi. 246. 

Canvas, 168J cm. by 205 cm. 

At the top is the inscription: „Soo 
d'oude songen soo pepen de jonge." 

Z)i#0.Pinacothek,Munich,8i4 . $0,140. 

Signed: J. JOR. fe. 1646. 

Ditto. Museum, Berlin, No. 879. 

79, pl- 8 4- 
Canvas, 163 cm. by 235 cm. 
Ditto. Earl of Wemyss ... 78. 
Canvas, 57^ d. by 84 d. 
Ditto. Sale.-JacobCromhout and Jasper 
Loskart, Amsterdam, 1709. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, March 9, 


Ditto. Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 
March 22, 1734. No. 76. 5 v., 6 d. by 
7 v., 9 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, April 2, 1754. 
S v., 7 d. by 7 v., 11 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Ludovica Josepha Du 
Bois, Antwerp, 1777. 

Canvas. 57^ d. by 92 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— The Hague, October, 9, 
1815. No. 145. 

Ditto. Sale — L. Rotterdam, 1816. 

Canvas, 55 d. by 65 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Van Laerbeke, Ghent, 
1847. No. 37. 

Ditto. Sale.— Van Laerbeke, Ghent, 
1847. No. 50. 

Ditto. Sale. — Van Goethem, Brussels, 

Canvas, 42 cm. by 37 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Hotel Drouot, June 10, 

Ditto. Sale. — Van den Berghen de 

Canvas, 42J d. by 76J d. 

Ditto. Drawing. British Museum. 

Red and black chalk, washed in colours. 

Ditto. Drawing. Museum, Rotterdam. 

Ditto. Pencil drawing. Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg, No. 121 3. 

Ditto. Drawing. Boerner, Leipsic. 

An old Cat doesn't play with a Ball. 

Drawing. Louvre, 20018. . . 83. 

Ditto. Drawing. Louvre (on view). 
No. 522. 

Signed : „J. Jordaens'' ; a part of the 
signature, probably the year 1648, has 
been cut off. 

The Pitcher goes once too often to the well. 
83, 183. 

The Hague, Steengracht collection. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, April 30, 

Canvas, 7 v., 2 d. by 8 v., 4 d. 

Ditto. Plantin-Moretus Museum, Ant- 

From the collection of Sir J. Lawrence. 
Presented by Mr. Ch. L. Cardon. 

When offered porridge, gape . . 83. 

Drawing. Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
No. 4215. 

In colours. 

Never buy a pig in a poke. 83, pl. 92. 

Drawing. Copenhagen, J. Rump. 

Ditto. Watercolour drawing. Sale — 
Habich, 936. 

They are good candles which light us 
on our way. . . 84, 183, pl. 184. 

Drawing. Paris, Eugene Rodrigues. 

Black and brown chalk. 

The King drinks. 

Museum, Brussels. No. 242. 

Canvas, 263 cm. by 286 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Pommersfeld, Wurzburg, 
1857 and Paris, 1867. 

Ditto. Chiswick, Duke of Devonshire. 
148, pl. 150. 

Canvas, 165 cm. by 234 cm. 

Ditto. Museum, Brussels. 70, 73, pi. 
68, Frontispiece. 

Canvas, 150 cm. by 203 cm. 

At the top on a cartouche is the 
inscription : 

In een vry gelach 
1st goet gast te sijn. 

Ditto. Louvre, Paris, No. 2014. 68, 78. 

Canvas, 152 cm. by 204 cm. 

Formerly belonged to the Fizeau 
family at A mster .dam, and afterwards 
to Le Brun, Paris, from whom Louis XVI 
bought it. 

Ditto. Imperial Museum, Vienna. 
No. 942. ... 61, 73, 148, pl. 151. 

On a cartouche at the top is: 

Nihil similius insano quam ebrius. 

From the collection of the Archduke 

Ditto. Museum, Cassel. No. 99. . 66, 
81, pl. 151. 

Canvas, 242 cm. by 372 cm. 

Belonged to the Museum as early as 


Ditto. Museum, Valenciennes, No. 115. 

67, 81. 

Canvas, 153 cm. by 200 cm. 

Old copy of the picture at Cassel. 

Ditfo. Museum, Brunswick, 119. 148. 

Canvas, 158 cm by 260 cm. 

Ditto. Amsterdam, Private Collection. 

Ditto. Museum of the Academy of 
Fine Arts, St. Petersburg . 73, pl. 69. 

Canvas, 58 d. by 78* d. 

Ditto. Engraved by Pontius. 73, 179. 

Ditto. Drawing for the engraving by 
Pontius 72, 193, pl. 72. 

Museum, Antwerp. 

Ditto. Engraved by J. F. Poletnich. 7l. 

Inscription : Jac. Jordaens pinxit i6yg. 

X)z'«<?.Paris,Massius Collection, 1825. 67. 

Ditto. Sale. — Mr. Johan van de Marcq, 
Amsterdam, 1773. 

Ditto. Overmantel, Inventory, Jufv. Anna 
Jordaens, widow of Signor Zacharias de 
Vriese, 1668. 

Ditto. Sale. — Johan van Marseles, 
Amsterdam, 1703. 
Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, 1734. 

Ditto. Sale. — Ietswaart, Amsterdam, 
1749, 8 v. by 13 v. 

,Dit(o. Sale. — Karel van der Mier, 
Antwerp, 1755. 

Ditto. Sale. — Augustus de Steenhault, 
Brussels, 1758, 3 v , 2 d. by 4 v., 4 d 

Ditto. Inventory, Simon Balthasar de 
Neuf, Antwerp, 1740. 

Ditto. Sale. — Mrs. de Neuf, Antwerp, 

Panel, 57 d. by 78 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Randon de Boisset, Paris, 
1777. 4 v., 9 d. by 6 v., 5 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— Choiseul Praslin, Paris, 

Ditto. Sale. — Count Redeen, London, 




Ditto. Sale.— joh. Phil de Monte, 
Rotterdam, 1825. 

Canvas, ij el by 2J el. ^ 

Ditto. Sale. — Pierre Jean Aerts d'Opdorp, 
Brussels, 1819. 

Ditto. Sale. — E. Marechal, Brussels, 

Panel, 44 cm. by 58 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Van der Schrieck, Lou- 
vain, 1861 148. 

Canvas, 120 cm. by 165 cm. 

Ditto. Schwedt Schloss (Parthey 85). 

Ditto. Drawing. Royal Print-room, 
Berlin . 74. 

Brown, white and blue paint. 

A Bagpipe-flayer. (Study for The Ring 

Sale. — Jan Lucas van der Dussen, 
Amsterdam, 1774. 

The King of jesters. (The King drinks). 

Sale. — de Preuil, Paris. 

Canvas, 45 d. by 61 d. 

A merry Meal . . . . I4g, 183. 

London, Duke of Abercorn. 

Canvas, 233 cm. by 268 cm. 

Ditto. Drawing. Wateicolour, Ghent, 
■Delacre .... 150, 183, pi. 56. 

Ditto. Sale. — Friedrich Kay ser, Cologne, 

Canvas, 140 cm. by 175 cm. 

The Peasant and the Satyr, ig, 177, 

pi. 19. 

Brussels, Mr. A. Cels.- 

Canvas, 190 cm. by 160 cm. 

Engraving, Vosterman. 

Ditto. Musettm, Cassel, No. 102. 23. 

Canvas-, 203 cm. by 163 cm. 

ZWA\ Museum, BudaPest, No. 738 . so. 

Canvas, 192 cm. by 165 cm. 

Ditto. Museum, Brussels, No. 311. 

S7, 60, 183, pi. 60. 

Canvas, 130 cm. by 171 cm. 

Bought at the Wellesley Sale, Brussels, 

Ditto. Munich, Pinakothek, No. 813. 
20, pi. 21. 

Canvas on panel, 194 cm. by 200 cm. 

Ditto. Museum, Cassel, No. 10 1. 

20/21, pi. 24. 

Canvas, 170 cm. by 192 cm. 

Ditto. Brussels, Mr. Harcq 58, pi. 61. 

Canvas, 180 cm. by 19b cm. 

Ditto. Brussels, Leon Janssen . 22. 

Engraving, Jac. Neefs. (1610 — 1665). 


Ditto. Hermitage, St. Petersburg, No. 
650 22. 

Canvas, 158 cm. by 196 cm. 

From the Bruhl collection. 

Ditto. Brussels, de Wouters d'Oplinter. 


Canvas, no cm. by 150 cm. 

Ditto. Brussels, Count Ferd. de 
Beauffort ... . . . 58. 

Canvas, 170 cm. by 243 cm. 

Ditto. Drawing. Copenhagen, J. Rump. 

Black chalk, red chalk and pen. 

Ditto. Stirling. (Waagen, Art Treasures, 
IV, 450- 

Ditto. Erfurt von Tetten (Parthey 50). 

Canvas, I v., n d. by 2 v., i\ d. 

Dated: 1650. 

Ditto. Berlin, Bartels (Parthey 55—58). 

Ditto. Schloss Swedt (Parthey 55—58). 

Ditto. Sale. — Jan Agges, Amsterdam, 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, April 24, 
1716. 5f v. by 5| v. 

Ditto. Sale. — De Amory, Amsterdam, 
1722. 6 v. by 7 v. 

Ditto. Sale. — Johan van Schuylenburg, 
Burgomaster, The Hague, 1735. 2 v , \ d. 
by I v., 7 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— The Hague, June 26, 
1742. 5 v. by 6 v., d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Adrichem van Dorp, 
Haarlem, 1750. 6J v. by 5 v., 10J d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jeronymus Tonneman, 
Amsterdam, 1754. 14I d. by 15J d. - 

Ditto. Sale. — Jacob De Wit, Amster- 
dam, 1755. 6 v., 4 d. by 8 v. 

Ditto. Willem van Haansbergen, The 
Hague, 1755. 

Ditto. Sale. — Karel Joseph De Schrij- 
vere, Bruges, 1763. 

Canvas, 4 v., 6 d. by 7 v., 7 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, August 10, 

• I785- 

Canvas, 28 d. by 35 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— Robit, Paris, 180 1. 

Canvas, 146 cm. by 225 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Marquess ofLansdowne, 
London, 1806. 

Ditto. Sale.- — Cremer, Rotterdam, 1816. 

Canvas, 50 d. by 66 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Walschot, Antwerp, 1817. 

Canvas, 6o| d. by 65J d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Schamp d'Aveschoot, 
Ghent, 1810. 

Canvas, 54 d. by 60 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— De Raedt, Mechlin, 1839. 

Canvas, 91 cm. by 75 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Van Klinkenberg, Am- 
sterdam, 1843. 

Canvas, 180 cm. by 160 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Pieter De Leeuw, Amster- 
dam, 1843. 

Canvas, 130 cm. by 160 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Smets — Steenecruys, 
Mechlin, 1847. 

Canvas, 63 cm. by 50 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Brussels, March 25, 1849. 
65 cm. by 50 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Welczeck, Berlin, 1355. 

Canvas, 57^ d. by 67 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— M. Z., Paris, February 28, 
1870. . 

Ditto. Sale. — Van Rooy, Antwerp, 1870. 

Canvas, 168 cm. by 176 cm. 

Ditto. Sketch. Sale. — Loridon de Ghel- 
linck, Ghent, 18th century. 

Panel, 11 d. by 16 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Simon — Emil — Moritz 
Oppenheim. Cologne, 1878, 20 cm. by 
25^ cm. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — At Frederik 
Muller's, Nov. 20 and 21, 1882, Amster- 

Pen, washed with bistre and Chinese 
ink, heightened with white. 

Ditto. Drawing. British Museum. 

Various colours. 

Ditto. Drawing. London, Fairfax 
Murray 58, 183, pi. 20. 

Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, 
Brussels, 1797. 

The Porridge- Eater. 

Museum, Cassel, No. 105. . . jq. 

Canvas, 190 cm. by 210 cm. 

Ditto. Museum, Strasbourg, No. 87. 60. 

Canvas, 195 cm. by 212 cm. 

Signed : / lordaens 1632. 
Ditto. Sale.— de Montriblond, Paris 
Ditto. Vienna, Liechtenstein, No. 118. 
60, pi. 64. 

Canvas, 127 cm. by 92 cm. 

A Peasant meal. 60 

Sale. — Dr E. von Schauss Kempfen 
hausen of Munich, Cologne Heberle 
April .-29 — 30, 1901. 

A Peasant-Family 61 

Munich, Michel. 

Serenade. . 81, 86, 187, pi. 89 

Antwerp, Leon Leblon. 

Canvas, no cm. by 162 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Ghent, Sept. 23, 1777 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, October 30 

Ditto. Sale. — Bernard Clemens, Ghent. 

Ditto. Sale. — Monfalcon, Paris, 1802 

Ditto, Sale. — J. B. Bollerman, Mentz 


Ditto-. ■ Sale. — E. Huybrechts, Antwerp 

Three Musicians . . 82, title-page, 

Lord Yarborough. 

Canvas, 109 cm. by 105 cm.. 

A Musician and his wife. 82, pi. 

Bruges, Duverdyn.. 

Canvas, 118 cm. by 93' cm. 

Three wandet ing Musicians. 1 94, pi. 232 

Sketch.. Museum, .Madrid, No. 14 n 

Canvas, 49 cm. by 64 cm. 
. Wandering Musicians 

Sale. — Franken, Brussels, 1858. 

Canvas, 140 cm. by 99 cm. 

A Concert. 

Berlin, Licht (Parthey 90). 

Ditto. Sale. — v. d. Paltsgraaf, Bruges, 
1767. 4 v., 2 d. by 3 v., 6 d. 

A Music Party. . . 185, pi. 113. 

Drawing. Ghent, Delacre. (See Tapes- 

Ditto. Paris, Eug. Rodrigues. 188, 

pi. 188. 

An old Musician. 

Sale. — Krauspe, Berlin, 1895. 

Panel, 46 cm. by 29 cm. 

Man playing a Bag-pipe. 

Sale. — Antwerp, May 25, 1768. 

Canvas, 27 d. by 21 d. 

A Fluteplayer. 

Sale. — Zech, Mechlin, 1865. 49 cm. 
by 36 cm. - 

A Fluteplayer and two other figures, 

Sale. — Lavillarmois, Lille, 1795. 

Canvas, 35 d. by 27 d. 

A Father teaching his son to play the 

Sale. — v. d. Paltsgraaf, Bruges, 1767. 
2 v., 3 d. by I v., 9 d. 

An old man, singing (from, " As the 
old Cock crows"). 

Drawing. Sale. — Hazard, Brussels, 

Black, red and white chalk. 

Ditto. Sale.— Jos. De Bom, Antwerp., 
1878. H 

Canvas, 63 d. by 55 d. 

An old man blowing a bugle. 

Drawing. Sale.— Ploos van Amstel, 
Amsterdam, 1800. 

A young man playing the flute, an old 
man holding a hare by its leg. 

Sale. — Geelhand, Antwerp, 1784. 

Canvas, 31$ d. by 44J .d. 

Rustic Courtship . 187, pi. 152. 

Frankfort, Emile Goldschmidt. 

Merry Party in a Boat. 188, pi. 73. 

British Museum, London. (See Tape- 



Young Love ,8 7] ^8 

Brussels, Alfons Cels. 

Canvas, 190 cm. by 89 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Jac. Jordaens, The Hague 
1734, No. 102. 6 v. by 2 v., 10 d. . . 187. 

A Balcony with young people . . 187. 

Sale.— Jordaens, The Hague, 1734 
No. 103, 11 v. by 4 v. 4 d. 

Old Love . igy_ 

Brussels, Alfons Cels. 

Canvas, 190 cm. by 89 cm. 

Sale.— Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 
March 22, 1734, No. 105. 

Jester and Reader. 

Sale. — Van Rotterdam, Ghent, 1835. 

Ditto. Sale. — De Coninck de Merckem 
Ghent, 1856. 

Ditto. Sale. — Wente van Amsterdam, 
Paris, 1893. 

Ditto. Sale. — Mr. de B. van Nancy, 
Brussels, 1899. 

A Party of Ladies and a Beggar. 

Sale. — Philip van Dyk, The Hague, 
'753. 3 v., 9 d. by 6 v., 2 d. 

A Balcony with a Moor and a Woman. 


Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 
March 22, 1 734, No. 104, 11 v. by 4 v., 4 d. 

A Dance in a landscape. 

Sale. — Martin Robyns, Brussels, 1758, 

3 v., 5 d. by 5 v., 1 d. 

A young couple with a Cupid. 
Sale — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, 
March 22, 1734. No. 100. 5 v., 6 d., by 

4 1., 10 d. 

A young woman and an old man. 

Sale. — Amsterdam, April 30, 1821. 

Canvas, 1 el, 2 d. by 8 v. 6 d. 

An old man and a young woman. 

Drawing. Miinich, No. 2724. 

Black and red chalk. 

Two Lovers. 

Sale. — Fistetits, Amsterdam, 1889. 

Panel, 64 cm. by 50 cm. 

A Declaration of Love. 

Drawing. Sale. — Neyman (Amsterdam), 
Paris 1776. 

Bistre and colour. 

Corydon (The amorous shepherd) . 180. 

Engraving by Jacob Neefs, 1610 — 1665. 

A Shepherd kneeling before a Shepherdess. 

Drawing. Vienna, Albertina, No. 626. 

Shepherd and Shepherdess at a fountain. 

Sale. — Stradbee, Brussels, 1872. 

Canvas, 68 cm. by 48 cm. 

Shepherd's Meal. 

Sale. — Hendrik Reydon, Amsterdam, 

A Shepherdess pouring out milk for u. 

Sale. — Miss Regaus, Brussels, 1775. 

5 v., 7 d. by 7 v., 6 d. 

Ditto. Sale.— Horion, Brussels, 1788. 

Ditto. Sale.— Gooris, Mechlin, 1844. 

A Shepherd and a Shepherdess, pi. 180. 

Drawing. Museum, Berlin, 1200. 

Watercolour in various colours. 

A Brothel. 

Sale. — Jac. Jordaens, The Hague, March 
22, 1734, No. 93, iv., 4jd. by 1 v., I d. 

Cards, Women and Wine. 

Antwerp, Koninckx Collection. 

Inscription: Le jeu, la femme et vin 
friant, Faict Vhomme pauvre en riant. 

A Woman giving a black cherry to a 
parrot 97- 

Lord Darnley. 

Canvas, 90J cm. by 87 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Choiseul, 1772. . 97. 

Ditto. Sale. — Prince deConti,Paris,i777. 

Ditto. Antwerp, F. De Witte . 97. 

Canvas, 90J cm. by 87 cm. 

A Woman and a parrot . . . 97. 

Drawing. Sale.— Hazard.Brussels, 1789. 

With red, black and white chalk, on 
bleu paper. 
•K The fruit-vendor. 82, 86, 187, pi. 190, 

Museum, Glasgow, No. 247. 

Canvas, 3 v., g£ d. by 5 v., 1 d. 

From the Mc. Lellan and Lucien 
Bonaparte collection. 

Ditto. Sale. — Proli, Antwerp. 

Ditto. Sale. — Chevalier Simon, Brussels, 

Ditto. Drawing, Watercolour, Copen- 
hagen, J. Rump 187. 

Ditto. (Full length of the Fruitvendor 
in the picture in the Museum at. 
Glascow) 187. 

Printroom, Berlin. Watercolour. 

A Girl with fruit. 

Marquess of Bute (Waagen, Art 
Treasures, III, 475). 

A Nocturnal apparition. . 142. 

Museum, Schwerin, No. 547. 

Canvas, , 133 cm. by 146J cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Van Hal, Antwerp, 1836. 


Ditto. Sale. — Thor^ (Burger), Paris, 142. 
1892;. under the title of The Dream 

Canvas, 112 cm. by 140 cm. 

Ditto. Fr. Kleinberger, Paris, pi. 142. 

Canvas, 115 cm. by 142 cm. 

The Noviciate. 

Dessau, Amalienstift (Parthey, 30). 

Soldiers on horseback. 

Drawing. Sale. — Schepen, Amsterdam 

Red and black chalk. 

The Poulterer . .... 96. 

Antwerp, Young Hand-bow (1756). 

By Jordaens and Fyt. 

The Poulterer. 

Sale. — De Renesse Breidbach.Coblentz, 

Ditto. Sale.-Salamanca, Paris, 1867. 96. 

Canvas, 212 cm. by 241 cm. 

Poulterer with a woman and two old 
men 96. 

Prague, Strahow (Parthey, 100). 

Canvas, 4. v. ,.4! d. by 5 v., ij d. 

The poulterer (woman). 

Sale. — Berlin, April 17, 1901. 

Canvas, 130 cm. by 168 cm. 

A Fish and Poultry shop. 9.5, 97, pi. 101. 

Museum, Brussels,. No. 476. 

Canvas, 198 cm. by 300 cm. 

By Jordaens and van Utrecht. 
. Dated: 1637. 

Bought from Mr. Ch. L. Cardon, 1887. 

Ditto. Sale.— Stevens, Antwerp, 1837. 

Ditto. (Copy) Museum,Hanover,No.io7. 


A Fishmonger's Shop . . . .95- 

Sale. — Paulus van der Spy ck, Dordrecht, 
1802. 3 v., 5 d. by 3 v. 

Signed: Jordaens. 

A Fishmonger (with Jacob van Es). 

Hanover, Haussmann (Parthey, 92). 

Canvas, 5 v., 9J d. by 9 v., 2 d. 

A Greengrocer [woman). 

Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, Brus- 
sels, 1797. 

A Kitchen. 

Drawing. Sale. — Ellinckhuysen, Am- 
sterdam, 1878. 

Ditto. Drawing. Louvre, 20024 ( see 

From :the Blokhuizen collection. 

A Barn. 

Sale. — Jacob Jordaens, The Hague 
1734.. 1 v , 10 d. by 2 v., 4J d. 

A Usurer. 

Drawing. Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

In yellow, red and blue. 

Ditto. (Dealers in antiquities). Museum, 
Budapest. Drawing in watercolour. 


Drawing. Prince de Ligne, 1794. 

Pen washed with bistre, in 4 . 

Soldiers ransacking a village. 

Engraving, Prenner. 

A Turkish Bath. 

Sale. — Charles Leoffroy de Saint-Yves, 
Paris, 1806. 
Panel, 19 d. by 29 d. 

The Astrologers. 

Sale. — Narischkine, Paris, 1883. 

Canvas, 130 cm. by 182 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Munoz, 1867. 

A Negro bringing his master's horse. 
135, 183, pi. 137. 

Museum Cassel. No. 106. 

Canvas, 81 cm. by 112 cm. 

Signed : J. JOR fe 

A Hunter with dogs 40, 185, pi. 121. 

Museum Lille. No. 837. 

Canvas, 7° cm - by 56 cm. 

Dated: 1625. 

Sale. — Tence, Paris, 1881, No. 27. 

Ditto. Sale. — Leboeuf, Paris, 1783. 

A Procession on Horseback . 193. 

Drawing-Louvre, No. 20.026. 

Black and red chalk ; the ground 
washed in bistre. 

A young prince hunting . . . 185. 

Drawing. British Museum (See Tapes- 

A Sile of Property. 

Drawing. Museum, Rotterdam. 

Boat, with men, children andoxen. 193. 

Drawing. Watercolour. British Museum. 

Men and cattle in a kitchen. 

Sale. — Martin Robyns. Brussels, 1758. 
5 v., 4 d. by 7 v., 4 d. 

A Kitchen. 

Drawing. Louvre, No. 20024 (See 

A woman (Queen) surrounded by women 
and men. 

Drawing. Museum Stockholm, No. 1761. 

In various colours. 

A Woman and three children. 

Sale. — Boucher, Paris, 1 77 1. 

Panel, 15 d., 6 s. by n d. 6 a. 

A child put in the cradle by its mother. 


Drawing. Albertina, No, 6343. 
. The flesh in red chalk, the draperies 
washed in, and the outlines in bistre. 

Ditto. Prince de Ligne, 1794. 

Two child) en in a cradle. . 42. 

Museum Valenciennes, No. 116. 

Canvas, 70 cm. by 88 cm. 

Children and .a lamb . . . .43. 

Sale. — Rothan, Paris, 1890. 

Canvas, 80 cm. by 80 cm. 

A Child and a lamb in the cradle. 43. 

Drawing. Engraved, A. Bartsch. 

Prince de Ligne 1794. 

Black and red chalk, on gray paper. 

A Child with two monkeys and fruit. 

Sale. — Lyversberg, Cologne, 1838, 3 v., 
8| d., by 1 v., 7 d. 





The Duke of Alba. 

Sale.— Rotterdam, July 12, 1815. 

Abraham van Diepenbeeck. 

Sale — Otto Rossel, Brussels, 1890, 

Francois Flamand (Duquesnoy). 

Museum, Angers, No. 367. 

Canvas, 100 cm. by 68 cm. 

Frederick Henry of Nassau. 

Sale. — Tiberghien, Brussels. 

Finished sketch. Canvas. 

The Infanta Isabella, as a nun. 

Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, Brus- 
sels, 1797. 

, Black, red and white chalk, and 

Jacob Jardaens ill. 

Sale. — Philip van Dijk, The Hague, 


Ditto. Drawing. Sale. — Artaria, Sterne, 
etc. Vienna, 1886. 

Jordaens and his wife . . . 112. 
, Sale. — Prince de Conti, Paris, 1777. 

Canvas, 3 v., 2 d. by 2 v., 8 d. 

Belonged in 1763 to the Confrerie of 
Painters in the Hague. 

Catharina van Noort . . . 112. 

Prince Galitzin, Collection. 

Exhibition of the Netherlands Bene- 
volent Society, Brussels, 1873. 

Canvas, 78 cm. by 61 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jean — Leopold— Jos de 
Man d'Hobrugge, Brussels, 1820. 

Catharina van Noort, 23 years of age. 


Sale. — Thore (Burger), Paris, 1892. 

Canvas, 68 cm. by 54 cm. 

Ditto. Sale.— Feb vre, Paris, 1882. 

Canvas, 92 cm. by 72 cm. 

A child of Jordaens' (?) . . 112. 

Sketch. Museum, Lubeck. 

Portrait of Baron Waha ae Linter. 

National Gallery, London. 

At the top, the coat of arms of Waha 
de Linter and the inscription : .ETATIS 
SVE 63, 1626 53. 

Portrait of Jan Wierts 108, pi. 116. 

Museum, Cologne, No. 612. 

Canvas, 130 cm. by 105 cm. 

Under the frame we read: .ETATIS 
48.— 16 . . . 

Ditto. Sale. — Van Gemert, Antwerp, 

Ditto. Sale. — Lebrun, Paris, 1791. 54 d. 
by 42 d. 

Portrait of the wife of Jan Wierts 
108, pi. 117. 

Museum, Cologne, No, 613. 

Canvas, 130 cm. by 105 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Lebrun, Paris, 1791, 54 d. 
by 42 d. 

Portrait of van Zurpele and his wife 

54. pi. 55- 
London, Devonshire House. 
Canvas, 211 d. by 187 d. 
Portrait of a man. . 1 11, pi. 119. 
Uffizi, Florence. 

A copy is in the Scottish National 
Gallery, Edinburgh. 

Family Portrait . . 154, pi. 157, 

Museum, Cassel, No. 98. 

Canvas, 130 cm. by 158 cm. 

As early as 1749 in the possession of 
the Landgrave of Hesse — Cassel. 

Family group in a garden 5I> pi- 54- 

Museum, Madrid, No. 1410. 

Canvas, 181 cm. by 187 cm. 

Family Portrait. 

Hermitage, St Petersburg, No. 652. 

Canvas, 178 cm. by 138 cm. 

From the Duke of Portland and the 
Walpole collections. 

Ditto. Lord Darnley. 

Grisaille. Panel, 34 cm. by 36^ cm. 

Family portraits. 

Geelhand de Labistrate; Ehibition 
van Bree, 1849. 

Portrait of a Man. . . 108, 192. 

Sale.— Huybrechts, Antwerp, 1902. 

Canvas, 140 cm. by 112 cm. 

Dated: Aetatis 73 A°. 1641. 

Sale. — Beurnonville, Paris, 1881. 

Ditto. (Replica). Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg, No. 653 108. 

Canvas, 155 cm. by 120 cm. 

From the Crozat collection. 

Ditto. Drawing Louvre 524. 

108, 192, pi. no. 

Portrait of a Woman. 108, 192. 

Pendant to the former. 

Museum, Brussels, No. 244. 

Canvas, 135 cm. by 112 cm. 

Inscription: 66 (.ETA) Ts 1641. 

Ditto. Drawing. Louvre, No. 523. 
108, 192, pi. in. 

lortrait of a Man .... 108. 

Hermitage, St Petersburg, No. 653. 

Canvas, 155 cm. by 120 cm. 

Replica of the preceding Portrait of 
a Man. 

From the Crozat Collection. 

Ditto. Antwerp, Mrs Bosschaert-Dubois. 


Dated: Aetatis 44 A°. 1623. 

Portrait of a Woman 

Antwerp, Mrs Bosschaert— Dubois. 5a. 

Signed : Aetatis 3 ... J. Jordaens 

Old Woman 50. 

Antwerp, Mrs Bosschaert —Dubois. 

Two Portraits. 

Sale. — Antwerp, August 25, 1762, 5 v., 
3 d. by 4 v. 
Portrait of a Man . . 240, pi. 244. 

Louvre, Paris, No. 2016. 

Canvas, 94 cm. by 73 cm. 

Ditto. Hermitage, St. Petersburg, No. 

Canvas, 611 cm. by 39 cm. 

Portrait .... .pi. 249. 

Museum, Budapest, No. 659. 

Canvas, 98 cm. by 75 cm. 

Dutch Burgomaster. 

Museum, Turin, No. 422. 

Canvas, 112 cm. by 86 cm. 

Portrait of a Man. 

Dowaai, Museum, No. 197. 

Canvas, no cm. by 93 cm. 

Head of a Man. 


Man and Woman. 

Sale. — Rotterdam, June 28, 1756. 3 v. 
by 2 v. 4 d. 

Two Cardinals. 

Drawing. Sale. — Artaria, Vienna, 1896. 

Black chalk. 

A man in armour. 

Palais Royal, 1727. 

Panel, 3 v., 8 d. by 3 v. 

Portrait (with a pot). 

Sale. — Martin Robyns, Brussels, 1758. 
No. 98. 4 v. by 3 v., 2 d. 


Sale. — Martin Robyns, Brussels, 1758, 
No. 98. 2 v., 2 d. by 1 v., 7 d. 

Portrait of a Man. 

Sale.— Mme. la douariere de Proli, Ant- 
werp, 1762. 

Ditto Sale. — Johan van der Marck, 
Amsterdam, 1773. 

Canvas, 27 \ d. by 31 \ d. 

Portrait of a young Man, •. 

Sale. — de Robiano, Brussels, 1837. 

Canvas, 42 cm. by 34 cm. 

Portrait of a Man. 

Sale.— de Robiano, Brussels, 1837. 

Canvas, 75 cm - by 58 cm - 

Portrait of a Burgo?naster. 

Sale. — R. Vernon Gordon, London, 

Burgomaster's Wife. 

Sale. — R. Vernon Gordon, London, 

Wife of the preceding. 

Portrait of a Man. 

Sale. Von Klinkosch, Vienna, 1889. 

Canvas, 52 cm. by 40 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Lanfranconi, Cologne, 


Panel, 46 cm. by 35 cm. 

From the Fogelberg Collection. 

Woman and two children. 

Sale. — San Donato, Florence, 1880. 

Canvas, 185 em. by 280 cm. 

Portrait of a Wo?nan . . . 108. 

Lord Chesham, Latimer, Chesham. 

Panel, 97 cm. by 72 cm. 

Portrait of a Lady (with a locket). 
158; pi. 158. 

Museum of the Academy, Vienna, 
No. 640. 

Canvas, 75 cm. by 57 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — Amsterdam, Sept. 10, 

Portrait of a Woman. 

Sale. — Pommersfelden,Wiirzburg,i857, 
Paris, 1867. 

Canvas, 78 cm. by 60 cm. 

Portrait of a young zvoman, 

Sale.— Geelhand de Labistrate, Ant- 
werp, 1878. 

Canvas, 178 cm. by 142 cm. 

Portrait of a Woman. 

Sale. — Bruynincx, Antwerp, 1791. 

Portrait of an old woman. 

Drawing. Weigel, Handzeichnungen, 
No. 3932. 

Black chalk, heightened with white. 




A laughing Man. 

Sale. — Chapuis, Brussels, 1865. 

Panel, 56 cm. by 48 cm. 

Laughing-Man' s head ... pi. 9. 

Drawing. Museum, Brunswick. 

A Drunkard. 

Sale.— E. Marechal van Dowaai, 
Brussels, 1899. 

Canvas, 58 cm. by 44 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — von Conrath von Sieg- 
burg, Brussels, 1901. 

Canvas, 69 cm. by 60 cm. 

Ditto. Sale. — E. Marechal van Dowaai, 
Brussels, 1899. 

Canvas, 24 cm. by 18 cm. 

Two Hermits. 

Sale. — de Robiano, Brussels, 1837. 

Panel, 62 d. by 47 d. 

A Hermit. 

Sale. — Verellen, Antwerp, 1856. 

Canvas, 100 cm. by 83 cm. 

Head of Man at prayer. 

Museum, Budapest. 

A Priest. 

Sale. — Tence, Paris, 1 881. 

Canvas, 70 cm. by 56 cm. 

A Man on horseback. 

Drawing. Museum, Berlin, No. 2823. 

Blue and red chalk. 

A gentleman -with a walkingstick in 
his hand. 

Drawing. Amiens, J. Masson. 

A Peasant. 

Sale. -Jordaens, The Hague, 1734, 
No. 43. 1 v., I d. by t v., 6£ d. 

A Peasant eating. 

Brunswick, Hollandt. (Parthey, 96). 

Bust. Canvas, 4 v., 7 d. by 5 v., 1 d. 

Five comical figures. 

Drawing. Prince de Ligne, 1794. 

Red chalk, with a few touches in 
black chalk. 

Four heads of Shepherds. 

Sale. — Verellen, Antwerp, 1856, 49 
cm. by 64 cm. 

Three studies of heads . 194. 

Museum, Antwerp, No. 819. 
Panel, 41 cm. by 50J cm. 
Three figures (life-size). 
Sale. — Martin v. d. Bosch, Antwerp, 

Two heads of men. 

Sale. — Santels, Louvain, 1765. 

Canvas, 22 d. by 21 d. 

Two heads of weeping peasants. 

Drawing. (WEIGEL, Handzeichnungen, 


Red and black chalk. 

Two studies of heads. . .194. 

Museum, Ghent, No. 97. 

Panel, 44 cm. by 51 cm. 

Two heads of old men. 

Drawing. Sale. — P. Wouters, Brussels, 


Study of two figures in the style of 

Sale. — Charles Spruyt, Ghent, 181 5. 

Paper on wood, 14 d. by 18 d. 

Two heads 

Drawing. Sale. — Ploos van Amstel, 
Amsterdam, 1800, No. 5. 


Red chalk. 
Two Heads (men). 
Drawing. Red and white chalk. 
Sale.— Lauwers, Amsterdam, 1802. 
Two Heads. 

Drawing. Sale.— P. Wouters, Brussels, 

Bistre and colours. 
Two Men's Heads, on one sheet. 
Drawing. Museum, Miinich, No. 2725. 
Ditto. Sale. — Countess van Moens, 
Amsterdam, 1803. -Red and black chalk. 
Two Heads. 

Sale.— P. J. Verhaghen, Louvain, 1835. 
Canvas, 73 cm. by 58 cm. 
Two Studies of Heads . . 1 79. 

Drawing. Sale.— Gildemeester, Am- 
sterdam, 1800. 

Red and black chalk. 
Study ■. Men's figures. 
Drawing. Museum, Berlin, No. 2826. 
Red and blue chalk. 
Study of a Man with his hands on 
the ground. 

Drawing. Sale.— Boucher, Paris, 1771. 
JVude man. 

Drawing. Albertina, No. 629. 
Red and black chalk. 
An old man. 

Sale. — Chapuis, Brussels, 1865. 
Panel, 64 cm. by 46 cm. 
Bust: old man. 

Sale. — v. d Hecke van Ghent, Brussels, 

Panel, 63 cm. by 49 cm. (sic). 
A nude old man. 

Drawing. Catalogue, Prince de Ligne, 

Head of an old man with ziplifted 

Museum, Dowaai, No. 198. 
Panel. 41 cm. by 29 cm. 
Head of an old man. 
Sale. — de Robiano, Brussels, 1837. 
Canvas, 41 cm. by 33 cm. 
Ditto. Ermitage, St. Petersburg, No. 656. 
Canvas, 52 cm. by 41 cm. (sic). 
Ditto. Museum, Dowaai, No. 199. 
Panel, 63 cm. by 48 cm. 
Ditto. Museum, Besancon, No. 300. 
Canvas, 40 cm. by 55 cm. 
From the Lacaze collection. 
Study for the head of an old man. 
Sale. — J. B. van Rooy, Antwerp, 
Canvas, 46 cm. by 40 cm. 
Study of the head of old man. 
Sale. — Schoenlank, Berlin, 1896. 
Canvas on panel, 55 cm. by 41 cm. 
An elderly Soldier. 

Drawing. Sale. — Ploos van Amstel, 
Amsterdam, 1800. 
An old man. 

Sale. — Th. Schwenck, The Hague, 
1767, \i\ d. by 10 d. 
Bust (man). 

Museum, Augsburg, No. 181. 
Paper on wood, 1 v., 9 d. by I v., 
3 d , 4 strepen. 

Ditto. Sale.— Knijff, Antwerp, 1785. 
Canvas, 23 \ d. by 21 d. 

Head of a man. 

Hermitage, St. Petersburg, No. 657. 
Panel, 53 cm. by 38 cm. (sic). 
Ditto. Museum, Aix en Provence, 
No. 251. 

Canvas, 44 cm. by 36 cm. 

A sleeping man. 

Drawing. Sale.— Artaria, Vienna, 1886. 

Ink and black chalk. 

From the Erasm von Egert collection. 

Study of a man's head. 

Museum, Aix-Ia-Chapelle, 77. 

Canvas, 59 cm. by 53 cm. 

Study of a Head. 

„, Sale -— Robert J- B - V£m de Berghe, 
Ghent, 1829. s 

Panel, 3J v . by 3 v. 

Study: Man's Head (Profile) 

Drawing. Prince de Ligne, 1794. 

Red, black and white chalk, on grev 
paper. & ' 

Study of a Head. 

Sale.— Robert J. B. van de Berghe, 
Ghent, 1829. 

Canvas on wood, 3 J v . by 2i v. 

Ditto. Drawing. Bistre and colour. 

Sale.— Pierre Wouters, Brussels, 1707 

A Head. ""' 

Sale.— Daniel De Jongh, Rotterdam, 

Two Figure Studies. An old man and 
a young woman. 

Drawing. Black and red chalk. 

Munich, No. 2724. 

Study of five heads of women. 

Drawing. Sale.— Gutekunst, Stuttgart 
May 1903. 

Three women and a child. 194, pi. 193. 

Baron Bruckenthal Collection, Her- 

Studies of Heads. 

Drawing. Black, red and white chalk. 

Sale.— Pierre Wouters, Brussels, 1797. 

Mother and daughter. 

Sale.— Van der Straelen-Moons-van 
Lerius, Antwerp, 1885. 

Panel, 49 cm. by 63 cm. 

An old and a young woman. 

Drawing. Hermitage, St. Petersburg,. 
No. 4214, 

Woman and Child. 

Sale.— Bruynincx, Antwerp, 1791. 

Panel, 19 d. by 24 d. 

Two heads of women (studies). 

Museum, Nancy, No. 203. 

Canvas, 63 cm. by 63 cm. 

Ditto. Drawings. Sale.— Pierre Wouters, 
Brussels, 1797. 

Black, red and white chalk. 

A Woman eounting money. 

Sale. — The Hague, October 9, 1815. 

Women with flowers and birds 187. 

Drawing. Sale.— Habich, Cassel, 1899, 
(see Tapestries). 

An old woman holding a Dish. pi. 38. 

Drawing. Mr. Delacre, Ghent. 

A Figure with fruit and flowers. 

Sale. — J. Siebrecht, Antwerp, 1754. 

A woman crowned with vine-tendrils. 

Sale. — Ghent, September, 23, 1777. 
Canvas, 37J d. by 27 d. 



Ditto. Sale.— Jacques Clemens, Ghent, 


A Woman carrying a basket with fruit. 
Sale. — AtTerbruggen's, Antwerp, 1868. 
Canvas, 70 cm. by 40 cm. 
A cook bringing a basket with fruit. 
Drawing. Museum, Berlin, No. 87, 
(see Tapestries). 

Head of an old woman. 
Sale. — Pierre Wouters, Brussels, 1797. 
Black chalk, heightened with white, 
on blue paper. 

Ditto. Sales.— de Knijff, Antwerp, 1785. 
Panel, 17J d. by 13 d. 
Ditto. Drawing. Boymans Museum, 

Ditto. Drawing. National Museum, 

Ditto,. Drawing. Museum, Munich, 2756. 

Red and black chalk (in profile). 

Head of an old woman. 

Hermitage, St. Petersburg, No. 655. 

Canvas, 41 cm. by 36 cm. 

Figure of a woman praying. 

Drawing. Museum, Berlin, 2835. 

Watercolour, white, red, black, brown. 

A kneeling woman. 

Drawing. Museum, Brunswick. 

Black and white chalk. 

A young woman combing her hair. 

Sale. — de Vinck de Wesel, Antwerp, 

Canvas. 30 d. by 25! d. 

A woman drinking from a glass, pi. 13. 

Drawing. Museum, Brunswick, 1612. 

Red and white chalk. 

Study of a Head {Negro woman). 

Drawing. Sale. — Pierre Wouters, Brus- 
sels, 1797. 

A woman with a pot in her hand. 

Sale. — Jacques Clemens, Ghent, 1779. 

Canvas, 37J d. by 27 d. 

A Milkmaid .... 192, pi. 59. 

Drawing. Ghent, Mr. Delacre. 

Black, red and white chalk. 

A young shepherdess with a straw hat. 

Sale. — Danoot, Brussels, 1828. 

Panel, 57 d. by 29 d. 

A Woman's figure. 

Drawing. Boymans Museum, Rotter- 

A woman adorned with pearls. 

Dessau, Castle, (Parthey, 104). 

Canvas, 3 v., 11 d. by 2 v., 10 d. 

Head of a young woman . . pi. 5- 

Drawing. Museum, Brunswick. 

Black and red chalk. 

Woman's head pi. 1. 

Drawing. Museum Brunswick. 

Head of a young girl. 

Museum, Cambridge, No. 254. 

Ditto. Amsterdam, Mr. Mensing. 

Panel, 52 cm. by 26.5 cm. 

Study of Woman's dress. 

Drawing. Museum Berlin, No. 2824. 

Red, grey, and blue chalk. 

Three Child-heads {Study) . . 194. 

Ermitage, St. Petersburg, No. 589. 

Canvas, 44 by 57 (sic). 
Two Children with a hound (Study). 
Drawing. Albertina, 627. 
Red and black chalk and ink. 
Naked Child {Back view). 
Drawing. Sale. — Von Klinkosch, 
Vienna, 1889. 

Black and red chalk. Unfinished 

Head of a child from a cast. 
Drawing. Sale. — Artaria, Vienna, 1886. 
Red chalk, From the Fries collection. 
A child in a chair with a dog. 
Drawing. Museum, Munich. 
A young prince hunting . . . 185. 
Drawing. British Museum (see Tapes- 

Birds of prey and fowls, (with Paul 

De Vos) • ■ 186. 

Antwerp, Rene della Faille, 
From the Geelhand de Labistrate sale. 
Canvas, 182 cm. by 248 cm. 
Wild boar chase. 
Sale.— Antwerp, Aug. 20, 1835. 
Ruthart and Jordaens. 
In front of the hen-run. 
Sale. — Dr. E. von Schauss Kempfen- 

Munich. Heberle, Cologne, April 29, 

Canvas, 100 cm. by 142 cm. 

Study of cows. 

Sale.— de Robiano, Brussels, 1837. 

Canvas, 54 cm. by 67 cm. (sic). 

Head of an ox and of a donkey. 

Sale. — Auguste Hoyet, Brussels, 1867. 

Canvas, 66 cm. by 77 cm. 

Cows. (Study). 

Museum, Lille, No. 295. 

Canvas, 66 cm. by 82 cm. 

Two Oxen. . .... pi. 4. 

Drawing, Louvre, 20025. 
Watercolour, brown, black, red. 
Study of a bitch. 

Drawing. Sale. — Neyman (Amsterdam) 
1776, Paris. 

Red and black chalk. 
Tigress with cubs. 

Sale. — de Robiano, Brussels, 1837. 
Canvas,- 120 cm. by 167 cm. 
Animal study. 

Sale. — Lenglart van Rysel, Paris, 1902. 
Paper pasted on canvas, 50 cm. by 
62 cm. 

Study of dogs. 

Drawing. Hermitage, St. Petersburg, 
No. 627. 

Red and black chalk and ink. 
Landscape (by Joost de Momper, with 
figures by Jordaens). 
Museum, Vienna, 1026. 
From the Collection of the Arch-duke 
Leopold Wilhelm in the catalogue of 
which the figures are attributed to 

A picture by Momper with figures 
by Jordaens, 

Inventory, Juffr Anna Jordaens, widow 
of Signor Zacharias de Vriese, 1668. 

Landscape with people and animals. 

Sale. — Cuypers de Rymenam, Brus- 
sels, 1802. 

Canvas, 2 v., 4 d. by 4 v., 5 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jacques de Roore, The 
Hague, 1747, 3 v., 3 d. by 4 v., 5 d. 

Landscape with figures ana cows. 

Panel. Sale.— Moyson, Ghent, 1829. 


Among the pictures taken from the 
halls of the suspended guilds to the 
Museum at Antwerp was a landscape 
by Jordaens from the Guild of St. Luke. 

Landscape with sheep and goats. 

Sale. — Pieter Lyonnet, Amsterdam, 
1791. 10 d. by 13 d. 

Landscape with an old shepherd, children, 
and a white horse. 

Drawing.Sale. — deSilvestre,Paris,l8io. 

Landscape with a woman milking a cow. 

Drawing. Sale. — de Silvestre, Paris, 

A small Landscape. 

Inventory, Erasm. Quellin, Antwerp, 

Ditto. Inventory, Alexander Voet, 1689. 

A Farm shed. 

Sale. — Jordaens, The Hague, 1 734, 1 v., 
4^ d. by 1 v., 1 d. 

A Stable with figures. 

Inventory, Simon Balfhasar de Neuf, 
Antwerp, 1740. 

Fruit piece with figures by Jordaens. 

Museum, Amiens, No. 100. 

Still Life, Fruit and Meat. 

Madrid, Royal Palace, 1787. 

A fruit and flowerpieee. 

Sale.— Jordaens, The Hague, 1734, 
No. 106, 3 v., I d., by 5 v. 9 d. 

Ditto. Sale. — Jordaens No. 106, 3 v. 
by 6 v. 2 d. 

A figure, in a wrerth of flowers by 
Jan Breughel 97 

Sale. — Jordaens, The Hague, No. 39, 
2 v., 3 d. by I v., 11 d. 

A fruit piece, by Father Zegers, with 
figures by Jordaens .... 97 

Sale. — Jordaens, The Hague, 1734 
No. 47, 2 v., 3 d. by 1 v. 11 d. 

A figure, with still-life by Snijders. 

Sale. — Ferdinand, Count van Platten 
berg and Wittem, Amsterdam, 1738. 
5 v., S d. by 6 v., 5 d. 

A Medallion in a wreath of flowers 
by F. Ykens. 

Sale. — Busso, Ghent, 1832. 

A Nightlight. 

Sale. — Jordaens, The Hague, 1734, 
No. 9, 1 v., 4i d. by 2 v. 7I d. 

Escutcheon. . . . . pi. 217. 

Drawing. Museum, Amsterdam. N0.2 19. 

With the pen and slightly tinted with 
different colours. Signed: Jordaens. 

Vignette pi. 170. 

Drawing, Albertina, Vienna, No. 634. 

Watercolour, blue and brownish yellow. 


Proverbs . . . 134, 150, 176, 181, 
pi. 1-82, pi. 184. 

On September 22, 1644, Jordaens enter- 
ed into an agreement with Frans van 
Cotthem, Jan Cordys, and Boudewijn van 
Beveren to deliver designs for " a chamber- 

tapestry, figurework, to wit certain figures 
illustrating proverbs, at his discretion, at 
8 guilders an ell." 

These tapestries are now in the pos- 
session of Prince Schwarzenberg in his 
castle at Frauenberg. They were bought 

in 1647 by the Archduke Leopold- 
Wilhelm, Governor of the Spanish. 
Netherlands from 1646 — 1656, for the 
sum of 4610 guilders, 12J stuivers. 
Ridingschool of Louis XIII. 

8, 136, 184, 190 



(Eight pieces of tapestry) 

Imperial Palace, Vienna. 

In 1666 the Emperor Leopold I bought 
a set of tapestries representing a riding- 
school, for 8327 guilders. 

Large Horses ... . . 184. 

(Painted for Signor Carlo Vinck, 165 1). 

Ditto. A replica (seven pieces) made 
for Jan de Backer, 1654. . . . 184. 

Scenes from Rural life . . . 185. 

Eight pieces tapestry, with Jan Fijt. 

Imperial Palace, Vienna. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham . . 189. 

Drawing. Museum, Berlin, No. 2819. 

Black and red chalk. Signed : Jordaens. 

Intended for a tapestry. 

The Month of March . . . 188. 

Drawing. Hermitage, St. Petersburg, 
No. 4209. 

A design for a tapestry, washed in 
ink, heightened with red chalk. 

Astronofny. . . ... 192. 

Sale. — Francois Pauwels, Brussels, 
1803, 3,4 M. by 2,52 M. 

Design for a tapestry. 

The pitcher goes once too often to the 
■well 83, 183, pi. 93. 

Drawing. Museum, Plantin-Moretus, 
Antwerp. Presented by Mr Ch. Leon 
Cardon, Brussels. 

Coloured watercolour. 

In the centre of the drawing in 
Jordaens' handwriting is the incription: 
„De kruyc gaet soo lange te waeter tot 
dat sy breeckt, 1638." From the Sir 
J. Laurence collection. 

Music Party . . 185, pi. 113. 

Drawing, Ghent, Mr. Delaere. 

Design for a tapestry. 

Ditto. Drawing Paris, Mr. Eug. 
Rodrigues 188, pi. 188. 

Drawing for a tapestry in various 

Merry party in a boat . 188, pi. 73. 

Drawing. British Museum, London. 

Kitchen 185. 

Drawing. Louvre, 20024. 

Brown and red on black ground. 

Intended for a tapestry. Probably 
No. 3 of the'„Rural life" series. 

Women with flowers and birds. 187. 

Drawing. Sale. — Habich, Cassel, 1899. 
39 cm. by 34 cm. 

Sketch in various watercolours. 

Cook, bringing a basket with -fruit. 

Drawing. Museum, Berlin, No. 87. 

Watercolour in many colours. Study 
for one of the „Rural life" series. 

Ditto. Mr. Rump, Copenhagen . 187. 

A youn% prince hunting . . . 186. 

Drawing. British-Museum. 

Watercolour in many colours. 

Study for one of the „Rural life" series. 

Tapestries with the date 1620 . . 9. 

Mols says in a manuscript communic- 
ated by Kramm (p. 822) that about 
1770 designs for tapestries, made by 
Jordaens, and bearing the date 1620, 
were sold at Antwerp. 

Two designs with merry subjects. Sale. — 
Anonymous, London, 1773. 123 d. by 
94 d. reaching to no d. . . . 1 88. 




-Abercorn (Duke of) . . - 149, 183 
Adriaensen (Alexander). . 7 

A el ten (Elisabeth van) . . 2 

Aertsen ... . . . 11 

Aertsen (Pieter) . . 23, 101 

Aesop . ... . 18, 19 

Agges (Jan: Sale) . . . .181 

Albert (Archduke of Austria) 38, 65, 67, 

114, 219 
Allard de la Court . 134 

Alton Towers ... . 144 

Alvin 222, 227 

Ambachts (Jacobus) . . 123 

America . . . ... 185 

Amiens ... . 12, 35 

Amiens (Museum) . . 6 

Amsterdam 28, 35, 48, 49, 82, 83, 87, 

91, 97. 99. 104. 105, 119. 13'. I 3 2 > 

134, 139, 145. 152, 153. 154. 179, 
181, 193, 204, 210, 228, 239. 

Amsterdam (Rijks-Museum)48, 104, 106, 

153. 193. 194. 197. 198, 217, 

224, 235. 

Amsterdam (Town Archives) . . 204 

Amsterdam (Town Hall: Palace) 195,204, 

205, 227 
Anabaptists . .... 218 

Angers (Museum) . . . 43 

Anguiot (Sale) 27 

Antwerp 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 
15, 20, 23, 27, 30, 33, 35—37. 
40-43, 45, 48, 50, 52, 65 -67, 70, 
72, 78, 79, 82, 86, 88, 89, 93, 94. 
95. 96, 97, 100, 101, 103, 107, 
109, no, 113, 114, 115, 116, 119, 
122, 123, 126, 127, 128, 137, 139, 
140, 143, 144, 148, 153, 154, 171, 
178, 182, 187, 191, 201,221,221. 
224, 226, 234, 240, 242, 244, 246. 
Antwerp (Museum) 14, 40, 68, 71, 75, 

135, 144, 159, 164, 165, 177, 180, 
183, 192, 194, 196, 207, 228, 230, 
232, 234, 235, 237. 

Antwerp (Plantin-Moretus Museum) 6, 42, 
45. 63, 83, 93, 132, 183, 192, 193. 
Antwerp (Academy) . . . 206 

Antwerp (Church of St. Anthony) 106 
Antwerp (Archives of the Town) . 65 
137, 140, 239, 240, 243 
Antwerp (Archives of the State) . 37 
Antwerp (Archives of the Bishopric of) 


Antwerp (Augustine Fathers) . 38, 40 

Antwerp (Church of the Augustines) 

39, 113, 179, 191, 233 

Antwerp (Church of the Beguinage) 13 

175. 237 
Antwerp (The Shod Carmelites) 201 
Antwerp (St. Elisabeth Hospital) . 234 
Antwerp (Falcon Cloister) . . 63, 64 
Antwerp (The Young Hand-Bow) . 96 
Antwerp (Church of St. James) 201,202, 

Antwerp (Church of the Jesuits) . 41 
Antwerp (Professed House of the Jesuits) 

Antwerp (Church of St. George) . 114 
Antwerp (Guild of St, Luke) 1, 5—10, 
35 — 38, 63, 66, 67, 121, 192, 206, 
207. 214 
Antwerp (Maagdenhuis) . 238, 239, 240 
Antwerp (Abbey of St. Michael) . 130 
Antwerp (Church of the Franciscan Friars) 

Antwerp (Minimi) .... 15 

Antwerp (Church of Our Lady) 2, 3, 6, 
11, 130, 227 
Antwerp (Church of St. Paul) 10, n. 
13, 14, 20, 32, 41 
Antwerp (Abbey of Pieter Pot) . 236 
Antwerp (Preekheerenkerk) see Ant- 
werp, Church of St. Paul. 
Antwerp (Teirninck School) 14, 15, 177, 

227, 238 
Antwerp (Church of St. Walburgis) 1 1 

• 139 

. . 114 

48, 80, 81, 85 


• ■ 103 

. . 228 
243. 244 

Appelbom (Harald) 

Aragon (Ferdinand of) 

Aremberg (Gallery) 


Arras (Museum) 


Aschaffenburg (Museum) 


Austria-Hungary . 


Backx (Catharina) 

Backx (Nicolas) . 

Baert (J.) .... 

Balen (Hcndrik van) . 

Balen (Jan van) 

Bamberg . 

Bare dc Comogne 

Bartels .... 



Batavian Republic 

Beauffort (Count de). 

Beccius (Joan) 

Beckerath (Adolf von) 

. 90 
. in 
. 229 
. 221 









. 20c 

34. 239 

79, 80, 84 

74, 178, 180, 

189, 193 




Beeckmans (Sale) 
Beets (C. van der) 
Belgium .... 203, 

Berbie (Gerardus) . . 
Berghe (Ch. van den) 
Berlin . . 
Berlin (Museum) . 
Berlin (Print-room) 33, 
Berlin (Castle) 
Beschey .... 
Beurnonville . 
Beveren (Boudewijn van) 13 


Bielke (Count A.) . . 
Birk (Dr. Ernst Ritter von) 
Bizet (Karl Emmanuel) . 
Boel (Peter; 
Boerhaven . 

Boeyermans (Theodoor 
Bogaerts (Sale) 


Bohemia (The Queen of) 
Bol (Ferdinand) . . 

Bol (Hans) 

Bolechowice . 

Bolswert (Schelte a) 14, 74— 

87. 143 
Bonaparte (Lucien) . 
Bordeaux (Museum) 

Bosch (Hieronymus) 23 

Bosschaert (Thomas Willeborts) See : 

Bosschaert-Dubais (Mme. la Dou- 

airiere) . . .50, 55, 106, 178 
Botticelli (Sandro) . . 94 

Bouchet (P. Magr.) . . . . n 

Bougard (Mrs.) ... 91, 92, 217 

Bourgois 148 

Bouvrey (Peeter) . 10 

Brabant . . . . 6, 55, 227 

Brabant (North) 231 

Branden (F. Jos. van den) 3, 6, 8, 36, 

37, 41, 47, u8, 122, 137, 138, 140, 

162, 182, 190, 220, 223, 239 

Brandenburg (Fred. Wilhelm von). 161 

Brandenburg (The House of) . 165 

Brandt (J.) 37 

Branicki (Prince) . . ... 90 

BraqueniS . . 185 

Brazil 160 

Breda . I, 231 

Bredius (A ) . . 29, 46, 112, 228 

Breslau (Standehaus) . . . . 137 

Breughel (P.) the Elder . 4, 23, 25, 62 
Breughel ("Velvet") . .4, 36, 97, 135 
Briel (Elisabeth van) ... 2 



22 <; 

■ 7 

. 246 


177, 178 

. . 187 



1 60. 

82, 88. 


Brize (Cornells) . 
-Broeck (J. B. van den) 
Bronckhorst . 
Brouns (P. N.) . 
Bruges . ... 

Brugge (Van den) 
Brukenthal (Baron) . 
Brunswick (Museum) I, 6, 9, 13, 17 
27. 30, 3°, 50, 86, 87, 94; 95, 

173, 175. 193. 218, 
-Brussels 5, 10, 15, 19, 22, 23, 26 
29, 31. 32, 35. 42, 49, SI. 52 
58, 59, 60, 61, 65, 68, 71, 72 
85, 88, 90, 91, 94, 95, 98, 
103, 104, 107, 112, 127, 135, 
148, 171, 176, 180, 187, 191, 
200, 223, 225, 
Brussels (Church of the Carthusians) 
Brussels (Museum) 5, 30, 31, 42, 
44. 45. 47. 48, 49. 51. S3. 57. 
70, 71, 72, 96, 101, 105, 107, 
134, 136, 146, 149, 153, 163 
183, 191, 192, 198, 201, 213 


I8 5 
. 18, 
















1 1 

Bruyninck (Sale) . 
Bruynincx ...... 

Buda-Pesth (Museum) . 
TJurbure (Ridder Leo de) 
Buren (The Castle of) . 
Burger. See Thore. 


Caen (Museum) 

Caland (F.) . . . 




Campbell (Sir Archibald) 
Campen (Jacob van). 158 — 171 
Can (Johan, Ridder v. Domburg) 
Cantelbeck (Casper van) 
Cantelbeck (H. van) . 
Capello (The Widow) . 
Caracena (Marquess of) 

Carravagio 3, 67 

Cardon 83 

Cardys (See Cordys). 
Carenna (Jacobus Antonius) . . 201 
Carlsruhe (Museum) . . 30, 32 

Cassel (Museum) 20, 21, 23, 24 ,32, 44, 
50, 59, 60, 66, 81, 82, 86, 87, 88 

89. 135. 151 
Catto . . 
Cels (Alfons) . 
Cevry (de) ... 
Chantilly ... . 


Charles I of England 115, 118 
Charles V of Austria 
Charles-Gustavus of Sweden 


Chenevieres (Phil, de) 
Chesham (Lord) 

Choiseul (Duke of) . 97, 

Choiseul — Praslin .... 

Christina (of Sweden) 118, 138, 139,246 
Claessens (Joh. Jac.) . . . 171 
Claesz (Pieter) ... 160 

Clarisse (Lod.) ... 11 

Cleef (The Brothers van) . . 163 

Clemens (Eberhard) . . . 28 

Coenen (Ignatius) .... 39 

Colnaghi .... . . 1 07 

Cologne . 43, 61, 108, 117, 148, 171 
Cologne (Museum) 95, 100,108, 116, 117 

154, 156, 183 

• 79 

19, 187, 188 

• • 143 


. . 180 

159, 161 

114, 219 



. 124 





Coninck (de Merckem de) . 
Conti (Prince de) ... 
Cophem See Cotthem. 
Copenhagen (Museum) 26, 145, 

Copius (G.) ... 
Coques (Gonzalez) 160, 161, 
Cordys or Cordeys (Jan) 135^ 
Coredys See Cordys. 
Cornelissen (Norbert) . 
Cossiers (Jan). . 114, 

Cotthem (Frans van). 135, 
Courdys See: Cordys 
Couteaux (Gustave: Sale) . 
Courtray ... 
Couwenbergh . 
Couzeau (S.). . 
Cracow .... 
Craesbeek (Guill. van) 
Cuypers (de Rymenam) . 

. II 
. 187 
. 112 

147. 198, 
213, 229 
. 112 
162, 228 
l8l, 182 

227, 243 
122, 247 
l8l, 182 

• 92 
■ 7. 198 

. 160 


" 137 


108, 178 

• 135 


Dambrun .... 


Darnley (Lord) . . ... 

Dean (John) . .... 

De Backer (Jan) . . 181, 

De Beukelaer (Joachim) 23, 29, 30. 

De Bodt (Maria) . 

De Bommaerts (Johan Philips) 

De Bon . 

De Brais . .... 

De Bray (Salomon) . . 160, 161. 

De Bruyn (Ant.) . 

De Bruyn (Jan) 

De Buck ... 

De Cocx (Jacques) . 

De Crayer (Gaspar) . . 160, 161, 

De Cuyper (Rogiers) 

De Gier (Louis) 

De Graeff (Andries) 204 

De Grebber (Pieter) . . r6o, 161, 169 























De Hester (Maria) 

D'Hoop van Abstein 

De Jode (Pieter) 2, no, 130, 180, 

. 49, 56, 59. 
192, 210, 



De Jonghe (Daniel) 
De Kuyper 
Delacre 18, 29, 38 
183, 185 
Delange (Aarnout) 

Dellafaille . . . 
Delia Faille (Rene) . 
De Man d'Hobruge (Jean- 

— Joseph) . 
De Meyer (Orliens) 
De Moy (Clara) . 
De Moy (Dirick). 
De Munckninck (Adrian) 
Denmark . 
De Neyt (Herman) . 
De Nooy . 
De Paepe (Guill.) 
De Peuter (Math.) . 
De Potter (Frans) 
De Raedt (J. J.) . . 
De Roever (N.) . . 
De Ruyter. ... . 

Descamps (J. B.). 13, 27, 42, 201 








De Valck (Alb.) 160 

Devonshire (The Duke of) 54, 148, 150 
De Vos (Cornelius) . 10, 53, 113, 247 
De Vos (Jan Baptist) . . .10 

De Vos (Marten) 73. 24 

De Vos (Paulus) . . ... 186 

De Vries (Gilliam) . . . . 121 

De Wit (Jacob) . 97, 239 

De Witte (F.) 97 

Diepenbeeck (Abraham van) . . 162 
Dierckxsens . . , 220, 243 

Diest ... .54 

Diksmude 130, 131, 132, 174, 193, 

209 231 
Doncker .... 40 

Dordrecht . . . , . 96, 191 

Dou (Geraard) .... .138 

Dreyfus (Tony) . . .93 

Dresden (Museum) 29, 30, 32, 33, 50, 

78, 92, 94, 98, 99, 102, 130, 144, 

192, 193, 210, 212, 230, 246 

Dublin (Museum) . . 26, 191 

Dullaert . . . .135 

Duster (Hubert) . . . 171 

Duval (Charles) . -35 

Duverdyn . . .... 82, 88 

Dyck (Ant. van) 4, 10, n, 38, 39, 40, 

5i. 53. 57, 62, in, 118, 121, 

135. 159. 194. 218, 244 

Dyck (Phil, van) . . . 29, 1 1 1 

Edinburgh (National Gallery) 
England 135, 159, 161, 218, 
Ernst (Archduke of Austria) 
Errera (Mrs) . . . . 

Es (Jacob van) . 
Esterhazy ... 
Everdingen (Cesar van). 












Facqz (de). . . 222 

Faulx (Anna) . 2 

Febvre (Sale) . .112 

Ferdinand, Cardinal Infant of Spain 65, 

113. "4 
Ferdinand of Hungary . 
Fesch (Sale) . . . 

Feyt (Joannes). See Fyt. 
Finspong (The Castle of) . 
Flanders . . 60, 221, 

Flanders (West) 
Flinck (Govert) . 
Florence (The Uffizi) . in, 
Floris (Frans) . 
Foulon (Henri) . 
Franck-Chauveau . 
Franck .... 
Franckens (De) 

Frankfort ... 151, 

Frankfort (Museum) . . 195, 

France 13, 29, 62, 184, 221, 244, 
Frauenberg (Castle) . . 182, 

Fredenborg (Castle) . 
Fredericq (Paul) .... 
Frederik III of Denmark 
Frederick-Henry of Orange 54, 158 — 
171, 194, 228 
Frimmel (von) . . 30 

Fyt, (Jan) . .... 96, 184 









Galle . . . .... 130 

Garscube ...» . . 144 

Geelhand de Labistrate .... 186 

Geelhand (Mme. la Douairiere Robert) 


Geertruyen (van) 103 

Gemert (van).- . . . .109 

Genard (P.) 2, 3, 6, 15, 127, 201, 226 

Gennep (van) 154 

Gentil de Chavignie, Mrs . . . 200 
Genoa (Church of the Jesuits) . . 41 
Gerbier (Balthasar) 115, 116, 118, 121 
Germany . . . 244 

Geudens (Edm.) 240 

Gevers-Fuchs 127 

Gevigny (Abbe Guillaume) . 93, 152 

Gheldolf .... . 200 

Ghent 2, 18, 27, 29, 35, 38, 48, 49, 

57, 59, 100, 130, 150, 183, 183, 

185, 1.92, 194, 210, 214 221, 243 

Ghent (Abbey of St Peter). . .214 

Ghent (Museum) 27, 29, 49, 95, 146, 

153, 155 214, 215, 230 

Gildemeester (Sale) . . 179 

Gladitsch (S.) 181 

Glasgow (Art Galleries) 82, 86, 151, 186 

Goetkint (Antoni) 37 

Goetvelt (Pauwel) 122 

Goldschmidt (Emile) . . 151, 187 
Goldsmid. See Neville. 

Gooris (Sale) 180 

Gosford House .... .78 

Gossaert (Jan van Mabuse). . .23 

Goulinx (Jan). 122 

Gouvaerts (Abraham) ... 37 

Granberg (Olof) 139 

Greenwich House. . . . 115, 118 
Grenoble (Museum) 145, 197, 198, 215 
Griensven van Berrits (Mrs. van). 82 
Grieve (Mr. William) . . . .178 
Grimbergen (van). See Smit. 

Guarienti 33 

Gustavus II of Sweden ... 16 


Haarlem 140, 171 

Habich (Sale). . . 42, 83, 179, 187 

Haecht (Jan van). . . . 47, 239 

Haecht (Tobias van). . . 47 

Hague (The) 3, 6, 29, 30, 33, 45, 46, 

47, 49. 82, 91, 93, 99, 103, 105, 

in, 112, 131, 138, 139, 145, 153, 

158, 183, 213, 227 

Hague (The: Confrerie v. Pictura) 45, 1 1 2 

Hague (The) The House in the Wood 

157, 169, 195; 205, 227 

Hague (The) Museum . .118 

Hall (van) I42 

Hals (Frans) 

Hamburg . . 7, 29, 136, 

Hamburg (Museum) . 

Hannet. . . 

Hanover (Museum) . 

Hansens (Conraet) 

Happart (Jan). 

Harcq (A.). .... 

Hard wick (The Earl of) 

Havre (Ridder Albert van) 

Hazard (James) . 


Helsingfors (Museum) . 

Heist (van der) . 

Helt-Stocade (Niklaas) . 





■ 30 

. 127 

95, 189 

. 122 






Hemissen (Jan van) . . . 23, 25 

Hemmerlein ... . 42 

Hainault . . .... 221 

Henrietta, Queen of England 115, 118 

Herberts (Herman) 225 

Herenthals. . . . . 2, 214 

Hermannstadt . . . . 194 

Heseltine . 46, 51 

Hesse (Duke of) ... . .90 

Heurck Jr. (Joan Carlo van). 123, 124 
Heurck Sr. (Joan Carlo van) . .123 

Heyman 135 

Hillewerve 228 

Hoecke (Gaspar van den) . . 114 
Hoet (Gerard: Sale). . . • 33, 49 
Holland 123, 159, 161, 227, 243, 244 
Hondius (Hendrik) .... 138 

Honselaarsdijk 157 

Honthorst (Gerard) . . 66, 160, 169 

Horion (Sale) 180 

Homes (Graaf van) ... .7 

Houbraken . 139 

Houyet 171 

Hubert (E.) . 221 

Hulin (G.). .... 144, 146 

Hulst . . .192, 205, 227, 228, 230 

Hustin (A.) 125 

Huybrechts (Edm.) 50, 108, 153, 187, 


Huybrechts (Jan Batist). . . . 12 1 

Huygens (Constantijn) 74, 158, 159, 160, 

161, 227, 242 

Huys (Pieter) 23, 101 

Hymans (Henri) 52 

Isabella of Austria 
Italy . . . 

38, 65, 

■ 3. 



Jacobs (Sebast.) 11 

Jan Casimir (King of Poland) . 246 
Jan Sobieski (King of Poland). 246 

Janssen (Leo) .22 

Janssens (Abraham) . . . . 120 

Joanna (Infanta of Spain) . .114 

Jones (Inigo) 115, 117 

Jordaens (Arnoldus) . 
Jordaens (Arnoldus) . . 
Jordaens (Abraham) . 
Jordaens (Anna) . 
Jordaens (Anna Catharina) 
Jordaens (Augustijn). . 
Jordaens (Catharina) . 
Jordaens (Elisabeth: sister) 2, 

Jordaens (Elisabeth : daughter) 
Jordaens (Gaspar). . 
Jordaens (Hans) . . 
Jordaens (Hendrik) . 
Jordaens (Isaac) . . 
Jordaene (Jac, Junior) 
Jordaens (Jac: father) 
Jordaens (Jan). 
Jordaens (Magdalena) 
Jordaens (Michiel) . 
Jordaens (Peter) . . 
Jordaens (Simon) . 
Julienne (Sale). 

. 122 


, 227 


123, 227 

1, 227 

• 20, 54 
34. 227, 


3. 6 . 224, 

242, 244 





6, 43 

2, 3. 10 


227, 231 



• .2,3 

■ 76, 213 


Kernkamp (Dr. G. 

Kersgiter (Jan) 

Kerstens (Hendrik) 

Kleinberger . 

Klinkosch (Sale) . 



Kramp (Melchior) 

Kuchelna . 

Kums (Sale) . 





. 121 


■ • 93 
178, 233 

• • 9 

• • 123 
. . 16 


Lacaze (Collection) . . . . 118 
La Garde (Countess de), . 178 

Lambeaux (Jef) 243 

Langenhoven (Martinus van) 81, 137, 

140, 141, 142, 145 

Lastman (Pieter) . . . . 28 

Latinie . 1 5 3 

Lauwers (Amsterdam) . . . .35 

Lauwers (Nic) 18 1 

Leblon (Leo) . 81, 86, 89, 109, 187 
Leblon (Michel) . . ... 139 

Lebrun (Collection) . . . 27, 78, 93 
Lecandele (Sale) .... -93 

Leenders de Neufville (Pieter) . 134 

Legrand 205 

Legrelle (Gerard) 134 

Leyden 134 

Leipzic . 29, 143 

Lennep (Jac. van) ... . 205 

Lens (Andreas) 93 

Leopold I of Austria ... 184 
Leopold-Wilhelm, Archduke of Austria 

148, 182 

Lepke (Rudolf) 144 

Le Roy (J. en A.) . . 103, 104, 193 
Louvain .... 6, 148, 191, 196 
Lewieter iMagdalena) . . . .11 
Lewiter (Maria Catharina) . . II 

Le Witre (Roger) .... n 

Leyniers (Everaard) . . 181, 184 

Librechts (Mercelis) . . 122 

Lichnowsky (Prince). . 16, 187 

Liechtenstein (Gallery) . . 60, 64 

Lier 2, 15 

Lier (Church of St. Gommarius) 15, 227, 

Lierse (Sebastiaan) .... 103 

Lievens (Jan). . 160, 161, 204, 205 
Ligne (Prince de) . . 43, 135, 191 
Lille (Museum) 27, 49, 50, 100, 121 
127, 185, 214, 230, 235 
Limburg . . . . . 22O 

Limburgh (Hendrik van) . . 153 

Linden van Slingelandt (van der) . 19I 
Linden (Ch. van der) 122, 126, 127 
Linden (Joh. Franc. Henric. van der) 123 
Lokeren ... .... 88 

London 6, 9, 20, 27, 43, 45, 46, 52", 

54. 55. 59, 73. 77, 79 81,94,103, 

108, 116, 153, 159, 160, 180, 188, 

207, 210, 212, 213, 214, 225 

London (British Museum) 8, 17, 42, 73, 

81, 140, 160, 181, 185, 188, 191, 

London (National Gallery) . . 53, 94 
London (Wallace Collection) . . 46 
London (Winter Exhibition, R. A.) 27, 79 
Loquet (sale) . . . . 87, 180, 217 
Louis XIII of France . . 136, 184 
Louis XVI of France . . 29, 79 
Louisa of Orange ... . 161 


Lubeck (Museum) .... i I2 

Lucas (Francois) ill 

Lucas van Leyden . . .23 

Lie ge .'104. 

Lydius (Herman) 225 

Lyons (Museum) 41, 128, 129, 143, 177, 

196, 212 
Lyonnet (Pieter: Sale) . . . 91 


Mabuse. See Gossaert. 

MacLellan. . . .... 187 

Madrid (Museum) 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 

SO, Si. 52, 53, 54. "4. 119, 153. 

Madsen (Karl) . 34, 145, 187 

Maillard " . 131 

Mallery (Charles van) ... 37 

Mallinus (Sale) . . . . 191 

Mander (Karel van) . . .7, 241 

Mantegna 4 

Mantua ... ... 41 

Margaretha Theresia of Spain . 184 
Marie de Medici, Queen of France 159, 

Mary of Burgundy . .114 

Maria-Hoorebeke 219 

Mary Stuart 159 

Marinus . . 17, 18, 40, 179, 192 
Marlborough (The Duke of) . .137 
Marneffe (de) .... . . 217 

Marnix van St. Aldegonde . . .219 
Martens ... .... 128 

Massius . . . . . . 67 

Masson 2, 12, 35, 224 

Massy s (Cornelis) 23 

Matsys (Quentin) . 23, 24, 25 

■ ■ 7 
160, 167 

• • 175 


, 236 

Matheusen (Math.). 
Maurice of Orange . 


Maximilian I of Austria. 
Mechlin 7, 27, 29, 135, 213, 221 
Mechlin (Church of St. Catherine) 
Mechlin (Church of St. John) . 
Mechlin (Leliendael Cloister) . 
Mechlin (Church of the Beguinage) i8o : 


Menke 144 

Mensaert . ... 27, 124, 240 

Mensart .... . . 


Mentz (Museum) 174. 208—213, 
210, 211, 213, 229 

Mersch (Paul; 


Mertens and Torfs 220 

Meulewels 228 

Meyerheim (Paul) . • • x 44 

Meyssens (Jan) . . . 2, no, 139 
Michael Wisnowiecki.King of Poland 246 

Michel (Collection) 6l 

Michel Angelo . . . . 4, 66 

Middelburg i 6 o 

Milan 201 

Milan (Museum) 215 

Moitte (F. A.) 79 

Molinaris (Sale) 8z 

Mols (Frans) 9, 39, 240 

Moretus (Balthasar II) .... 63 
Moretus (Widow of Jan) . . 63 

Moretus (Jan) 6 

Moretus (Melchior) 7 

Moulyns (Pierre de) 35 

Mount of Olives (Brabant) . 225, 226 
Mount of Olives (Under the Cross) 224 


Muller (Frederik) 162 

Munich (Pinakothek) 20, 21, 81, 140, 

142, 149, 209 

Munster . ., . 62, 167, 220, 225 

Murray (Mr. Fairfax) 6, 20, 58, 59, 77, 

172, 179, 180, 183, 191, 207, 210, 

212, 213, 214, 228, 229 

Murray (William) . . . 115, 116 

Mycielski (Prof. Georges) . . 246 


Namur . . . 54, 221 

Nancy .... ... 187 

Napoleon (Jerome) ... 60 

Napoleon . . . 40, 203, 208, 235 

Naylor (S. J.) 160 

Netherlands (Spanish) 62, 104, 182, 208, 

218, 219, 221, 224, 246 
Netherlands (United Provinces) . 136, 

219, 220, 221, 224, 231 
Neefs (Jacob) . . 22, 58, 179, 180 
Neufville (Robert) . . . .153 
Neville (D. Goldsmid) . 49 
New York (Museum) 24, 25, 26, 28, 30 

Neyman (Sale) 91 

Nieuhof (Nicolas: Sale) 82, 131, 134 

Nieuwerkerk 2 

Nispeu (Joh. van: Sale). . - 93 

Nordlingen . 114 

Noort (Adam van) 5, 6, 7, 38, 69, 74, 

95, no, 241 
Noort (Anna van) . . 6 

Noort (Catharina van) 6, 20. 52, 112, 

224, 243 
Noort (Elisabeth van) . . .6 

Noort (Jan van) 6 

Norgate (Edw.) . . . . 115, 116 

Norkoping 105 

Northwich (Lord) 217 

Nottebohm (Auguste) .... 244 

Nourri (Sale) H5 

Noville (Noe de) (or Noewille) 1 


Ogier (Willem) 63 

Oldenburg (Museum) 105, 109, 152, 154 
Oosterhout (Cloister) . . 231 

Orley (Barend van) 23 

Orville (Frangois d') 217 

Ossendrecht 224 

Ouderaa (P. van der) . . . 119 

Ovens . 205 

Ovid 9, 114 

Page (S. Flood) . ... 27 

Papebrochius .... • • 242 

Parma (Alexander of) . .62, 219 

Parmentier (Mrs Paul) . . 178, 233 

Parthey . . 35, 42, 95, 198, 239 

Paris 16, 27, 28, 30, 38, 40, 43, 50, 

70, 72, 78, 79, 80, 84, 88, 91, 93. 

112, 114, 118, 127, 131, 142, 145, 

148, 151, 152, 159, 175. 178, 187, 

188, 198, 200, 201, 203 

Paris (Louvre) 4, 16, 23, 27. 29, 68, 

72, 76, 78, 83, 84, 85, 86, 96, 97, 

no, in, 127, 180, 185, 192, 193. 

203, 215, 228, 230, 240, 244 

Paris (Luxemburg) I2 4 

Pastrana (Collection, Madrid) . 114 

Pauwelaert (Frans) . ... 243 

Pauwels (Frans) . . . 9, 191, 192 
Pecher (Jules). . . • . 244 

Peetersen (Mattijs) 121 

Philip I of Spain. . 114 

Philip II of Spain . 114, 219 

Philip III of Spain . . . . 114 
Philip IV of Spain 9, 65, 1 1 3, 114. 
115, 119, 206 
Phillips (Claude). . . . .118 

Philips (Joannes). . . 204 

Picot (V. M.) 29 

Pieters (Hendrik). . . . .131 

Pieters (Robert) 130 

Pinchart ... . . .223 

Piot (A) 203 

Plettenberg and Witte (Count Fer- 
dinand van) 97, 210 

Poland ... .... 246 

Poletnich (J. F.) . . . 71 

Pommersfeld . . . 148, 178 

Pontius (P.) 71, 72, 73, 107, 179, 193, 


Porges 82, 88, 151 

Portielje (G.) 160 

Potsdam (New Palace) . . . . 35, 

Poullain 178, 181 

Poussin 87, 246 

Prague ■ 95 

Proli (de) 187, 201 

Putte . . . 224, 226, 243, 245 


Quellin (Artus) . 
Querton (Georges) 

160, 208 


4, 41. 


• 13 


Raphael .... 
Randon de Boisset . 
Ravaisson . 
Rees (A. B.) . 
Regaus (Mejuffer) 
Rembrandt van Rijn. 
Rennes (Museum). . 
Reynolds (Sir Joshua) 
Richardt .... 
Ringborg . 
Ris (Clement de) . . 
Robiano (Countess de) 


Robijn (Martin: Sale) 

Robijns (Sale). 

Rockso (Hyndrick) . 

Rodrigues (Eugene) . 

Roemerswael (Marinus van) 

Roermond . 

Roland Fahne (Castle) 

"Romanists" (The) . 

Rombouts (Theodoor) 


Rooses (Max) . .5, 

Rostewiecki (Edouard) 

Rothan (Sale) . 

Rotterdam (Boymans Museum) 17, 

76, 124, 131, 132, I9L !92, 
Roussel (Valentin) 
Rubens 3, 4, 5, 7, 

15, 16, 23, 24 

50, 53, 54, 56 . 

87, 91, 96, 102, 113, 114, 115 

119, 120, 121, 123, 130, 131 

151, 159. 161, 175. 181, 191 

198, 203, 212 


84, 183, 

• 23: 


. 87 
66, 133, 

;, 9, 10, n, 13 
29, 30, 40, 41 
57, 58, 62, 66 




, 14 

■ 25 
, 23 

. 93 


23 1 

. 14, 




Rump (Mr. J. 


Copenhagen) 83, 92, 187, 

214, 240, 242 

128, 129 


Russia ... ... . 244 

Ryckaerts (Tobias) . ... 130 

Rydams (Hendrik) . . 181, 184. 185 
Rymenam (P. J. van) . . . 239 

Ryssels (Franchois) 223 

Ryswijck ... .... 157 

Sainsbury (Noel) 115 

St. Petersburg. . 21, 54, 69, 75, 107 
St. Petersburg (Academy) 69, 73, 74 
St. Petersburg (Hermitage) 21, 52, 93, 
108, 134, 144, : 92, 194, 206 
St. Petersburg (Print-room) 83, 188, 206, 

Saxony. . . . . 49, 213 

Saxony (Elector of) . . 99, 103 

Salamanca. . . .• . 96, 213 

Salzthalen (Museum) . . .94 

Sandrart (Joachim) 3, 7, 9, 18, 19, 25, 
26, 47, 138, 139, 177, 242 
Scaglia (Abbe de) . . 11 6, 117, 118 



Schauss (D. G. von) Kempfenhausen 60 

Scheltema (P.) . . . 

Schinckel (A. D.). . . . 160 

Schleissheim (Museum) . 

Schbnborn Gallery (Vienna) 

Schorel (van: Sale) . 93, 94 

Scotland .... 

Schrieck (van der) . 

Schut (Cornelis) . 

Schuyts (Mathias) 


Schuwaloff (Prince) . 

Schwarzenberg (Prince) 

Schwenck (Thomas) . 

Schwerin (Museum) . 

Scribe .... 


Segers (Daniel) . 97, 160 


Seville (Cathedral of SanJos£) . 
's Hertogenbosch . . . 162 

Shrewsbury (The Earl of) . 
Siebrecht (Sale) . 
Siegburg (Conrad von) 

Silesia . 

Silvercron (Johan Philips) . 137 

See Spierinx. 
Simon (Sale) .... 

Simon . 

Six (Jonkheer W.) 153, 197 

Slicher (Anthonis). 

Smit (Frans) . . .7 

Smit en van Grimbergen 

Snellaert (Willem) 

Snellinckx (Geeraart). 

Snyders (Andries) 

Snyders (Frans) . 

Snyers (Jan Adriaan) 

Soeder . . . 

Solms (Amalia van) 54 




. 142 

• 134 
162, 228 












45. 47. 93. 97 

. . 178 


158— 171, 194, 


Solvyns (Laurentius— Petrus) 123, 127 

Solvyns (Maria Theresia— Gertruda) 123 

Solvyns (The Widow of Laurentius) 123 

Souillie' (L.) 27 

Soutman (P.) . . . 160, 161, 169 
Spain 9, 38, 63, 66, 114, 119, 204, 224, 

Sparre (Count G. A.) . . .178 

Speck (von) • 

Speyck (Paulus van). 
Spierinx Silvercron (heer van 

Spilbeeck (F. Waltman van) 
Spronck (Peeter) . 
Stanstead (F. Bernard) 
Spruyt ... 
Stalbemt (Adriaan van) 
Steen (Jan) . 
Steene (Jan van den) 
Steenegracht (Collection) 
Stevens (Sale) . 
Stevens (Mrs Arthur) 
Stier d'Aartselaer. 
Stockholm (Museum) 15, 17, 
31, 34, 140, 141, 142 

Stockum (van) 
Stolberg (Andre de) 
Strasburg (Museum) 
Strantwijk (Sale) . 
Stratow (Collection) 
Stuttgart (Museum) 
Surpele (van) . 
Sweden 17, 103, 104, 118, 

139. 178 
Swieten (van) . 


. . 29 

. . 96 


138, 139 

• • 145 
. . 10 

• • 103 


243. 244 



83. 183 

. 88, 95 


. 88 

19, 20, 28, 

193. 196, 


. 160 


.60, 203 



.42, 215 


128, 138, 

. 218, 244 



3. 4 


Tack (Jan) Amsterdam .... 
Tack (J. Heinrich, Crefeld) 105, 
Teirninck (Christiaan) . . .14, 
Tence (Sale) . ... 

Teniers (David) . 10, 62, 

Thore (Burger) . .112, 

Thulden (Th. van) 160, 161, 169, 
Thys (Aug.) . . ... 

Thyssens (Augustijn) 
Titian ... 

Tolozan . ... 

Tongerloo 145 

Torfs. (See Mertens) 
Tournay . . . 2, 15, 29, 42 
Tournay (Church of St. Brice) 
Tournay (Cathedral). . . ,15, 
Tournay (Cloister of the Jesuits) 
Tournay (St. Martin's Cloister). 
Tournay (Church of the Oratory) 
Toussaint . . 100 


Triangl (Bartholomeus) 
Tricius (Jan) . . ... 









Uffelen (Margareta van) . 
Utrecht . . . 

Utrecht (Adriaan van) 
Uyterhoeve (Adrianus) 


Vaerewyck (A.) . 

Valenciennes (Museum) 

Valentin .... 

Varick (Nicolaes van) 


Velpius (Rutgeert) . 

7, 228 

95. 97 
. 225 

■ 213 
42, 81 
66, 67 


■ 65 
219, 224 


Venius (Otto) . 

Verbeeck (Corn.) . 

Verbraken (Daniel) . 

Verbruggen (Edouard) 

Verbrugghen (Theodoor) 

Verdelft (Barbara) . 

Verellen (Sale) 

Verjuis (Adam) 

Verlinden (P. A.) . 

Verona (Museum) 

Veronese .... 

Verstraeten (Frederik) 

Veurne .... 

Vienna 3, 4, 50, 62. 64, 

Vienna (Academy of Fine Arts) 

132, 156, 191, 
Vienna (Albertina) 134, 170, 180, 

191, 193, 213, 

Vienna (Imperial Museum) 42, 61 

73, 148, 181, 

Vienna (Imperial Palace) 50, 136, 

208, 209 
73: 93 

Villain. ... 

Vinci (Leonardo da). 

Vinck (Carlo). . 136, 181, 182 

Vinck d'Orp (de) . . 

Vinck de Wesel (J. T. de) . 

Vinckenborgh (Arnout) 

Viruly van Vuren en Dalem 

Viruly (C. E ) . . . . 

Vlerick (Peter) . . 

Vloers (The Widow) . 

Voet (Abraham) 

Voet (Alexander). . 42, 82 

Voet (Matthijs) . 


Vorsterman (Lucas) 18, 1 
Vos (Jan) . 
Vosmaer (C.) . 
Vrancken (Sale) . 















• 46- 

46, 87- 




. 10 


81, 240 

10, 11 

■ 2Q5 

25. 177' 

29, 55, 106, 144, 






Waha de Linter 
Wake (Lionel), . 
Waldou (Joris) 
Walpole . . 
Walschot (Sale) . 

Wargny d'Audenhove (Ridder George de) 

Warsaw (Museum) . . 164, 165 

Wauters (Michel) . . . . 189, 1 90 

Wauters (Alfons) 182 

Weber (Consul) . . 136, 139 

Weert . 2 

Weerts .... . 240 

Weiner 246 

Wellens (Mrs) ... . RR 

Wemyss (The Earl of) 

Weri (Geeraard) . 

Werte . ■ . . 

Wesel .... 

Wiael (Antoinette) . 

Wiegel ..... 

Wierts (Jan) 6, 108, 109, 116, 

Wierts (The wife of Jan) 

Wierts (Susanna — Maria) 

Wildens (Hendrik) ... 

Wildens (Jan) .... 49, 

Wildens (Jeremias) . . . 119, 

Willeborts Bosschaert (Thomas) 

160, 162, 
William III (King of England) , 







William II (King of the Netherlands) 

49. 132 
William II (Prince of Orange) 161, 170 
William III (Prince of Oranje) 7, 157 
Willemsen (Hendrik) . . , .121 

Wilson (Collection) 82 

Wimpole . . 29 

Winckler 43 

Windsor Castle 114 

Wissekerke (Juffr.) 10 


Witdoeck ( Jan) 113 

Wittouck (Paul) . . . . 43, 48 

Witte (F. de) 97 

Wolfaert (Artus) 114 

Wolschaten (Barbara van) ... 2 
Wouters (Mrs. Ch.) . . . 143, 144 
Wouters (Pierre) . 35, 107, 176, 179 

Wouters d'Oplinter 22 

Wouters (Ghent) . . ... 100 

Wurzburg\ ... 79. 80, 82, 148 


Yarborough (Lord) . 

Zande (van de) . . 
Zeeland . 
Zurpele. See Surpele. 
Zypestein (van) . . 

. 82 




Page 52 under the plate: „Abandance",.read: Abundance. 

72 „ „ „ : „Plantin-Moretus Museum", read: Museum, Antwerp. 
93 line 36: „Rubiano", read: Robiano. 
114 _,, 45: „Pastiana", read: Pastrana. 
116 „ 1: „Abbot of", read: the Abbe de. 

127 „ 18: „in the church", read: from the church. 

128 under the plate: „Church of Rupelmonde", read: Museum, Lyons. 
154 „ „ „ : „Calisto", read: Callisto. 
178 line 4: „van Knocke", read: of Knocke. 

197 under the plate: „Rijksmuseum", read: Jhr. W. Six. 

198 line 10: „in the Rijksmuseum", read: in the possession of Jhr. W. Six. 
224 under the plate: „Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam", read: Mr. Masson, Amiens.